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Tue works, some seventy in all, which in any 
of our manuscripts are assigned to Hippocrates, 
comprise what is called the “ Hippocratic collec- 
tion.” During nearly three centuries there appeared 
many editions, of some or of all of these works, 
intended to instruct medical students or practi- 
tioners. The birth of modern medical science 
in the nineteenth century stopped finally this 
long series, but a few scholars still worked at 
the treatises from an historical standpoint. The 
literary merit, however, of the Hippocratic writings, 
at least of the majority, is not great, and it is 
only within the last few years that they have been 
subjected to the exact scholarship which has thrown 
such a flood of new light upon most of the classical 
authors. Even now very little has been done for 
text, dialect, grammar and style, although the 
realization of the value of the collection for the 
history of philosophy is rapidly improving matters. 
So for the present a translator must also be, in part, 
an editor. He has no scholarly tradition behind 
him upon which to build, but must lay his own 

It will be many years before the task is finished, 
but in the meanwhile there is work for less ambitious 
students. My own endeavour has been to make as 
clear and accurate a translation as the condition of 



the text permits, introducing as few novelties of my 
own as possible, and to add such comment as may 
bring out the permanent value of the various treatises. 
They are no longer useful as text-books, but all of 
us, whether medical or lay, may learn a lesson from 
the devotion to truth which marked the school of 
Cos, and from the blunders committed by theorizers 
who sought a short cut to knowledge without the 
labour of patient observation and careful experiment. 

The present volume has been in preparation since 
1910, and the actual writing has occupied all my 
leisure for the past three years. The time would 
have been longer, had it not been for the great kind- 
ness of Dr. E. T. Withington, whose name will 
probably appear on the title-page of one of the 
succeeding volumes. 

My thanks are also due to the Rev. H. J. Chaytor 
for his helpful criticisms, 

W. Η. 5. Jones, 



§ 1. Greek Mepicine AND “ Hippocrates.” 
We have learned to associate, almost by instinct, 
the science of medicine with bacteria, with chemistry, 
with clinical thermometers, disinfectants, and all the 
apparatus of careful nursing. All such associations, 
if we wish even dimly to appreciate the work of 
Hippocrates and of his predecessors, we must en- 
deavour to break ; we must unthink the greater part 
of those habits of thought which education has made 
second nature. The Greek knew that there were 
certain collections of morbid phenomena which he 
called diseases; that these diseases normally ran a 
certain course ; that their origin was not unconnected 
with geographical and atmospheric environment ; 
that the patient, in order to recover his health, must 
modify his ordinary mode of living. Beyond this he 
knew, and could know, nothing, and was compelled 
to fill up the blanks in his knowledge by having 
recourse to conjecture and hypothesis. In doing so 
he was obeying a human instinct which assures us 
that progress requires the use of stop-gaps where 
complete and accurate knowledge is unattainable, 
and that a working hypothesis, although wrong, is 
better than no hypothesis at all. System, an organ- 
ized scheme, is of greater value than chaos. Yet 
however healthy such an instinct may be, it has 



added considerably to the difficulties of the historian 
in his attempts so to reconstruct the past as to make 
it intelligible to modern readers. 

Primitive man regards everything he cannot 
explain as the work of a god. To him the abnormal, 
the unusual, is divine. The uncharted region of 
mysterious phenomena is the peculiar realm of 
supernatural forces.* “It is the work of heaven” 
is a sufficient answer when the human intelligence 
can give no satisfactory explanation. 

The fifth century B.c. witnessed the supreme effort 
of the Greeks to cast aside this incubus in all spheres 
of thought. They came to realize that to attribute 
an event to the action of a god leaves us just where 
we were, and that to call normal phenomena natural 
and abnormal divine is to introduce an unscientific 
dualism, in that what is divine (because mysterious) 
in one generation may be natural (because under- 
stood) in the next, while, on the other hand, how- 
ever fully we may understand a phenomenon, there 
must always be a mysterious and unexplained element 
in it. All phenomena are equally divine and equally 

But this realization did not come all at once, 
and in the science of medicine it was peculiarly 
slow. There is something arresting in the spread of 
an epidemic and in the onset of epilepsy or of a 
pernicious fever. It is hard for most minds, even 
scientific minds, not to see the working of a god in 
them. On the other hand, the efficacy of human 
means to relieve pain is so obvious that even in 
Homer, our first literary authority for Greek 
medicine, rational treatment is fully recognized. 

As the divine origin of disease was gradually 



discarded, another element, equally disturbing, and 
equally opposed to the progress of scientific medicine, 
asserted itself. Philosophy superseded religion. 
Greek philosophy sought for uniformity in the 
multiplicity of phenomena, and the desire to find 
this uniformity led to guesswork and to neglect of 
fact in the attempt to frame a comprehensive theory. 
The same impulse which made Thales declare that 
all things are water led the writer of a treatise? in 
the Hippocratic Corpus to maintain that all diseases 
are caused by air. As Daremberg? says, “the 
philosophers tried to explain nature while shutting 
their eyes.” The first philosophers to take a serious 
interest in medicine were the Pythagoreans. 
Alemaeon® of Croton, although perhaps not strictly 
a Pythagorean, was closely connected with the sect, 
and appears to have exercised considerable influence 
upon the Hippocratic school. The founder of em- 
pirical psychology and a student of astronomy, he held 
that health consists of a state of balance between 
certain “opposites,” and disease an undue _pre- 
ponderance of one of them.4 Philolaus, who flourished 
about 440 B.c., held that bile, blood, and phlegm 
were the causes of disease. In this case we have a 
Pythagorean philosopher who tried to include medical 

1 The περὶ φυσῶν. 

2 Histoire des sciences médicales, p. 82. 

3 A young man in the old age of Pythagoras. See Aristotle 
Meta, A 986a 30. Alemaeon was more interested in medicine 
than in philosophy, but does not seem to have been a 
‘* general pr actitioner.’ 

4 ᾿Αλκμαίων τῆς μὲν ὑγιείας εἶναι συνεκτικὴν τὴν ἰσονομίαν 
τῶν δυνάμεων, ὑγροῦ, ξηροῦ, ψυχροῦ, θερμοῦ, πικροῦ, γλυκέος, καὶ 
τῶν λοιπῶν, τὴν δ᾽ ἐν αὐτοῖς μοναρχίαν νόσου ἀμ χυὰ φθορο- 
ποιὸν γὰρ ἑκατέρου μοναρχίαν. ---Αδὐῖπ5 V. 30. 



theory in his philosophical system.! Empedocles, 
who flourished somewhat earlier than Philolaus, was 
a “medicine-man” rather than a physician, though 
he is called by Galen the founder of the Italian 
school of medicine.?, The medical side of his teach- 
ing was partly magic and quackery. 

This combination of medicine and philosophy is 
clearly marked in the Hippocratic collection. There 
are some treatises which seek to explain medical 
phenomena by a priori assumptions, after the manner 
of the philosophers with their method of ὑποθέσεις 
or postulates; there are others which strongly 
oppose this method. The Roman Celsus in his 
preface? asserts that Hippocrates separated medicine 
from philosophy, and it is a fact that the best works 
of the Hippocratic school are as free from philosophic 
assumptions as they are from religious dogma. But 
before attempting to estimate the work of Hippocrates 
it is necessary to consider, not only the doctrine of 
the philosophers, but also the possibly pre-Hippocratic 
books in the Corpus. These are the Prenotions of Cos 
and the First Prorrhetic,4 and perhaps the treatise—in 
Latin and Arabic, the Greek original having mostly 
perished—on the number seven (περὶ ἑβδομάδων). 

1 For the medical theories of Philolaus see the extracts 
from the recently discovered Jatrica of Menon, discussed by 
Diels in Hermes XXVIIL., p. 417 foll. 

2 Galen X. 5. 

3 Hippocrates . . . ab studio sapientiae disciplinam hanc 
separavit, vir et arte et facundia insignis. 

4 Grimm, Ermerins and Adams are convinced of the early 
date of these. Littré seems to have changed his mind. Con- 
trast I. 351 with VIII. xxxix. The writer in Pauly-Wissowa 
is also uncertain. I hope to treat the question fully when I 
come to Prognostic in Vol. 11. 



The Prenotions of Cos and the First Prorrhetic (the 
latter being the earlier, although both are supposed 
to be earlier than Hippocrates) show that in the 
medical school of Cos great attention was paid to the 
natural history of diseases, especially to the prob- 
ability of a fatal or not fatal issue. The Treatise on 
Seven, with its marked Pythagorean characteristics, 
proves, if indeed it is as early as Roscher would have 
us believe, that even before Hippocrates disease was 
considered due to a disturbance in the balance of the 
humours, and health to a “coction” of them, while 
the supposed preponderance of seven doubtless exer- 
cised some influence on the later doctrine of critical 
days. The work may be taken to be typical of the 
Italian-Sicilian school of medicine, in which a priort 
assumptions of the “ philosophic” type were freely 
admitted. Besides these two schools there was also 
a famous one at Cnidos,! the doctrines of which are 
criticised in the Hippocratic treatise Regimen in Acute 
Diseases. The defects of this school seem to have 
been :-— 

(1) the use of too few remedies ; 
(2) faulty or imperfect prognosis ; 
(3) over-elaboration in classifying diseases.’ 

We may now attempt to summarize the com- 

1 There are several Cnidian treatises in the Corpus. See 
p. xxiii. The Cnidian point of view admits of defence, and 
their desire to classify was a really scientific instinct. I 
hope to treat of the Cnidians fully when I come to translate 
Regimen in Acute Diseases. 

2 The Coan school, on the other hand, sought for a unity 
in diseases. Its followers tried to combine, the Cnidians to 
distinguish and to note differences. See Littré 11. 202-204. 



ponents of Greek medicine towards the end of the 
fifth century B.c. 

(1) There was a religious element, which, however, 
had been generally discarded. 

(2) There was a philosophic element, still very 
strong, which made free use of unverified postulates 
in discussing the causes and treatment—especially 
the former—of diseases. 

(3) There was a rational element, which relied 
upon accurate observation and accumulated ex- 
perience. This rationalism concluded that disease 
and health depended on environment and on the 
supposed constituents of the human frame. 

Now if we take the Hippocratic collection we find 
that in no treatise is there any superstition,' in many 
there is much “ philosophy’ with some sophistic 
rhetoric, and among the others some are merely 
technical handbooks, while others show signs of a 
great mind, dignified and reserved with all the 
severity of the Periclean period, which, without 
being distinctively original, transformed the best 
tendencies in Greek medicine into something which 
has ever since been the admiration of doctors and 
scientific men. It is with the last only that I am 
concerned at present. 

I shall make no attempt to fix with definite pre- 
cision which treatises are to be included in this 
category, and 1 shall confine myself for the moment 
to three—Prognostic, Regimen in Acute Diseases, and 
Epidemics I. and 111. These show certain character- 
istics, which, although there is no internal clue to 

1 A possible exception is Decorwm, which 1 hope to discuss 
in Vol. II. 



either date or authorship, impress upon the reader a 
conviction that they were written by the same man, 
and at a time before the great period of Greece had 
passed away. They remind one, in a subtle yet very 
real way, of Thucydides. 

The style of each work is grave and austere. 
There is no attempt at “ window-dressing.” Lan- 
guage is used to express thought, not to adorn it. 
Not a word is thrown away. ‘The first two treatises 
have a literary finish, yet there is no trace in them 
of sophistic rhetoric. Thought, and the expression 
of thought, are evenly balanced. Both are clear, 
dignified—even majestic. 

The matter is even more striking than the style. 
The spirit is truly scientific, in the modern and 
strictest sense of the word. There is no superstition, 
and, except perhaps in the doctrine of critical days, 
no philosophy.? Instead, there is close, even minute, 
observation of symptoms and their sequences, acute 
remarks on remedies, and recording, without in- 
ference, of the atmospheric phenomena, which 
preceded or accompanied certain “epidemics.” 
Especially noteworthy are the clinical histories, 
admirable for their inclusion of everything that is 
relevant and their exclusion of all that is not. 

The doctrine of these three treatises may be 
summarised as follows :—#* 

1 The resemblance struck Littré. See Vol. I., pp. 474, 475. 

* Of course even in the greatest works of the Hippocratic 
Corpus there is, and could not help being, some theory. But 
the writer does not love the theory for its own sake. Rather 
he is constantly forgetting it in his eagerness to record 
observed fact. 

* There is a clear account of Hippocratic doctrine in Littré, 
Vol. L., pp. 440-464. 



(1) Diseases have a natural course, which the 
physician must know thoroughly,! so as to decide 
whether the issue will be favourable or fatal. 

(2) Diseases are caused by a disturbance 2 in the 
composition of the constituents of the body. This 
disturbance is connected with atmospheric and 
climatic conditions. 

(3) Nature tries to bring these irregularities to a 
normal state, apparently by the action of innate heat, 
which “ concocts” the “ crude” humours of the body. 

(4) There are “ critical’’ days at fixed dates, when 
the battle between nature and disease reaches a crisis. 

(5) Nature may win, in which case the morbid 
matters in the body are either evacuated or carried 
off in an ἀπόστασις, 8 or the “ coction ᾿᾿ of the morbid 
elements may not take place, in which case the 
patient dies. 

(6) All the physician can do for the patient is to 
give nature a chance, to remove by regimen all that 
may hinder nature in her beneficent work. 

It may be urged that this doctrine is as hypo- 
thetical as the thesis that all diseases come from air. 
In a sense it is. All judgments, however simple, 
attempting to explain sense-perceptions, are hypo- 
theses. But hypotheses may be scientific or philo- 
sophic, the latter term being used to denote the 

1 This knowledge is πρόγνωσις. 

2 It is not clear whether this disturbance is regarded as 
quantitative, qualitative, or both. 

® This term will be explained later. Roughly speaking, 
it means the collection and expulsion of morbid elements 
at a fixed point in the body. I translate it ‘‘ abscession,” a 

term which suggests ‘‘abscess,” perhaps the most common 
form of an ‘‘ abscession.” 



character of early Greek philosophy. A scientific 
hypothesis is a generalization framed to explain the 
facts of experience ; it is not a foundation, but is in 
itself a superstructure ; it is constantly being tested 
by appeals to sense-experience, and is kept, modified 
or abandoned, according to the support, or want of 
support, that phenomena give to it. A “philo- 
sophic”’ hypothesis is a generalization framed with a 
view to unification rather than to accounting for all 
the facts; it is a foundation for an unsubstantial 
superstructure ; no efforts are made to test it by 
appeals to experience, but its main support is a 
credulous faith. 

Now the doctrine of the Epidemic group is certainly 
not of the philosophic kind. Some of it was un- 
doubtedly derived from early philosophic medicine, 
but in this group of treatises observed phenomena 
are constantly appealed to; nor must it be forgotten 
that in the then state of knowledge much that would 
now be styled inference was then considered fact, 
e.g. the “coction” of phlegm in a common cold. 
Throughout, theory is in the background, observation 
in the foreground. It is indeed most remarkable 
that Hippocratic theory is hard to disentangle from 
the three works on which my argument turns... It 
is ἃ nebulous framework, implied in the technical 
phraseology—weis, κρίσις, xpaous—and_ often illus- 
trated by appeal to data, but never obtrusively 
insisted upon. 

In 1836 a French doctor, M. 5. Houdart,! violently 
attacked this medical doctrine on the ground that it 

1 Rtudes historiques et critiques sur la vie et la doctrine 

αἰ Hippocrate, et sur l'état de la médecine avant lui, Paris and 



, neglected the physician’s prime duty,! which is to 
effect a cure. Diagnosis, he urges, is neglected in 
the cult of prognosis; no attempt is made to localize 
the seat of disease; the observations in the Epidemics 
are directed towards superficial symptoms without 
any attempt to trace them to their real cause. The 
writer is an interested but callous spectator who 
looks on unmoved while his patient dies. 

In this rather rabid criticism there is a morsel of 
truth. The centre of interest in these treatises is 
certainly the disease rather than the patient. The 
writer is a cold observer of morbid phenomena, who 
has for a moment detached himself from pity for 
suffering. But this restraint is in reality a virtue; 
concentration on the subject under discussion is 
perhaps the first duty of a scientist. Moreover, we 
must not suppose that the fatally-stricken patients 
of the Epidemics received no treatment or nursing. 
Here and there the treatment is mentioned or hinted 
at,? but the writer assumes that the usual methods 

1 ἐς Attendre qu'il plaise ἃ la nature de nous délivrer de 
nos maux, ¢c’est laisser économie en proie a la douleur, c’est 
donner le temps aux altérations de dévorer nos viscéres, c’est, 
en un mot, nous conduire siirement ἃ la mort.”—Op. cit. 
p. 253. M. Houdart was but following the example of 
Asclepiades, the fashionable physician at Rome in the first 
century B.C., who called the Hippocratic treatment a 
‘‘meditation upon death.” 

2 ««Lisez les Epidémies. Si votre cceur résiste ἃ cette 
lecture, vous l’avez de bronze. Qui peut voir en effet de 
sang-froid cette foule d’infortunés conduits ἃ pas lents sur 
les bords de la tombe, οὰ ils finissent la plupart par tomber, 
apres avoir souffert durant trois ou quatre mois entiers les 
douleurs les plus variées et les plus aigués?”—Op. cit. 
p. 246. 

3 H.g. Τρία. III. Case virt. (second series): θερμάσματα 
and ὀγδόῃ ἀγκῶνα ἔταμον. ᾿ 



were followed, and does not mention them because 
they are irrelevant. 

The charge of callousness may be dismissed. More 
serious is the attack on the fundamental principle of 
Hippocratic medicine, that “ nature” alone can effect 
a cure, and that the only thing the physician can do 
is to allow nature a chance to work. Modern medical 
science has accepted this principle as an ultimate 
truth, but did the writer of the three treatises under 
discussion do his best to apply it? Did he really 
try to serve nature, and, by so doing, to conquer 
her? Houdart says that practically all the author 
of the Epidemics did was “to examine stools, urine, 
sweats, etc., to look therein for signs of coction, to 
announce crises and to pronounce sentences of 
death,” ! in other words that he looked on and did 
nothing. I have just pointed out that the silence of 
the Epzdemics on the subject of treatment must not 
be taken to mean that no treatment was given, but 
it remains to be considered whether all was done 
that could have been done. What remedies were 
used by the author of Regimen in Acule Diseases ? 
They were :— 

(1) Purgatives and, probably, emetics. 

(2) Fomentations and baths. 

(3) (a) Barley-water and barley-gruel, in the 
preparation and administering of which 
great care was to be taken. 

(ὁ) Wine. 

(c) Hydromel, a mixture of honey and water ; 
and oxymel, a mixture of honey and 

1 Op. cit. p. 247. 


(4) Venesection. 
(5) Care was taken not to distress the patient.? 

If we take into account the scientific knowledge 
of the time, it is difficult to see what more the 
physician could have done for the patient. Even 
nowadays a sufferer from measles or influenza can 
have no better advice than to keep warm and com- 
fortable in bed, to take a purge, and to adopt a diet 
of slops. Within the last few years, indeed, chemistry 
has discovered febrifuges and anaesthetics, the micro. 
scope has put within our reach prophylactic vaccines, 
and the art of nursing has improved out of all recog- 
nition, but nearly all these things were as unknown 
to M. Houdart as they were in the fifth century B.c. 

This criticism of Hippocratic medicine has been 
considered, not because it is in itself worthy of pro- 
longed attention, but because it shows that underlying 
the three treatises I have mentioned there is a fun- 
damental principle, a unity, a positive characteristic 
implying either a united school of thought or else a 
great personality. All antiquity agreed that they 
were written by the greatest physician of ancient 
times— Hippocrates. Within the last hundred years, 
however, doubts have been expressed whether Hip- 
pocrates wrote anything. Early in the nineteenth 
century a doctor of Lille published a thesis intitled 
Dubitationes de Hippocratis vita, patria, genealogia, 
forsan mythologicis, et de quibusdam eius libris multo 

1 It should be noticed that in all the Hippocratic collection 
no attention is paid to the pulse. The doctor judged whether 
a patient was feverish, and estimated the degree of fever, by 
the touch. I have not translated πυρετὸς ὀξύς by ‘high 
temperature,” but by ‘‘acute fever,’ because I wish to 
introduce as few anachronisms as possible. 



antiquiortbus quam vulgo creditur. Wellmann and 
Wilamowitz hold similar views nowadays. As the 
Hippocratic writings are all anonymous, such a hypo- 
thesis is not difficult to maintain. But it is a matter 
of merely antiquarian interest whether or not the 
shadowy “ Hippocrates” of ancient tradition is really 
the writer of the Epidemics. The salient and im- 
portant truth is that in the latter half of the fifth 
century works were written, probably by the same 
author, embodying a consistent doctrine of medical 
theory and practice, free from both superstition and 
philosophy, and setting forth rational empiricism of 
a strictly scientific character. If in future 1 call the 
spirit from which this doctrine emanated ‘ Hip- 
pocrates”’ it is for the sake of convenience, and not 
because I identify the author with the shadowy 
physician of tradition. 

Similar in style and in spirit to the three treatises 
discussed above are Aphorisms and Airs Waters Places, 
along with two surgical works, Fractures t and Wounds 
in the Head. The severely practical character of the 
last is particularly noteworthy, and makes the 
reader wonder to what heights Greek surgery would 
have risen had antiseptics been known. Aphorisms 
is a compilation, but a great part shows a close 
relationship to the Hippocratic group. The least 
scientific of all the seven treatises is Airs Waters 
Places, which, in spite of its sagacity and rejection 
of the supernatural, shows a tendency to facile and 
unwarranted generalization. 

1 With this should be joined the work Articulations, which 
is very closely allied to Fractures, and is supposed by Galen 
to have been originally combined with it as a single work. 
Instruments of Reduction appears to be a compendium of 



§ 2. Tue Hiprpocraric COLLECTION. 

We are now in a position to attempt a brief 
analysis of the Corpus Hippocraticum. For the 
moment the external evidence of Galen and other 
ancient commentators, for or against the authenticity 
of the various treatises, will be passed over, ‘This 
evidence is of great importance, but may tend to 
obscure the issue, which is the mutual affinities of 
the treatises as shown by their style and content. 

In the first place the heterogeneous character of 
the Corpus should be observed. It contains :— 

(1) Text-books for physicians ; 

(2) Text-books for laymen ; 

(3) Pieces of research or collection of material for 

(4) Lectures or essays for medical students and 

(5) Essays by philosophers who were perhaps not 
practising physicians, but laymen interested in 
medicine and anxious to apply to it the methods of 

(6) Note-books or scrap-books. 

Even single works often exhibit the most varied 
characteristics. It is as though loose sheets had 
been brought together without any attempt at co- 
ordination or redaction. Epidemics I., for instance, 
jumps with startling abruptness from a “ constitu- 
tion” of the diseases prevalent at one period in 
Thasos to the function of the physician in an illness, 
passing on to a few disjointed remarks on pains in the 
head andneck. Then follows another “ constitution,” 
after which comes an elaborate classification of the 



ordinary fevers, with their periods, paroxysms and 
crises. At the end come fourteen clinical histories, 

I have already mentioned a pre-Hippocratic group 
and a Hippocratic group, and it has been noticed 
that the main task of Greek medicine was to free 
science from superstition and from philosophic hypo- 
theses. The Corpus contains two polemical works, 
On Epilepsy and Ancient Medicine, which attack re- 
spectively the “divine” origin of disease and the 
intrusion into medicine of the hypothetical specula- 
tion of philosophers. 

There is another group of works which, while 
they do not display to any marked degree the 
Hippocratic characteristics, are nevertheless practical 
handbooks of medicine, physiology or anatomy. The 
list is a long one, and includes works by different 
authors and of different schools :-— 

The Surgery. 
The Heart. 
Places in Man. 
Nature of the Bones. 
Diseases I. 
Diseases II. and IIT) 
A ffections.+ 
Internal A ffections. 

1 Shows influence of Cnidian school. So possibly do other 



Prorrhetic I. 
The Physician, 

Critical Days. 

Use of Liquids. 

Seventh Month Child. 
Eighth Month Child. 

Nature of the Child.+ 
Diseases IV 3 
Diseases of Women.+ 
Diseases of Girls. 
Nature of Women. 
Excision of the Foetus. 
Super foetation. 


Regimen in Health2 
Regimen IT. and III. with Dreams. 

Another most important group of works consists 
of those in which the philosophic element predomi- 
nates over the scientific, the writers being anxious, 
not to advance the practice of medicine, but to bring 
medicine under the control of philosophic dogma, 
to achieve in fact the end attacked by the writer of 
Ancient Medicine. These works are Nutriment, Regi- 
men I. and Airs. The first two are Heraclitean; the 
last is probably derived from Diogenes of Apollonia. 

1 Shows influence of Cnidian school. So possibly do other 
2 Really a continuation of Nature of Man. 



Regimen I., however, while strongly Heraclitean, is 
eclectic. Animals are said to be composed of two 
elements, fire and water, fire being a composite of 
the hot and the dry, water of the cold and the 
moist. Certain sentences are strikingly reminiscent 
of Anaxagoras, so much so that it is impossible to 
regard the resemblances as accidental. Take for 
instance the following :— 

(1) ἀπόλλυται μὲν οὖν οὐδὲν ἁπάντων χρημάτων, 
οὐδὲ γίνεται ὅτι μὴ καὶ πρόσθεν ἣν. ξυμμισγόμενα δὲ 
καὶ διακρινόμενα ἀλλοιοῦται. —Regimen I. τν. 

(2) οὐδὲν γὰρ χρῆμα γίνεται οὐδὲ ἀπόλλυται, ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ 
ἐόντων Renee Bera τε καὶ διακρίνεται.--- 
Anaxagoras, fr. 22 (Schaubach). 

To assign exact dates to these works is impossible, 
but they are probably much later than Heraclitus 
himself. The interesting fact remains that Hera- 
clitus had followers who kept his doctrine alive, 
second-rate thinkers, perhaps, and unknown in the 
history of science, but hearty supporters of a creed, 
and ready to extend it to embrace all new know 
ledge as it was discovered. Particularly interesting 
is the work Nutriment. This not only adopts the 
theory of Heraclitus, but also mimics his sententious 
and mysterious manner of expression. A few examples 
may not be out of place. 

φύσις ἐξαρκέει πάντα tacw.—Nutriment xv. 

κρατέει γὰρ 86. ὃ θεῖος νόμος]... καὶ ἐξαρκέει 
7ao..—Heraclitus apud Stob. Flor, II. 84. 

μία φύσις εἶναι Kat μὴ €tvat.—Nutriment xxiv. 

εἶμέν τε καὶ οὐκ εἶμεν.--- ΗΠ ΘΥδο! 5 Alleg. Hom. 24. 

ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω, pia.—Nutriment XLv. 



ὁδὸς ἄνω καὶ κάτω pia καὶ ovtTy.—Heraclitus apud 
Hippolyt. IX. 10 

πρός τι πάντα φλαῦρα Kal πάντα aoteta.—Nutriment 

θάλασσα ὕδωρ καθαρώτατον καὶ μιαρώτατον, ἰχθύσι 
μὲν πότιμον καὶ σωτήριον, ἀνθρώποις δὲ ἄποτον καὶ 
ὀλέθριον .--- Πδγδοϊ 5. apud Hippolyt. IX. 10. 

χωρεῖ δὲ πάντα καὶ θεῖα καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, ἄνω καὶ κάτω 
apetBopeva.—Regimen I. ν. 

Similar to these philosophic treatises are the 
essays, ἐπιδείξεις or displays, which propound theses 
which are not the ὑποθέσεις of philosophers. These 
are The Art, the object of which is to show that 
there zs an art of medicine, and Nature of Man, 
which combats the monist philosophers, and sets 
forth the doctrine of the four humours as the cause 
of health, by their perfect crasis, and of disease, 
through a disturbance of that crasis. To this group 
we may perhaps add the treatise Decorum, which 
deals (among other things) with bed-side manners, 
and Precepts, a work similar in style and subject. 

The last two works are interesting for their intro- 
ductory remarks. Decorum practically identifies 
medicine and philosophy, which term is used to 
denote the philosophic spirit, with its moral as well 
as its intellectual attributes, and recognises the 
working of an agency not human; it is in fact 
typical of the ethical science, practical if occasion- 
ally commonplace, which came into vogue towards 
the end of the fourth century s.c. The introduc- 
tion to Precepts is Epicurean. The first chapter, in 
fact, is a summary of Epicurean epistemology, and 
is full of the technical terms of that school. A 
single quotation will suffice :— 



«< SS \ ΄ / > Ν an ᾽ 

ὃ γὰρ λογισμὸς μνήμη τίς ἐστι ξυνθετικὴ τῶν μετ 
> , / > ’ Ν > , «ε 
αἰσθήσιος ληφθέντων: ἐφαντασιώθη γὰρ ἐναργέως ἡ 
αἴσθησις, προπαθὴς καὶ ἀναπομπὸς ἐοῦσα εἰς διάνοιαν τῶν 
ὑποκειμένων .----Πγεοορί I, 

This definition of λογισμός is practically the same 
as that of the Epicurean πρόληψις given in Diogenes 
Laertius X. 33. 

A few of the contents of the Corpus Hippocraticum 
remain unclassified. Of these, by far the most 
Hippocratic are Epidemics I1., 1V. VII, It is indeed 
remarkable that in antiquity they were not generally 
assigned to the “ great”’ Hippocrates. The clinical 
histories are invaluable, although they are not so 
severely pertinent as those of Epidemics I. and III., 
betraying sometimes an eye for picturesque but 
irrelevant detail. 

The treatise curiously misnamed Fleshes contains, 
amid a variety of interesting anatomical and _ physio- 
logical detail, traces of Pythagoreanism in the virtue 
attached to the number seven, and of Heracliteanism 
in the view put forward that warmth is the spirit 
that pervades the universe. 

Humours deals with the relations of humours to 
the seasons and so on. 

The Oath and The Law are small but interesting 
documents throwing light on medical education and 

Finally, the Epistles! and Decree, although merely 
imaginary essays, show what manner of man Hip- 
pocrates was supposed to have been by the Greeks 
of a later age. 

1 It is interesting to note that the Platonic collection and 
the New Testament, like the Corpus, end with a series of 



The Hippocratic collection is a medley, with no 
inner bond of union except that all the works are 
written in the Ionic dialect and are connected more 
or less closely with medicine or one of its allied 
sciences. There are the widest possible divergences 
of style, and the sharpest possible contradictions in 
doctrine. The questions present themselves, why 
were they united, and when did the union occur ? 

Littré’s problem, “When was the Hippocratic 
collection published?”1 cannot be answered, for 
it is more than doubtful whether, as a whole, the 
collection was ever published at all. The publica- 
tion of a modern work must in no way be compared 
with the circulation of a book in ancient times. 
Printing and the law of copyright have created a 
revolution. As soon as an ancient author let go out 
of his possession a single copy of his book, it was, 
to all intents and purposes, “published.” Copies 
might be multiplied without permission, and a 
popular and useful work was no doubt often cir- 
culated in this way. Now at least one hundred, 
perhaps three hundred, years separate the writing of 
the earliest work in the Corpus from the writing 
of the latest. Diocles knew the Aphorisms, Ctesias 
probably knew Articulations, and Menon certainly 
knew two or three treatises. Aristotle himself 
quotes from Nature of Man, though he ascribes it 
to Polybus. [Ὁ is surely impossible to suppose with 
Littré that there was anything approaching a publi- 
cation of the Corpus by the Alexandrian librarians. 
Even if they had published for the first time only 
a large portion of the collection, such a momentous 
event would scarcely have passed unnoticed by the 

1 Vol. I., chap. xi. 


long series of commentators culminating in Galen. 
The librarians of Alexandria could not have done 
more than establish a canon, and if our present 
collection represents their work in this direction 
it was done very badly, as the most superficial critic 
would not fail to notice that a great part of its 
contents is neither by Hippocrates himself nor by 
his school. 

The Hippocratic collection is a library, or rather, 
the remains of a library. What hypothesis is more 
probable than that it represents the library of the 
Hippocratic school at Cos? The ancient biographies 
of Hippocrates relate a fable that he destroyed the 
library of the Temple of Health at Cnidos (or, 
according to another form of the fable, at Cos) in 
order to enjoy a monopoly of the knowledge it 
contained. The story shows, at least, that such 
libraries existed, and indeed a school of medicine, 
like that which had its home at Cos, could not 
well have done without one. And what would this 
library contain? The works of the greatest of the 
Asclepiads, whether published or not; valuable 
works, of various dates and of different schools, 
bearing on medicine and kindred subjects ; medical 
records and notes by distinguished professors of 
the school, for the most part unpublished ; various 
books, of no great interest or value, presented to 
the library or acquired by chance. 

The Hippocratic collection actually corresponds 
to this description. This is nearly all the historian 
is justified in saying. Beyond is mere conjecture. 
We can omy guess when this library ceased to be 
the property of the Hippocratic school, and how it 
was transferred to one or other of the great libraries 



which were collected in Alexandrine times, to be 
re-copied and perhaps increased by volumes which 
did not belong to the original collection. 

It may be urged that if the Hippocratic Corpus 
were originally a library, it is improbable that all the 
treatises composing it would be writtenin Ionic. But 
it is by no means certain when Ionic ceased to be the 
normal medium for medical science; for all we 
know the dialect may have been in vogue until long 
after the κοινή established itself throughout the 
Greek world. Moreover, we do not know what 
levelling forces were at work among copyists and 
librarians, inducing them to assimilate the dialects 
of medical works to a recognized model. We do know, 
however, that as centuries passed more and more 
Ionisms, most of them spurious, were thrust upon 
the Hippocratic texts. The process we can trace in 
the later history of the text may well have been 
going on, in a different form, in the fourth and third 
centuries B.C. 

It is because I regard the Hippocratic collection 
as merely a library that I do not consider it worth 
while to attempt an elaborate classification, like those 
of Littré, Greenhill, Ermerins, and Adams. A library 
is properly catalogued according to subject matter, 
date, and authorship ; it is of little use to view each 
separate volume in its relationship to a particular 
writer. The Hippocrates of tradition and the Hip- 
pocrates of the commentators may well be left 
buried in obscurity and uncertainty. What we do 
know, what must be our foundation stone, is that 
certain treatises in the Corpus are impressed with 
the marks of an outstanding genius, who inherited 
much but bequeathed much more. He stands for 



science and against superstition and hypothetical 
philosophy. The other contents of the Corpus are 
older or later than this nucleus, either in harmony 
with its doctrines or opposed to them. More than 
this we cannot hope to know for certain, 

δ 3. Means oF Datine Hippocratic Writinas. 

The means of fixing the dates of the treatises 
composing the Hippocratic collection are twofold— 
external and internal, 

The external evidence consists of the statements 
of Galen and other ancient authors. 

The internal tests are :— 

(a) The philosophical tenets stated or implied ; 
(6) The medical doctrines ; 

(c) The style of the treatise ; 

(d) ‘The language and grammar. 

(a) When a philosophic doctrine is adopted, or 
referred to as influential, it is presumptive evidence 
that the treatise was written before that doctrine 
grew out of date. We cannot, however, always be 
sure when a doctrine did grow out of date. It is a 
mistaken idea to suppose that the rise of a fresh 
school meant the death of its predecessors. It is 
certain, for instance, that Heraclitus had followers, 
after the rise of other schools, who developed his 
doctrines without altering their essential character. 

(6) Medical doctrines also are by no means a 
certain test. If we could be sure that a knowledge 

VOL, I. ἘΠ Xxx) 


of the pulse was unknown to the writers of the chief 
’ Hippocratic treatises, we should be more confident 
in dating, e.g., the work called Nutriment, which 
recognizes the existence of a pulse. It is a fact 
that no use is made of this knowledge in any 
treatise of the collection, but we must not infer 
from this that the Hippocratic writers were ignor- 
ant of pulses. We can only infer that they were 
ignorant of their medical importance. 

(c) The style of a treatise is sometimes a sure 
test and sometimes not. Sophistic rhetoric is of 
such a marked character in its most pronounced 
form that a treatise showing it is not likely to be 
much earlier than 427 B.c., nor much later than 
400 z.c., when sophistic extravagances began to be 
modified under the influence of the Attic orators. 
But a work moderately sophistic in general style 
and sentence-structure may be much later. 

There is also a subtle quality about writings later 
than 300 B.c.,an unnatural verbosity and tortuousness 
of expression, a suspicion of the “baboo,” that is as 
unmistakable as it is impalpable. A few of the 
Hippocratic treatises display this characteristic. 

(d) In some respects grammar and diction are the 
surest tests of all. If the negative μή is markedly 
ousting ov it is a sure sign of post-Alexandrine 
date. A preference for compound words with 
abstract meaning, in cases where a simple expres- 
sion would easily have sufficed, is a mark of later 
Greek prose. If any reader wishes for concrete 
evidence to support my rather vague generalisations, 
he has only to read Epidemics I,, then The Art or 
Regimen I., and finally Precepts or Decorum, and try 
to note the differences. 



$4. Piaro’s Rererences To Hippocrates, 

In the Protagoras (311 B) Plato assumes the case 
of a young man who goes to Ἱπποκράτη τὸν Kdov, τὸν 

τῶν ᾿Ασκληπιαδῶν, to learn medicine. 

This passage 

tells us little except that Hippocrates took pupils 

for a fee. 

But in the Phaedrus (270 C 

E) there is 

another passage which professes to set forth the 

true Hippocratic method. 

Socrates. Do you think 
it possible, then, satis- 
factorily to comprehend 
the nature of soul apart 
from the nature of the 
universe ? 

Phaedrus. Nay, if we 
are to believe Hippo- 
crates, of the Asclepiad 
family, we cannot learn 
even about the body 
unless we follow this 
method of procedure. 

Socrates. Yes,my friend, 
and he is right. . Yet 
besides the doctrine of 
Hippocrates, we must 
examine our argument 
and see if it harmonizes 

with it. 
Phaedrus. Yes. 
Socrates. Observe, 

then, what it is that both 
Hippocrates and correct 

It is as follows :— 

ΣΩ. Ψυχῆς οὖν φύσιν 
ἀξίως λόγου κατανοῆσαι οἴει 
δυνατὸν εἶναι ἄνευ τῆς τοῦ 
ὅλου φύσεως ; 

ΦΑΙ. Εἰ μὲν οὖν Ἵππο- 
κράτει ye τῷ τῶν ᾿Ασκλη- 
πιαδῶν δεῖ τι πείθεσθαι. οὐδὲ 
περὶ σώματος ἄνευ τῆς μεθό- 
δου ταύτης. 

ΣΏ. Καλῶς γάρ, ὦ ἑταῖρε, 
λέγει. χρὴ μέντοι πρὸς τῷ 
c Ty: Ν ’ 38 fa 
Ἱπποκράτει τὸν λόγον ἐξετά- 
ζοντα σκοπεῖν εἰ συμφωνεῖ. 

ΦΑΙ. Φημί 

‘\ , 
2Q. To τοίνυν περὶ 
φύσεως σκόπει τί ποτε 

χε « ΄ὔ Ν ε 
eyee Ἱπποκράτης TE και ὁ 



argument mean by an 
examination of nature. 
Surely it is in the follow- 
ing way that we must in- 
quire into the nature of 
anything. In the first 
place we must see whether 
that, in which we shall 
wish to be craftsmen and 
to be able to make others 
so, is simple or complex. 
In the next place, if it 
be simple, we must in- 
quire what power nature 
has given it of acting, 
and of acting upon what ; 
what power of being 
acted upon, and by what. 
If on the other hand it 
be complex, we must 
enumerate its parts, and 
note in the case of each 
what we noted in the 
case of the simple thing, 
through what natural 
power it acts, and upon 
what, or through what 
it is acted upon, and by 

Ν ΄ fee 
ἀληθὴς λόγος. ap’ οὐχ 
ὧδε δεῖ διανοεῖσθαι περὶ 
ὁτουοῦν φύσεως; πρῶτον 
, ε a aN ς 7 
μέν, ἁπλοῦν ἢ πολυειὸές 
3 e / ΄ 
ἐστιν, οὗ πέρι βουλησόμεθα 
Ss ‘ 
εἶναι αὐτοὶ τεχνικοὶ καὶ 
+ Q Ν a ΝΜ 
ἄλλον δυνατοὶ ποιεῖν, ἔπειτα 
δέ, ἐὰν 
wn A 4 
σκοπεῖν τὴν δύναμιν αὐτοῦ, 
΄΄ Ν ,ὔ ,ὔ 5 Ν 
τίνα πρὸς τί πέφυκεν εἰς τὸ 
Ν “ yo Ν ’ὔ 
δρᾶν ἔχον ἢ τίνα εἰς τὸ πα- 

XN € a 7 
μὲν ἁπλοῦν Ἢ: 

“ ¢€ Ν ἴω oN Ν ΄ 
θεῖν ὑπὸ τοῦ ; ἐὰν δὲ πλείω 
5», 3, a > / 
εἴδη ἔχῃ, ταῦτα ἀριθμησά- 
Ww S99! MeL, a 
μένον, ὅπερ ἐφ᾽ ἑνός, TOUT 
5 ἡ 3 ) ε , a , 
ἰδεῖν ἐφ᾽ EKGOTOV, τῷ TL 
“ > Ν / ΕΝ a 
ποιεῖν αὐτὸ πέφυκεν ἢ TW 
/ “ ε Ν 5 

τί παθεῖν ὑπὸ Tov ;—Phae- 

drus 210 C, D. 

It is obvious that if we could find passages in the 
Hippocratic collection which clearly maintain the 
doctrine propounded in this part of the Phaedrus we 
should be able to say with confidence that the 



Hippocrates of history and tradition was the author 
of such and such a treatise. 

Galen maintains that Plato refers to the treatise 
Nature of Man. 1 believe that few readers of the 
latter will notice any striking resemblances between 
this work! and the doctrine outlined by Plato. 
More plausible is the view of Littré, that Plato refers 
to Chapter XX of Ancient Medicine, which contains 
the following passage :— 

ἐπεὶ τοῦτό ΑΞ pet δοκεῖ a ἀναγκαῖον ety αι παντὶ ἰητρῷ περὶ 
φύσιος εἰδέναι, καὶ πάνυ σπουδάσαι ὡς εἴσεται, εἴπ Se τι 
μέλλει τῶν δεόντων 7 ποιήσειν, ὃ τί τέ ἐστιν ἄν θρωπος πρὸς τὰ 
ἐσθιόμενά τε καὶ πινόμενα, καὶ ὅ τι πρὸς τὰ ἄλλα ἐπιτηδεύ- 
ματα, καὶ ὅ τι ἀφ᾽ ἑκάστου ἑκάστῳ συμβήσεται. 

Here the resemblance is closer—close enough to 
show that the author of Ancient Medicine, if he be not 
the Hippocrates of history, at least held views similar 
to his. And here the question must be left. Few 
would maintain with Littré that the resemblance 
between the two passages is so striking that they 
must be connected; few again would deny that 
Plato was thinking of Antien! Medicine. Ignorance 
and uncertainty seem to be the final result of most 
of the interesting problems presented by the Hippo- 
cratic collection. 


About the time of Nero a glossary of unusual 
Hippocratic terms was written by Erotian, which 
1 ΤῸ my mind the closest resemblances are in Chapters 

VII and VIII, which deal with the relations between the 
‘four humours” and the four seasons. 



still survives. Erotian was not the first to compose 
such a work, nor was he the last, the most famous of 
his successors being Galen. An examination of this 
glossary, combined with testimony derived from 
Galen, throws some light on the history of the 
Hippocratic collection. It will be well to quote a 
passage from Erotian’s introduction, which contains 
a fairly complete list of commentators. 

/ cal 
Παρὰ ταύτην γέ τοι τὴν αἰτίαν πολλοὶ τῶν ἐλλογίμων 
lol / r 
οὐκ ἰατρῶν μόνον, ἀλλὰ Kal γραμματικῶν ἐσπούδασαν 
> / Νὴ A Ν Ν / SES ἊΝ , 
ἐξηγήσασθαι τὸν ἄνδρα καὶ τὰς λέξεις ἐπὶ τὸ κοινότερον 
τῆς ὁμιλίας ἀγαγεῖν. Ἐενόκριτος γὰρ ὃ Kéos, γραμ- 
Ν ΕΙΣ 7 ε ΄σ΄ «ε ΄, lal 
ματικὸς ὧν, ὡς φησιν ὃ Ταραντῖνος Ἡρακλείδης, πρῶτος 
> ay Ν ΄ 2¢ a ΄ ε δὲ Ni ΠΕ, 
ἐπεβάλετο τὰς τοιαύτας ἐξαπλοῦν φωνάς. ὡς δὲ καὶ ὃ 
Ν > ΄σ na 
Κιτιεὺς ᾿Απολλώνιος ἱστορεῖ, καὶ Καλλίμαχος ὁ ἀπὸ τῆς 
ε lol Lol 
Ηροφίλου οἰκίας. μεθ᾽ ὅν φασι τὸν Tavaypatoy Βακχεῖον 
ἐπιβαλεῖν τῇ πραγματείᾳ καὶ διὰ τριῶν συντάξεων πληρῶσαι 
τὴν προθεσμίαν, πολλὰς παραθέμενον εἰς τοῦτο μαρτυρίας 
ποιητῶν, ᾧ δὴ τὸν ἐμπειρικὸν συγχρονήσαντα Φιλῖνον διὰ 
ε ΄ ͵ > a ΄ 7 ΄ a 
ἐξαβίβλου πραγματείας ἀντειπεῖν, καίπερ ᾿Επικλέους τοῦ 
Κρητὸς ἐπιτεμομένου τὰς Βακχείου λέξεις διὰ... . συντά- 
? i? a ® oS ΄ Ν 
ἕεων, ᾿Απολλωνίου τε TOD Οφεως ταὐτὸ ποιήσαντος, καὶ 
a “ a ΄ 3 
Διοσκορίδου τοῦ Φακᾶ πᾶσι τούτοις ἀντειπόντος δι ἑπτὰ 
βιβλίων, ᾿Απολλωνίου τε τοῦ Κιτιέως ὀκτωκαίδεκα πρὸς 
τὰ τοῦ Ταραντίν ov τρία πρὸς Βακχεῖον διαγράψαντος, καὶ 
Γλαυκίου τοῦ ἐμπειρικοῦ δι᾿ ἑνὸς πολυστίχου πάνυ καὶ 
κατὰ στοιχεῖον πεποιημένου ταὐτὸ ἐπιτηδεύσαντος πρός τε 
j Λυσιμάχου τοῦ Κῴου κ' βιβλίων ἐκπονήσαντο 
τούτοις Λυσιμάχου τοῦ Κῴου κ βιβλίων ἐκπονήσαντος 
πραγματείαν μετὰ τοῦ τρία μὲν γράψαι πρὸς Κυδίαν τὸν 
« , Ἂς Ν Ν if ΄σ Ν lal 
Ηροφίλειον, τριὰ δὲ πρὸς Δημήτριον. τῶν δὲ γραμματικῶν 
> ” “ > ΄ \ κ \ » 
οὐκ ἔστιν ὅστις ἐλλόγιμος φανεὶς παρῆλθε τὸν avdpa. 
‘ 32 “ , 
καὶ yap 6 ἀναδεξάμενος αὐτὸν Evdopiwv πᾶσαν ἐσπούδασε 
΄ ͵ 
λέξιν ἐξηγήσασθαι διὰ βιβλίων ς΄, περὶ ὧν γεγράφασιν 



᾿Αριστοκλῆς Kat ᾿Αριστέας οἱ “Pddior. ἔτι δὲ ᾿Αρίσταρχος 
καὶ μετὰ πάντας ᾿Αντίγονος καὶ Δίδυμος οἱ ᾿Αλεξανδρεῖς .-- 
ΡΡ. 4, 5 (Nachmanson). 

A good account of the commentators is given by 
Littré, vol. I., pp. 83 [01]. Herophilus (about 300 B.c.) 
appears to have been the first; Bacchius his pupil 
edited Epidemics I1I., wrote notes on three other 
Hippocratic works, and compiled a glossary. A 
great number of short fragments of the works of 
Bacchius still survive. The most celebrated com- 
mentator, a medical man as well as a scholar, was 
Heraclides of Tarentum, who lived rather later than 

Erotian in his introduction gives the following list 
of Hippocratic works :— 

σημειωτικὰ μὲν οὖν ἐστι ταῦτα: ἸΤρογνωστικόν, ΤΙρορ- 
Ν ,ὔ \ Uy 6 oh 3, c , 3 4 
ρητικὸν & καὶ β' (ws οὐκ ἔστιν Ἱπποκράτους, ἐν ἄλλοις 
δείξομεν), Περὶ χυμῶν. αἰτιολογικὰ δὲ καὶ φυσικά" Περὶ 
” δ ΄ > , Nee a , ‘ 
φυσῶν, Περὶ φύσεως ἀνθρώπου, epi ἱερᾶς νόσου, ἹΤερὶ 
φύσεως παιδίου, Περὶ τόπων καὶ ὡρῶν. θεραπευτικὰ δέ 
τῶν μὲν εἰς χειρουργίαν ἀνηκόντων. Περὶ ἀγμῶν, Περὶ 
ἄρθρων, [Περὶ ἑλκῶν, Περὶ τραυμάτων καὶ βελῶν, Περὶ τῶν 
ἐν κεφαλῇ τραυμάτων, Κατὰ ἰητρεῖον, Μοχλικόν, Περὶ 
ε ., \ ’ x ΄ ΄ 
αἱμορροΐδων καὶ συρίγγων. εἰς δίαιταν: Περὶ νούσων a 
/ fal Ν 3, 
β΄, Περὶ πτισάνης, Περὶ τόπων τῶν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον, 
Γυναικείων & β΄, Περὶ τροφῆς, Περὶ ἀφόρων, Περὶ ὑδάτων. 
> / LS a Al age εν} if / rn 
ἐπίμικτα δέ ἐστι ταῦτα" ᾿Αφορισμοί, ᾽᾿Ἐπιδημίαι ζ.. τῶν 
δ᾽ εἰς τὸν περὶ τέχνης τεινόντων λόγον Ὅρκος, Νόμος, 
Περὶ τέχνης, Περὶ ἀρχαίας ἰατρικῆς. Πρεσβευτικὸς γὰρ 
΄, a δ κ > , 

καὶ ᾿Επιβώμιος φιλόπατριν μᾶλλον ἢ ἰατρὸν ἐμφαίνουσι 
τὸν ἄνδρα.---. 9 (Νομηηδηβοη). 

The actual glossary, however, refers to more works 
than these, as will appear from the following table. 



[Works known to the authors, not necessarily attributed 
by them to Hippocrates. ] 

pivere Name. Bacchius.| Celsus. | Erotian. 

] περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῇς Χ Xx 
περὶ ἀέρων ὑδάτων τόπων Χ x x 
Be προγνωστικόν.. x < x 
* περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων xX x x 
ἊΝ ἐπιδημίαι 1. 5 x x x 
3 ἐπιδημίαι 3 3 x< x x 
53 περὶ τῶν ἐν κεφαλῇ τραυ- 

μάτων Χ Χ Χ 
3 κατ᾽ intpetov . x x x 
5 περὶ ἀγμῶν : 2 x x 
4 περὶ apOp@y . ὦ Χ Χ Χ 
aA μοχλικόν x< x 
Se ἀφορισμοί x x x 
Aa ὕρκος . Η >< 
55 νόμος Χ 
5 ἐπιδημίαι ὃ. Ξ Χ x x 
᾿ ᾿ς 4. x 
τ amen mite ΤῊ: x x 
56 Ap Gee: Β Χ x 
is (ἢ Thine : x 
3 περὶ χυμῶν. Χ x x 
- προρρητικὸν 1. XK < 
5: Κωακαὶ προγνώσεις. Χ 
6 περὶ τέχνης - . Χ Χ Χ 
ap περὶ φύσιος ἀνθρώπου ὃς 
Ap περὶ διαίτης ὑγιεινῆς : x 
be περὶ φυσῶν. : 9 x x 
29 περὶ χρήσιος ὑγρῶν. : x x 
» περὶ νούσων 1 ὃ Χ x X 
50 περὶ παθῶν Χ 
Ἢ περὶ τόπων τῶν KAT 

ἄνθρωπον . ὦ x x 
= περὶ ἱερῆς νούσου . x x 
ne περὶ ἑλκῶν . Ξ Χ 
an περὶ αἱμορροΐδων . x 
33 περὶ συρίγγων 5 : x Xx 






περὶ διαίτης 1 : 8 
ΕΣ] — e 
7} Ὁ 
περὶ ἐνυπνίων. 
περὶ νούσων 2 . 

, ΄ 
περὶ νούσων 3. 5 
περὶ τῶν ἔντος παθῶν 
i¢ , 
περὶ γυναικείης φύσιος 

περὶ ἑπταμήνου 5 
περὶ ὀκταμήνου : 
περὶ γονῆς . ς : 
περὶ φύσιος παιδίου . 
περὶ νούσων 4 ᾿ Ε 

περὶ γυναικείων 1 and 2 
περὶ apdpwy 
περὶ παρθενίων . 
περὶ ἐπικυήσιος ς ‘ 
περὶ ἐγκατατομῆς ἐμβρύου 
περὶ ἀνατομῆ" 

δὺ 9. ah 
περὶ ὀδοντοφυΐης . 

περὶ ἀδένων. ὃ ᾿ 
περὶ σάρκων. - : 
περὶ ἑβδομάδων Ξ 
προρρητικὸν 2, . 

περὶ καρδίης. τ 
περὶ τροφῆς - . 
περὶ ὄψιος : A 
περὶ ὀστέων φύσιος. 
περὶ ἰητροῦ : 
περὶ εὐσχημοσύνης. 


περὶ κρισίων. . 
περὶ κρισίμων.. . 
ἐπιστολαί : . 
πρεσβευτικός . 
ἐπιβώμιος 5 : 

Bacchius, ᾿ 

Celsus. | Erotian. 

x X 




x xX 

X X 





Erotian knew also περὶ τραυμάτων καὶ βελῶν, now lost. — 
The double X X means “‘ by quotation, but not in the list.” 



N.B.—The list of Bacchius is made by noting 
where in the Hippocratic collection occur the 
strange words upon which he commented; that of 
Celsus by a comparison of similar passages; that 
of Erotian from his list, by noting where occur the 
γλῶσσαι explained by him, and from fragments in 
scholia (see E. Nachmanson’s edition, pp. 99 foll.). 
Of course the list of Celsus is dubious from its 
nature, and Bacchius may have known many more 
treatises than those we are sure he did know. 

The recently discovered history of medicine called 
Menon’s Jatrica! contains several references to 
Hippocrates. Diels is of opinion that they are very 

In § V. the writer says that according to Hippo- 
crates diseases are caused by “airs” (φῦσαι), a state- 
ment which seems to be taken from περὶ φυσών, VE 
98 foll. Littré, and the doctrine is described in §§ V. 
and VI. In §VII. Hippocrates is said to hold doctrines 
which are taken from Nature of Man, VI. 52 foll. 
Littré. In ὃ VIII. occur references to Places in Man, 
VI. 276, 294 Littré, and Glands, VIII. 564 Littré. 
In ὃ XIX. occur references to Nature of Man, VI. 38 
Littré, but the physician named is Polybus. 


Galen is the most important of the ancient com- 
mentators on Hippocrates, and of his work a great 
part has survived. 

1 Edited by H. Diels, Berlin, 1893. The work was probably 
written by a pupil of Aristotle. 

2 See Diels, p. xvi, note 1, and in Hermes XXVIII., pp. 
410 foll. 



His writings are of value for two reasons :— 

(1) They often give us a text superior to that of 
the MSS. of the Corpus. Sometimes this text is 
actually given in Galen’s quotations; sometimes it 
is implied in Galen’s commentary. 

(2) They sometimes throw light upon the inter- 
pretation of obscure passages. 

Galen’s ideal of a commentator is beyond criticism. 
He prefers ancient readings, even when they are 
the more difficult, and corrects only when these give 
no possible sense. In commenting he is of opinion 
that he should first determine the sense of the text 
and then see whether it corresponds with the 

Unfortunately he is not so successful when he 
attempts to put his ideal into practice. He is in- 
tolerably verbose, and what is worse, he is eager so 
to interpret Hippocrates as to gain support there- 
from for his own theories. A good example of this 
fault is his misinterpretation of Epidemics 111. xiv. 
Littré gives as another fault his neglect of observa- 
tion and observed fact. 

Galen wrote commentaries, which still survive, on 
the following :— 

Nature of Man. \ One book in ancient 
Regimen of People in Health. [ times. 
Regimen in Acute Diseases. 


Prorrhetic I. 


1 On the value of Galen for a reconstruction of the text 
see especially I. Ilberg in the Proleyomena to Kiihlewein’s 
edition Vol. I., pp. xxxiv—xlix and lviii-Ixii. 

2 See Littré I. 120, 121. or 191]: 


Epidemics I., 11. II., VI. 






Airs, Waters, Places (only fragments survive). 

We also have his G/ossary. 

Commentaries on the following are altogether 
lost :— 


Wounds in the Head. 


A ffections. 

He also wrote (or promised to write) the following, 
none of which survive:—Anatomy of Hippocrates, 
Characters in Epidemics {{1., Dialect of Hippocrates, 
The Genuine Writings of the Physician of Cos. 

Galen also knew: Coan Prenotions, Epilepsy, Fis- 
tulae, Hemorrhoids, Airs, Places in Man, Regimen, 
Seven Months’ Child, Eight Months’ Child, Heart, 
Fleshes, Number Seven, Prorrhetic II., Glands, and 
probably Precepts. 

The most important of the Hippocratic treatises 
not mentioned by Galen are Ancient Medicine and 
The Art. 

§ 6. Lire or Hippocrates. 

We possess three ancient biographies of Hippo- 
crates: one by Suidas, one by Tzetzes, and one by 
Soranus, a late writer of uncertain date. 

1 These are supposed by the latest criticism not to be 



From these we gather that Hippocrates was born 
in Cos in 460 8.6. ; 1 that he belonged to the guild of 
physicians called Asclepiadae; that his father was 
Heraclides, and his teachers were Herodicus and 
his own father; that he travelled all over Greece, 
and was a great friend of Democritus of Abdera; 
that his help was sought by Perdiccas king of Mace- 
donia and by Artaxerxes king of Persia; that he 
stayed the plague at Athens and in other places; 
that his life was a long one but of uncertain length, 
the traditions making him live 85, 90, 104 or 109 

In these accounts there is a certain amount of 
fable, but in the broad outline there is nothing 
improbable except the staying of the Athenian 
plague, which is directly contrary to the testimony 
of Thucydides, who expressly states that medical 
help was generally unsuccessful. 

The Epistles in the Hippocratic collection, and the 
so-called Decree of the Athenians, merely give, with 
fuller picturesqueness of detail, the same sort of 
information as is contained in the biographies. 

Plato refers to Hippocrates in two dialogues— 
the Protagoras? and the Phaedrus.2 The former 
passage tells us that Hippocrates was a Coan, an 
Asclepiad, and a professional trainer of medical 
students; the latter states as a fundamental principle 
of Hippocratic physiology the dogma that an under- 
standing of the body is impossible without an 
understanding of nature as a whole, in modern 

1 Aulus Gellius Δι 4. XVII. 21 says that he was older 
than Socrates. This statement, if true, would put his birth 
prior to 470 B.c. 

2 311 B,C. 8 270 C-E. 



language, physiology is inseparable from physics and 

From Aristotle! we learn that Hippocrates was 
already known as “ the Great Hippocrates.” 

Such is the ancient account of Hippocrates, a 
name without writings, as Wilamowitz says. There 
is no quotation from any treatise in the Corpus before 
Aristotle,? and he assigns as the author not Hippo- 
crates but Polybus. The Phaedrus passage, indeed, 
has been recognized by Littré as a reference to 
Ancient Medicine, but Galen is positive that it refers 
to Nature of Man. 

In fact the connexion between the great physician 
and the collection of writings which bears his name 
cannot with any confidence be carried further back 
than Ctesias the Cnidian,* Diocles of Carystus® and 
Menon,® the writer of the recently discovered Jatrica. 
Ctesias and Diocles belong to the earlier half of the 
fourth century, and Menon was a pupil of Aristotle. 

§ 7. THe AscLEPIADAE, 

Hippocrates was, according to Plato, an Asclepiad. 
This raises the very difficult question, who the 
Asclepiadae were. [05 difficulty is typical of several 

1 Politics, VII. 4 (1326 a). 

2 Who quotes from Nature of Man. 

3 See Littré VI. 58 and Aristotle Hist. Animal. 111. 3 
(512 b), and compare Galen XV. 11. 

4 Ctesias appears to have known the treatise Articulations, 
Littré 1. 70. 

> Diocles criticises Aphorisms 11. 33. See Dietz Scholia in 
Hippocratem et Galenum 11. 326, and Littré I. 321-323. 

6 Menon refers to Airs (περὶ φυσῶν), Nature of Man, Places 
in Man, and Glands, Hippocrates being expressly connected 
with the first two. 



Hippocratic problems. Certainty, even approximate 
certainty, is impossible owing to the scantiness of 
the evidence. 

The old view, discarded now by the most com- 
petent authorities, is that the Asclepiadae were the 
priests of the temples of Asclepius, combining the 
functions of priest and physician. This view implied 
that Hippocratic medicine had its origin in temple- 
practice. For a thorough refutation of it see 
Dr. E. T. Withington’s excursus in my Malaria and 
Greek History and his own book Medical History 
from the Earliest Times.” 

Another view is that the Asclepiadae were a guild, 
supposed to have been founded by Asclepius, the 
members of which were bound by rules and swore 
the Hippocratic “Oath.” Such is the view of 
Dr. Withington himself. It is one which is free from 
all intrinsic objections, but it is supported by the 
scantiest of positive evidence. 

It should be noticed that the term “ Asclepiadae”’ 
means literally “the family of Asclepius,”’ and it is 
at least possible that the Asclepiads were a clan of 
hereditary physicians who claimed to be descended 
from Asclepius. It would be very easy for such a 
family to develop into something like a guild by the 
admission, or rather adoption, of favoured outsiders. 
In this way the term might readily acquire the 
general meaning of medical practitioner, which it 
apparently has in 6. σ. Theognis 492 :— 

εἰ δ᾽ ᾿Ασκληπιάδαις τοῦτό γ᾽ ἔδωκε θεός, 
ἰᾶσθαι κακότητα καὶ ἀτηρὰς φρένας ἀνδρῶν, 
πολλοὺς ἂν μισθοὺς καὶ μεγάλους ἔφερον. 

pp. 137-156. > pp. 45, 46 and 378. 


I do not think that it has been noticed what an 
interesting parallel is afforded by the term “ Homer- 
idae.”” A family of poets tracing their descent from 
Homer finally could give their name to any public 
reciter of the Homeric poems.! 

§ 8. THe Docrrine or Humours. 

The doctrine of the humours probably had _ its 
origin? in superficial deductions from obvious facts of 
physiology, but it was strongly coloured by philo- 
sophie speculation, in particular by the doctrine of 
opposites. Indeed it is impossible to keep distinct 
the various influences which acted and reacted upon 
one another in the spheres of philosophy and 
medicine; only the main tendencies can be clearly 

Even the most superficial observer must notice 
(a) that the animal body requires air, fluid, and solid 
food; (6) that too great heat and cold are fatal to 
life, and that very many diseases are attended by 
fever; (c) that fluid is a necessary factor in digestion ;% 
(d) that blood is in a peculiar way connected with 
life and health. 

These simple observations were reinforced by the 
speculations of philosophers, particularly when philo- 
sophy took a biological or physiological turn, and 

1 See e.g. Pindar, Nemeans II. 1. 

2 It is supposed by some that the humoral pathology 
originated in Egypt. See Sir Clifford Allbutt, Greek Medicine 
in Rome, p. 133. 

3 See Nutriment LV.: ὑγρασίη τροφῆς ὄχημα. See also 
Diseases IV., Littré VII. 568: τὸ σῶμα .. . ἀπὸ τῶν βρωτῶν 
καὶ τῶν ποτῶν τῆς ἰκμάδος ἐπαυρίσκεται, 



became interested in the organs of man and their 

The second of the Greek philosophers, Anaxi- 
mander,” taught that creation was made up of 
“opposites,” though it is not clear how many he 
conceived these opposites to be. Many later 
thinkers, working on lines similar to those of 
Anaximander, made them four in number—the hot, 
the cold, the moist and the dry. These were the 
essential qualities of the four elements, fire, air, 
water, earth. 

There was, however, no uniformity among thinkers 
as to the number of the opposites, and Alemaeon, a 
younger contemporary of Pythagoras and a native of 
Croton, postulated an indefinite number. Alemaeon 
was a physician rather than a philosopher, and 
asserted that health was an ἰσονομία of these opposites 
and disease a μοναρχία of one.4 This doctrine had a 

1 Empedocles, Philistion and Pausanias were the chief 
pioneers in this union of philosophy with medicine which the 
writer of Ancient Medicine so much deplores. See Burnet, 
Early Greek Philosophy, pp. 234, 235 (also Galen X. 5, of ἐκ 
τῆς Ἰταλίας ἰατροὶ Φιλιστίων τε καὶ EumedoxAjjs καὶ Παυσανίας καὶ 
οἱ τούτων ἑταῖροι.) 

2 He was also interested in biology. See Burnet, pp. 72, 

3 Aristotle Meta. A 986a 31: φησὶ γὰρ εἶναι δύο τὰ πολλὰ 
τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων, λέγων τὰς ἐναντιότητας οὐχ ὥσπερ οὗτοι 56. of 
Πυθαγόρειοι] διωρισμένας ἀλλὰ τὰς τυχούσας, οἷον λευκὸν μέλαν, 
γλυκύ πικρόν, ἀγαθὸν κακόν, μέγα μικρόν. 

4 Aétius V. 80. 1, and Galen (Kiihn) XIX. 343: ᾿Αλκμαίων 
τῆς μὲν ὑγείας εἶναι συνεκτικὴν ἰσονομίαν τῶν δυνάμεων ὑγροῦ, 
θερμοῦ, ξηροῦ, ψυχροῦ, πικροῦ, γλυκέος καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν, τὴν δὲ ἐν 
αὐτοῖς μοναρχίαν νόσου ποιητικήν. See also 344: τὴν δὲ ὑγείαν 
σύμμετρον τῶν ποιῶν τὴν κρᾶσιν. It would be interesting if the 
technical word κρᾶσις could be traced back to Alemaeon 



strong influence upon the Coan school of medicine, 
and indeed upon medical theory generally. 

But the opposites are not χυμοί: they are only 
δυνάμεις. The humoral pathology was not fully 
developed until for δυνάμεις were substituted 
fluid substances.! In tracing this development the 
historian is much helped by Ancient Medicine. ΤῈ is 
here insisted that the hot, the cold, the moist and 
the dry are not substances; they are only ‘‘ powers,” 
and, what is more, powers of merely secondary 
importance.?_ The body, it is maintained, has certain 
essential χυμοί, which χυμοί have properties or 
“powers” with greater influence upon health than 
temperature. The number of the χυμοί is left 
indefinite. If the body be composed of opposite 
humours, and if health be the harmonious mixture 
or blending (κρᾶσις) of them, we shall expect to see 
one or other “lording it over the others” (μοναρχία) 
in a state of disease. . 

The two commonest complaints in ancient Greece, 
chest troubles and malaria, suggested as chief of 
these humours four: phlegm, blood (suggested by 
hemorrhage in fevers), yellow bile and black bile 
(suggested by the vomits, etc., in remittent malaria), 

That the humours are four is first clearly stated in 
Nature of Man, which Aristotle assigns to Polybus, 
though Menon quotes a portion of it as Hippocratic. . 
The passage in question runs: τὸ δὲ σῶμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 

1 It is a pity that the treatise Humours tells us so little 
about the humours themselves. It is merely a series of notes 
for lectures, heads of discowrse to medical students. 

2 See especially Chapters XIV-XVII, in particular 
XVIL: GAA ἔστι καὶ πικρὺν καὶ θερμὸν τὸ αὐτό, καὶ ὀξὺ καὶ θερμόν, 
καὶ ἁλμυρὸν καὶ θερμόν . .. τὰ μὲν οὖν λυμαινόμενα ταῦτ᾽ ἐστί. 

xl viii 


ἔχει ἐν ἑωυτῷ αἷμα καὶ φλέγμα καὶ χολὴν ξανθήν τε καὶ 
μέλαιναν, καὶ ταῦτα ἐστὶν αὐτῷ ἡ φύσις ΝΟΣ ὑγιαίνει μὲν 
οὖν μάλιστα ὁκόταν μετρίως ἔχῃ ταῦτα τῆς πρὸς ἄλληλα 
κρήσιος καὶ δυνάμιος καὶ τοῦ πλήθεος, καὶ μάλιστα μεμιγς- 
μένα ἢ κιτιλ. (Littré VI. 38 and 40). 

Some thinkers, belonging to the school of Empe- 
docles, and being more inclined towards philosophy 
than towards medicine, made the four chief oppo- 
sites, materialized into fire, air, water and earth, 
the components of the body, and disease, or at 
any rate some of the chief diseases, an excess of one 
or other. We see this doctrine fairly plainly in 
Menon’s account of Philistion,! and it is copied by 
Plato in the Timaeus.? 

The doctrines I have described admitted many 
variations, and in Menon’s Jairica, which is chiefly 
an account of the origins of disease as given by 
various physicians, the most diverse views are set 
forth, Petron of Aegina, while holding that the 
body is composed of the four opposites, stated that 
disease was due to faulty diet, and that bile was 
the result and not the cause of disease. Hippon 
thought that a suitable quantity of moisture was the 
cause of health; 4 Philolaus that disease was due to 
bile, blood and phlegm ;° Thrasymachus of Sardis 
that blood, differentiated by excess of cold or heat 
into phlegm, bile, or τὸ σεσηπός (matter or pus), was 

1 Jatrica XX.: φιλιστίων δ᾽ οἴεται ἐκ 5 ἰδεῶν συνεστάναι ἡμᾶς, 
τοῦτ᾽ ἔστιν ἐκ 5 στοιχείων: πυρός, ἀέρος, ὕδατος, γῆς. εἶναι δὲ 
καὶ ἑκάστου δυνάμεις, τοῦ μὲν πυρὺς τὸ θερμόν, τοῦ δὲ ἀέρος τὸ 
ψυχρόν K.T.A. 

2.80 A: τὸ μὲν οὖν ἐκ πυρὸς ὑπερβολῆς μάλιστα νοσῆσαν σῶμα 
ξυνεχῆ καύματα καὶ πυρετοὺς ἀπεργάζεται, τὸ δ᾽ ἐξ ἀέρος 
ἀμφημερινούς K.T.A. 

δὲ Tatrica, XX. 4 ibid., XI. δ᾽ Toid.; X VAIL. 



the cause ; 1 Menecrates that the body is composed 
of blood, bile, breath and phlegm, and that health is 
a harmony of these.? 

The Hippocratic collection shows similar diver- 
sity of opinion. Diseases IV. 51, gives as the 
four humours bile, blood, phlegm and ὕδρωψ (not 
water, but a watery humour).?  Affections I. ascribes 
all diseases to bile and phlegm.* Ancient Medicine 
recognizes an indefinite number of humours. 

The great Hippocratic group imply the doctrine 
of humours in its phraseology and outlook on 
symptoms, but it is in the background, and nowhere 
are the humours described. It is clear, however, 
that bile and phlegm are the most prominent, and 
bilious and phlegmatic temperaments are often 
mentioned in dirs Waters Places and Epidemics 1. 
and ///. There are signs of subdivision in πικρό- 
χοόλοι ὃ and λευκοφλεγματίαι." 

Amid all these differences, which by their very 
variety indicate that they belonged to theory with- 
out seriously affecting practice, there is one common 
principle—that health is a harmonious mingling of 
the constituents of the body. What these constitu- 
ents are is not agreed, nor is it clear what exactly 
is meant by “ mingling.” 

The word ἄκρητος, which I have translated “un- 
mixed” or “uncompounded,” is said by Galen to 
mean “consisting of one humour only.” It is more 

1 Tatrica, XI. (end). 

2 Tbid., XIX. 

3 Littré VII. 584. 

4 Tbid., VI. 208. 

5 Regimen in Acute Diseases, XXXIII.: of πικρόχολοι τὰ 

ἄνω: Epidemics 111. xtv. (end). 
§ Epidemics 111. χιν. 



likely that the word means properly “ showing signs 
that crasis has not taken place.” 


The course of our inquiry has brought us to the 
doctrine of “coction” (πέψις). Familiar as ἃ 
modern is with the difference between chemical 
blending and mechanical mixture, it is difficult for 
him to appreciate fairly theories put forward when 
this difference was unknown, and the human mind 
was struggling with phenomena it had not the 
power to analyse, and trying to express what was 
really beyond its reach. We must try to see things 
as the Greek physician saw them. 

We have in Chapters XVIII and XIX of Ancient 
Medicine the most complete account of coction as 
the ancient physician conceived of it. It is really 
the process which leads to κρᾶσις as its result. It 
is neither purely mechanical nor yet what we should 
call chemical ; it is the action which so combines 
the opposing humours that there results a perfect 
fusion of them all. No one is left in excess so as _ to 
cause trouble or pain to the human individual. The 
writer takes three types of illnesses—the common 
cold, ophthalmia and pneumonia—and shows that 
as they grow better the discharges become less acrid 
and thicker as the result of πέψις. 

In one respect the writer of Ancient Medicine is 
not a trustworthy guide to the common conception 
of πέψις. He attached but little importance to heat, 
and it can scarcely be doubted that the action of 
heat upon the digestibility of foods, and the heat 
which accompanies the process of digestion itself, 



must have coloured the notion of πέψις as generally 
held. It is true that we read little about innate 
heat in the Hippocratic collection, but that is an 
accident, and it certainly was thought to have a 
powerful influence upon the bodily functions.+ 

A disease was supposed to result when the equili- 
brium of the humours, from some “ exciting cause” 
or other (πρόφασις), was disturbed, and then nature, 
that is the constitution of the individual. (φύσις), 
made every effort she could through coction to 
restore the necessary κρᾶσις. 


The battle between nature and the disease was 
decided on the day that coction actually took place 
or failed to take place. The result was recovery, 
partial or complete, aggravation of the disease, or 
death. The crisis (κρίσις) is “the determination of 
the disease as it were by a judicial verdict.” ? 

After a crisis there might, or might not, be a 
relapse (ὑποστροφή), which would be followed in due 
course by another crisis. 

The crisis, if favourable, was accompanied by the 
expulsion of the residue remaining after coction 
and κρᾶσις of the humours had occurred. ‘This expul- 

1 See Aphvrisms, ὃ 1. 14: τὰ αὐξανόμενα πλεῖστον ἔχει τὸ 
ἔμφυτον θερμόν: πλείστης οὖν δεῖται τροφῆς" εἰ δὲ μή, τὸ σῶμα 
ἀναλίσκεται κ.τ.λ. 

2. See Dr. E. T. Withington, Classical Review, May-June 
1920, p. 65. There is a good definition of κρίσις in A ffec- 
tions VIII. (Littré VI. 216): κρίνεσθαι δέ ἐστιν ἐν ταῖς νούσοις, 
ὅταν αὔξωνται αἱ νοῦσοι ἢ μαραίνωνται ἢ μεταπίπτωσιν ἐς ἕτερον 
νόσημα ἢ τελεντῶσιν. 



sion might take place through any of the ordinary 
means of evacuation—mouth, bowels, urine, pores— 
and the evacuated matters were said to be concocted 
(πέπονα), that is to say, they presented signs that 
coction had taken place. 

But nature was not always able to use the 
ordinary means of evacuation. In this case there 
would be an abscession (ἀπόστασις). When the 
morbid residue failed to be normally evacuated, it 
was gathered together to one part of the body and 
eliminated, sometimes as an eruption or inflamma- 
tion, sometimes as a gangrene or tumour, sometimes 
as a swelling at the joints. 

An abscession did not necessarily mean recovery ; 
it might merely be a change from one disease to 
another. The Hippocratic writers are not clear 
about the point, but apparently the abscession might 
fail to accomplish its purpose, and so the disease 
continued in an altered form.? In other words there 
was abscession without real crisis. 

To trace the course of a disease through its various 
stages, and to be able to see what is portended by 
symptoms in different diseases and at different stages 
of those diseases, was an art upon which Hippocrates 
laid great stress. He called it πρόγνωσις, and it 
included at least half of the physician’s work. 

1 The chief signs οὗ soction were greater consistency, 
darker.colour,.and ‘ripeness ” or ‘‘ mellowness.’ 

2 The most important era are: 

(a) οὐδὲ yap αἱ γιγνόμεναι τούτοις ἀποστάσιες ἔκρινον ὥσπερ 
ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις (Epidemics 11: Ἐτε:): 

(b) ἀποστάσιες ἐγένοντο, ἢ μέζους ὥστε ὑποφέρειν μὴ δύνασθαι, 
ἢ μείους ὥστε μηδὲν ὠφελεῖν ἀλλὰ ταχὺ παλινδρομεῖν K.T.A. 

(Epidemics I. ντπ..). 


Critical Days 

Crises took place on what were called critical days. 
It is a commonplace that a disease tends to reach a 
crisis on a fixed day from the commencement, 
although the day is not absolutely fixed, nor is it 
the same for all diseases. The writer of Prognostic 
and Epidemics I. lays it down as a general law that 
acute diseases have crises on one or more fixed days 
in a series. 

In Prognostic Chapter XX the series for fevers is 
given thus :—4th day, 7th, llth, 14th, 17th, 20th, 
34th, 40th, 60th. 

In Epidemics I. xxvi. two series are given :— 

(a) diseases which have exacerbations on even 
days have crises on these even days: 4th, 6th, 8th, 
10th, 14th, 20th, 24th, 30th, 40th, 60th, 80th, 

(6) diseases which have exacerbations on odd days 
have crises on these odd days: 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th, 
Lith, 17th, 21st, 27th, 31st. 

A crisis on any other than a normal day was 
supposed to indicate a probably fatal relapse. 

Galen thought that Hippocrates was the first to 
discuss the critical days, and there is no evidence 
against this view, though it seems more likely that 
it gradually grew up in the Coan school.! 

What was the origin of this doctrine? Possibly 
it may in part be a survival of Pythagorean magic, 
numbers being supposed to have mystical powers, 
which affected medicine through the Sicilian-Italian 

1 On the other hand, critical days are not discussed at all 
in Coan Prenotions, the supposed repository of pre-Hippocratic 
Coan medicine. 



school. But a man so free from superstition as the 
author of Epidemics [. was unlikely to be influenced 
by mysticism, particularly by a mysticism which left 
his contemporaries apparently untouched. More 
probably there is an effort to express a medical 
truth. In malarious countries, all diseases, and not 
malaria only, tend to grow more severe periodically ; 
latent malaria, in fact, colours all other complaints. 
May it not be that severe exacerbations and normal 
crises were sometimes confused by Hippocrates, or 
perhaps a series of malarial exacerbations attracted 
the crisis to one of the days composing it? The 
sentence in Epidemics I. xxvi. is very definitely to 
the effect that when exacerbations are on even days, 
crises are on even days; when exacerbations are 
on odd days, crises are on odd days. Evidently 
the critical days are not entirely independent of 
the periodicity of malaria. 

§ 9. Curer Diseases MENTIONED IN THE HippocraTICc 

Diseases were classified by ancient physicians 
according to their symptoms; they are now classified 
according to the micro-organisms which cause them. 
Accordingly it often happens that no exact equivalent 
in Greek corresponds to an English medical term 
and vice versa. The name of a Greek disease 
denotes merely a syndrome of symptoms. 

Perhaps the most remarkable point arising in a 
discussion of Greek diseases is the apparent absence 
of most infectious fevers. Plagues, vaguely referred 
to by the term λοιμός, occurred at intervals, but the 

1 For the common Greek conception of λοιμός see pseudo- 

Aristotle Problems I. 7. 


medical writings in the Hippocratic collection are 
occupied almost entirely with endemic disease and 
do not describe plagues, not even the great plague 
at Athens. There is no mention of smallpox or 
measles; no certain reference occurs to diphtheria, 
scarlet fever, bubonic plague or syphilis. It is 
extremely doubtful whether typhoid was present in 
Greece, for although it is similar to severe cases of 
καῦσος and φρενῖτις, the latter were certainly in most 
cases pernicious malaria, which is often so like 
typhoid that only the microscope can distinguish 
them. It is expressly stated by pseudo-Aristotle ! 
that fevers were not infectious, and it is difficult to 
reconcile this statement with the prevalence of 
typhoid. The question must be left open, as the 
evidence is not clear enough to warrant a confident 

Colds, “ with and without fever,’ * were common 
enough in ancient times, but whether influenza 
prevailed cannot be stated for certain. Its all too 
frequent result, pneumonia, was indeed well known, 
but it is puzzling that in the description of epidemic 
cough at Perinthus,? the nearest approach to an 
influenza wave in the Hippocratic collection, it is 
expressly stated that relapses into pneumonia were 

Consumption (φθίσις) is one of the diseases most 
frequently mentioned in the Corpus, and it is re- 
markable that in the very passage where we are told 

1 Problems, VII. 8. 

* See Stéphanos, La Gréce, p 502. 

2 See Epidemics IV., Littré V., p. 149. 
* Epidemics VI., Littré, pp. 331-337. 
> Loc. ctt., p. 8.59. 


that fevers are not infectious it is also stated that 
consumption is so, ‘To consumption are added 
* ophthalmias,” which term will therefore include 
all contagious inflammations of the eyes.! 

The greatest plague of the Greek and of the 
ancient world generally was malaria, both mild and 
malignant, both intermittent and remittent. 

The intermittents (διαλείποντες πυρετοί) are :— 

ἀμφημερινὸς πυρετός (quotidians) 
τριταῖος πυρετός (tertians) 
τεταρταῖος πυρετός (quartans) ? 

The remittents (often συνεχεῖς πυρετοῖί) included :— 

καῦσος, so called because of the intense heat felt 
by the patient, a remittent tertian often mentioned 
in the Corpus. 

φρενῖτις, characterized by pain in the hypo- 
chondria and by delirium. It generally had a 
tertian periodicity. 

λήθαργος, characterized by irresistible coma. It 
bore a strong likeness to what is now known as the 
comatose form of pernicious malaria. 

ἡμιτριταῖος, semitertian, was pernicious remittent 
malaria with tertian periodicity.® 

τῦφος or tidos, of which five different kinds are 
mentioned in the Cnidian treatise περὶ τῶν ἐντὸς παθῶν 

1 Pseudo-Aristotle Problems VII. 8: διὰ τί ἀπὸ φθίσεως καὶ 
ὀφθαλμίας καὶ Papas of πλησιάζοντες ἁλίσκονται: ἀπὸ δὲ ὕδρωπος 
καὶ πυρετῶν καὶ ἀποπληξίας οὐχ ἁλίσκονται, οὐδὲ τῶν ἄλλων ; 

2 See e.g. Epidemics I. Χχιν., where quintans, septans 
and nonans also are mentioned. In the fourth century the 
existence of these fevers was denied. 

3 | have discussed these diseases more fully in my Malaria 
and Greek History, pp. 63-68. 



(Littré VII. 260 foll.), was in at least two cases a 
species of remittent malaria. 

In connexion with the question of malaria it should 
be noticed that malarial cachexia, the symptoms of 
which are anaemia, weakness, dark complexion and 
enlarged spleen, is often described in the Hippocratic 
collection. Especially vivid is the description in 
Airs Waters Places. This is further evidence of 
the malarious condition of the ancient Greek world. 


This word is closely connected both with the 
doctrine of the humours and with the prevalence 
of malaria. It is fully discussed in Malaria and 
Greek History, pp. 98-101. Generally it means our 
* melancholia,” but sometimes merely “ biliousness.” 
In popular speech μελαγχολία and its cognates some- 
times approximate in meaning to “nervous break- 
down.” Probably the name was given to any 
condition resembling the prostration, physical and 
mental, produced by malaria, one form of which 
(the quartan) was supposed to be caused by “ black 
bile”’ (μέλαινα χολή). 

> 72 

See Foes’ Oeconomia, p. 148, where quotations are 
given which enable us to distinguish ἐρυσίπελας from 
φλεγμονή. Both exhibit swelling (ὄγκος) and heat 
(θερμασία), but whereas ἐρυσίπελας is superficial and 
yellowish, φλεγμονή is internal also and red. 

διάρροια and δυσεντερία 

The former is local, and causes merely the passing 
of unhealthy excreta. The latter is accompanied by 



fever, and is a dangerous disease, in which the bowel 
is ulcerated, with the passing of blood. See περὶ 
παθῶν 23 and 25 (Littré VI. 234, 235), and more 
especially περὶ διαίτης 74 (Littré IV. 616) :— 

τοῦτο γὰρ (διάρροια) ὀνομάζεται ἕως ἂν αὐτὴ μόνη 
σαπεῖσα ἣ τροφὴ ὑποχωρῇ. ὁκόταν δὲ θερμαινομένου τοῦ 
σώματος κάθαρσις δριμέα γένηται, τό τε ἔντερον ἕύεται 
καὶ ἑλκοῦται καὶ διαχωρεῖται αἱματώδεα, τοῦτο δὲ δυ- 
σεντερίη καλεῖται, νόσος χαλεπὴ καὶ ἐπικίνδυνος. 

“Dysentery”’ would include what is now called 
by this name and any severe intestinal trouble, 
perhaps typhoid and paratyphoid if these were 
diseases of the Greek world, while “ diarrhoea”’ 
means merely undue laxity of the bowels. 


The Hippocratic collection is rich in words 
meaning delirium of various kinds. It is probable, 
if not certain, that each of them had its own 
associations and its own shade of meaning, but 
these are now to a great extent lost. Only the 
broad outlines of the differences between them can 
be discerned by the modern reader. ‘The words fall 
into two main classes :— 

(1) Those in which the mental derangement of 
delirium is the dominant idea; e.g. παραφέρομαι, 
παραφρονῶ (the word common in Prognostic), παρανοῶ, 
mapaxoovw (the most common word in Epidemics J. 
and 711.), παρακοπή, ἐκμαίνομαι, μανία. 

(2) Those in which stress is laid upon delirious 
talk ; e. g. λῆρος, παράληρος, παραληρῶ, παραλέγω, λόγοι 



It is more difficult to say exactly which words in 
each class signify the greater degree of delirium. 
Of class (1) ἐκμαίνομαι is obviously the most vigorous 
word, meaning “ wild raving,” μανία comes next to 
it, and παρακοπή is apparently slightly stronger than 
the others. Of class (2) λῆρος or παράληρος seems to 
be the strongest, then zapadéyw, and finally λόγοι 


There are two common words for pain in the 
Corpus, πόνος and ὀδύνη. They seem practically 
synonymous. Perhaps πόνος is more commonly used 
of violent pains, and ὀδύνη of dull, gnawing pains, 
but I think that no reader would care to pronounce 
a confident opinion on the matter. 


There are two words commonly used to describe 
the chilly feeling experienced in fevers, especially in 
malarial fevers. These are (a) ῥῖγος and its deriv- 
atives, and (6) φρίκη and its derivatives. The former 
lays stress upon the chilly feeling, the latter upon 
the shivering accompanying it. But in this case also 
it is possible to discriminate too finely; see e.g. in 
Epidemics 111. Case 11. (second series), φρικώδης is 
followed by μετὰ τὸ γενόμενον ῥῖγος, referring ap- 
parently to the same occasion. 

The reader should note the extreme care with 
which symptoms are described in the Hippocratic 
group of treatises. It has been pointed out, for 
instance, that in Epidemics I. Case 1., and Epidemics 
III. Case xv. (second series), there are possibly 



instances of Cheyne-Stokes breathing. Noticed by 
the writer of these works, this important sy mptom 
was overlooked until the eighteenth century. 

§ 10. πολύς AND ὀλίγος IN THE PLURAL. 

It is at least curious that one of the translator's 
greatest difficulties is to decide what are the 
meanings of πολύς and ὀλίγος (also of σμικρά) when 
used in the plural. The reader is at first sight 
inclined to think that ῥεύματα πολλά (Epidemics 111]. 
tv.) means “many fluxes,” and so possibly it may. 
But just above we have ῥεῦμα πολύ, ‘a copious flux,” 
and so the plural may well mean “ copious fluxes.” 
The ambiguity becomes more serious when the 
words are applied to the excreta. Is frequency or 
quantity the more dominant idea? It seems im- 
possible to say for certain, but the evidence tends 
towards the latter view. From Prognostic Chapter XI 
it seems that quantity is the more important thing, 
and in the same passage πυκνόν is the word used 
to denote frequency. The usage in Epidemics I, and 
111. bears out this view. “ Frequently shivering” is 
φρικώδεες πυκνά (pid. III. xi.). In the same chapter 
occurs the sentence, ai δὲ βῆχες ἐνῆσαν μὲν διὰ τέλεος 
πολλαί, καὶ πολλὰ ἀνάγουσαι πέπονα, where πολλαί 
means “many’’ and πολλά “copious.” In Epid. ILL. 
Case 11. (second series) βῆχες συνεχέες typai πολλαί 
means “continued coughing with watery and copious 
sputa.”” In Case 1x. of the same series “ frequent, 
slight epistaxis” is ἡμορράγει . . . . πυκνὰ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον. 
After long consideration of this difficult question 1 
conelude that πολύς and ὀλίγος in the plural, when 



used of excreta, etc., should be translated “ copious ”’ 
or “abundant” unless the context makes the other 
meaning absolutely necessary. 

The case is somewhat similar with the word σμικρά. 
Used adverbially this word means “slightly,” “a 
little,’ more often than it does “ in small quantities.” 
σμικρὰ κατενόει is almost certainly “lucid intervals,” 
and σμικρὰ ἐκοιμήθη is “snatches of sleep,” but I do 
not feel sure that σμικρὰ παρέκρουσε Means more 
than “slight delirium,’ nor σμικρὰ ἐπύρεξε (Epid. 
III. xm.) more than “ slightly feverish.” 

§ 11. THe Ionic Diatecr or THE Hippocratic 

The later MSS. of the Corpus exhibit a mass of 
pseudo-ionic forms which are not to be found, or are 
only rarely found, in the earlier MSS. The uncon- 
tracted forms, too, are more common in the later 
authorities. If we follow closely the earlier MSS. 
we have a text which is very like Attic, with a mild 
sprinkling of Ionic forms. These facts seem to show 
that, when Ionic became the medium of scientific 
prose, it lost touch gradually with the spoken speech 
and assimilated itself to the predominant Attic, 
and later on possibly to the κοινή. It retained 
just enough Ionic to keep up the tradition and to 
conform to convention. The later scribes, under the 
mistaken impression that the texts before them had 
been atticized, restored what they considered to be 
the ancient forms, often with disastrous results. 
Many of their ionisms are sheer monstrosities. 

In 1804 A. W. Smyth discussed the dialect of the 
Corpus in his work The Sounds and Inflections of the 



Greek Dialects: Jonic.1 He pointed out, however, 
that the labours of Littré 2 had left much to be 
done in this department of Hippocratic study, and 
that the material for a sound judgment was not 
yet available. 

The collection of this material is not yet com- 
plete, but a good start was made by Kiihlewein, 
who in Chapter III of the Prolegomena to the first 
volume of the Teubner Hippocrates (de dzalecto 
Hippocratica)* laid down the principles followed in 
the present edition. 

§ 12. Manuscripts. 

None of our MSS. are very old, but the oldest 
are far superior to the later, both in readings and 
in dialect. There is no regular canon, and no 
recognized order ; each independent MS. seems to 
represent a different “collection” of Hippocratic 
works. This fact fits in well with the theory that 
the nucleus of the Corpus was the library (or the 
remains of it) of the Hippocratic medical school 
at Cos. 

6 Vindobonensis med. IV., tenth century. Our 
oldest MS. ” containing : περὶ τῶν ἔντος παθῶν. περὶ 
παθῶν. περὶ ἱερῆς νούσου. περὶ νούσων α. περὶ νούσων 
Ὗ περὶ νούσων β. περὶ διαίτης ἃ. περὶ διαίτης β. 
περὶ διαίτης Ὑ (with περὶ ἐνυπνίων). περὶ γυναικείων 
ἃ. περὶ γυναικείων β. περὶ γυναικείης φύσιος. Of 
some books parts are missing. 

A Parisinus 2253, eleventh century. It contains: 

1 See §§ 94-103, pp. 100-110. 
2 See Vol. I., 479-502. 
3 pp. Ixv-exxviil. 


Kwaxat προγνώσεις. περὶ τροφῆς. περὶ πτισάνης. περὶ 
χυμῶν. περὶ ὑγρῶν χρήσιος. ἐπιβώμιος. περὶ τέχνης. 
περὶ φύσιος ἀνθρώπου. περὶ φυσῶν. περὶ τόπων τῶν 
κατὰ ἄνθρωπον. περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῆς. ἐπιδημιῶν G. 
An excellent MS., the use of which has transformed 
our Hippocratic text. There are four or five cor- 
recting hands. 

B Laurentianus 74,7, eleventh or twelfth century. 
It contains : κατ᾽ intpetov. περὶ ἀγμῶν. περὶ ἄρθρων. 
περὶ τῶν ἐν κεφαλῇ τρωμάτων. Two correcting hands. 

V Vaticanus graecus 276, twelfth century. It 
contains: ὅρκος. νόμος. ἀφορισμοί. προγνωστικόν. 
περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων. κατ᾽ ἰητρεῖον. περὶ ἀγμῶν. περὶ 
ἄρθρων. περὶ τῶν ἐν κεφαλῇ τρωμάτων. περὶ ἀέρων. 
ὑδάτων, τόπων. ἐπιδημιῶν αβγδεξζ. περὶ φύσεως ἀνθρώ- 
που. περὶ φύσεως παιδίου. περὶ γονῆς. περὶ ἐπικυή- 
σεως. περὶ ἑπταμήνου. περὶ ὀκταμήνου. περὶ παρθένων. 
περὶ γυναικείης φύσιος. περὶ ὀδοντοφυΐας. περὶ τόπων 
τῶν κατὰ ἄνθρωπον. γυναικείων αβ. περὶ ἀφόρων. περὶ 
ἐπικυήσιος (again). περὶ ἐγκατατομῆς παιδίου. περὶ 
ἰητροῦ. περὶ κρίσεων. περὶ Kpadins. περὶ σαρκῶν. 
περὶ ἀδένων οὐλομελίης. περὶ ἀνατομῆς. ἐπιστολαί. 
δόγμα ᾿Αθηναίων. ἐπιβώμιος. πρεσβευτικός. 

M Marcianus Venetus 269, eleventh century. It 
contains: ὅρκος. νόμος. περὶ τέχνης. περὶ ἀρχαίης 
ἰητρικῆς. παραγγελίαι. περὶ εὐσχημοσύνης. περὶ 
φύσεως ἀνθρώπου. περὶ γονῆς. περὶ φύσεως παιδίου. 
περὶ ἄρθρων. περὶ χυμῶν. περὶ τροφῆς. περὶ ἑλκῶν. 
περὶ ἱερῆς νούσου. περὶ νούσων ἃ. περὶ νούσων β. 
περὶ νούσων γ. περὶ νούσων 6. περὶ παθῶν. περὶ τῶν 
ἐντὸς παθῶν. περὶ διαίτης ἃ. περὶ διαίτης B. περὶ 
διαίτης γ. περὶ ἐνυπνίων. περὶ ὄψιος. περὶ κρισίμων. 
ἀφορισμοί. προγνωστικόν. περὶ διαίτης ὀξέων. περὶ 
φυσῶν. μοχλικόν. περὶ ὀστέων φύσιος. περὶ ἀγμῶν. 


κατ᾽ intpetov. περὶ ἐγκατατομῆς ἐμβρύου. περὶ γυναι- 
κείων ἃ. περὶ γυναικείων β. περὶ ἀφόρων. περὶ ἐπι- 
κυήσιος. περὶ ἑπταμήνου. περὶ ὀκταμήνου. περὶ 
παρθενίων. περὶ γυναικείης φύσεως. Part of ἐπιδημίων εξ. 
ἐπιδημιῶν 5. ἐπιδημιῶν Fg ἐπιστολαί. ὁ περὶ μανίης 
λόγος. δόγμα ᾿Αθηναίων. πρεσβευτικός (mutilated). 

C’ Paris 446 suppl. Tenth century. 

D Paris 2254 

E Paris 2255+. Fourteenth century. 

F Paris 2144 

H Paris 2142. Thirteenth century. 

I Paris rel 

4 pene Sige Ὁ Fourteenth century. 

S’ Paris 2276 

R’ Paris 2165, Sixteenth century. 

ἹΒ Barberinus I. 5. Fifteenth century. 

δ 13. Cuter Epirions anp TraANsLATIONs, ETC., OF 
THE Hippocratic Corpus. 

1525 Hippocratis Coi medicorum longe principis 
octoginta volumina, quibus maxima ex parte an- 
norum circiter duo millia latina caruit lingua, Graeci 
vero, Arabes et prisci nostri medici, plurimis tamen 
utilibus praetermissis, scripta sua illustrarunt, nunc 
tandem per M. Fabium Calvum, Rhavennatem, 
virum undecumque doctissimum, latinitate donata, 
Clementi VII pont. max. dicata, ac nune primum 
in lucem edita, quo nihil humano generi salubrius 
fieri potuit. 

Romae ex aedibus Francisci Minitii Calvi Novo- 
comensis. 1 vol. fol. 

1526 Ἅπαντα τὰ τοῦ Ἱπποκράτους. Omnia opera 



Hippocratis. Venetiis in aedibus Aldi et Andreae 
Ansulani soceri. Fol. 

1538 Ἱπποκράτους Kwov ἰατροῦ παλαιοτάτου πάντων 
ἄλλων κορυφαίου βιβλία ἅπαντα. Hippocratis Coi 
medici vetustissimi, et omnium aliorum principis, 
libri omnes ad vetustos codices summo studio collati 
et restaurati. Froben, Basileae. Fol. 

This edition was edited by Janus Cornarius. 

1545 Hippocratis (Οἱ medicorum omnium facile 
principis opera quae extant omnia. Jano Cornario 
medico physico interprete. Venet. Oct. Apud I. 

1588 Hippocratis Coi opera quae extant, graece 
et latine veterum codicum collatione restituta, novo 
ordine in quatuor classes digesta, interpretationis 
latinae emendatione et scholiis illustrata ab Hieron. 
Mercuriali Foroliviensi, Venetiis industria ac sump- 
tibus Juntarum. Fol. 

1588 Oeconomia Hippocratis alphabeti serie dis- 
tincta, Anutio Foesio authore. Francofurti. Fol. 

1595 Tod μεγάλου Ἱπποκράτους πάντων τῶν ἰατρῶν 
κορυφαίου τὰ εὑρισκόμενα. 

Magni Hippocratis medicorum omnium facile prin- 
cipis opera omnia quae extant in VIII sectiones ex 
Krotiani mente distributa, nune recens latina inter- 
pretatione et annotationibus illustrata, Anutio Foesio 
Mediomatrico medico authore. Francofurti apud 
Andreae Wecheli haeredes. Fol. 

Reprinted 1621, 1624, 1645 and at Geneva 1657. 

1665 Magni Hippocratis Coi opera omnia graece 
et latine edita et ad omnes alias editiones accom- 
modata industria et diligentia Joan. Antonidae van 
der Linden. Lugduno-Batav. 1665. 2 vol. octavo. 

1679 Hippocratis Coi et Claudii Galeni Pergameni 



ἀρχιατρῶν opera. Renatus Charterius Vindocinensis, 
plurima interpretatus, universa emendavit, instaur- 
avit, notavit, auxit . . . Lutetiae Parisiorum, apud 
Jacobum Villery. 13 vol. fol. 

1743 Ta Ἱπποκράτους ἅπαντα. . . studio et opera 
Stephani Mackii. Viennae. 2 vol. fol. 

1825 Tot μεγάλου Ἱπποκράτους ἅπαντα. Magni 
Hippocratis opera omnia. Editionem curavit D. 
Carolus Gottlob Kiihn. Lipsiae. 3 vol. octavo. 

1834 Scholia in Hippocratem et Galenum, F. R. 
Dietz. 2 vols. 

1839-1861 Qiuvres completes d’Hippocrate, tra- 
duction nouvelle, avec le texte grec en regard .. . 
Par. E. Littré. Paris. 10 vol. 

1846 Article “ Hippocrates” in Smith’s Dictionary 
of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, by 
Dr. W.-A. Greenhill. 

1849 The genuine works of Hippocrates trans- 
lated from the Greek with a preliminary Discourse 
and Annotations by Francis Adams. London. 2 vol. 

1859-1864 MHippocratis et aliorum medicorum 
veterum reliquiae. Edidit Franciscus Zacharias 
Ermerins. Trajecti ad Rhenum. 3 vol. 

1864-1866 Ἱπποκράτης κομιδῇ Car. H. Th. Rein- 
hold. ᾿Αθήνῃσι. 2 vol. 

1877, 1878 Chirurgie d’Hippocrate, par J. E. 
Pétrequin. 2 vols. 

1894 Hippocratis opera quae geruntur omnia. 
Recensuit Hugo Kihlewein. Prolegomena_ con- 
scripserunt Ioannes Ilberg et Hugo Kiihlewein. 

The second volume appeared in 1902. 

1913 Article ‘“ Hippokrates (16)” in Pauly- 
Wissowa Real-Encyclopidie der classischen Altertum- 
smissenscha ft. 



The early editions are learned but uncritical, 
being stronger on the medical side than in scholar- 
ship. Special mention should be made of the 
Oeconomia of Foes, a perfect mine of medical lore, 
and it is supplemented by the excellent notes in 
Foes’ edition. Such a work could have appeared 
only in an age when Hippocrates was a real force 
in medical practice.! 

The first scholarly edition was that of Littré, and 
only those who have seriously studied the works of 
Hippocrates can appreciate the debt we owe to his 
diligence, or understand why the task occupied 
twenty-two years. Unfortunately Littré is diffuse, 
and not always accurate. His opinions, too, changed 
during the long period of preparation, and the 
additional notes in the later volumes must be con- 
sulted in order to correct the views expressed in the 

As a textual critic he shows much common sense, 
but his notes are awkward to read, and his know- 
ledge was practically confined to the Paris MSS. 

He is at his best as a medical commentator, and 
he was the first to explain Hippocratic pathology 
by proving that the endemic diseases of the Hippo- 
cratic writings must be identified, not with the 
fevers of our climate, but with the remittent forms 
of malaria common in hot climates. It is not too 
much to say that without keeping this fact in view 
we cannot understand a great part of the Corpus. 
It is curious to note that Hippocrates was a medical 
text-book almost down to the time (about 1840) 

1 This is in a way a defect. Foes, like Galen, is not 
sufficiently “detached” from Hippocratic teaching to judge 
Hippocrates impartially. ; 



when malaria ceased to be a real danger to northern 

The most useful critical edition of Hippocrates is 
that of Ermerins. He was a scholar with a lucid 
and precise mind, and his critical notes are a pleasure 
to read. The introductions, too, are stimulating, 
instructive and interesting, written in a style full 
of life and charm. As a philologist he was very 

The edition in the Teubner series, edited by 
Kiihlewein, of which two volumes have appeared, 
marks a distinct advance. Fresh manuscripts have 
been collated, and the text has been purged of the 
pseudo-ionisms which have so long disfigured it. 

A word should perhaps be said about Reinhold, 
whose two volumes of text give us more plausible 
conjectures than the work of any other scholar. 

Of the scholars who have worked at parts of the 
Corpus mention should be made of Gomperz and 
Wilamowitz, but especial praise is due to the remark- 
able acuteness of Coray, whose intellect was like 
a sword. He always instructs and inspires, even 
when the reader cannot accept his emendations. 

Adams’ well-known translation is the work of a 
man of sense, who loved his author and was not 
without some of the qualifications of a scholar. 
The translation is literal and generally good, but 
is occasionally misleading. ‘The medical annotation 
is far superior to the scholarship displayed in the 


any Pe nih eee lultihe ἢ ἐπα τῇ yt 
tel) αἴτέκος, κὰν et oF a 

ἀν ig. νὰ ethers Ee Ot ἐπέ ; he Ὁ 

᾿ ΝΣ τινα oe δῶν ὧἱ ὼς teary: 
“ide ate nnn abe elt 
wl) to τ coe συλ οι test μὴ Gas 

in A Bios ital eae. eects τ ἤν οὐ 
ΠΝ ἀκα ia γα ἶ πον Ao 
ἀωρίᾳ το aay 

Cee ae ot me 
val te (ous He pial toW Aveh) oie wae Σ ἡ ἡ 
Pee Tee ee ‘ong 

τνηποην δά 9h δὲ δίκσας μα Bah nas ΟΝ 
1k not κάκ αν, παρῆν grin hie να, ὙΠ 
ΠΣ ia i choy toe ooh Ἐφ} ἢ aed 
1] ραν ev εκ » του! anh 

at WY aHue “02 Mee tien ts Mpegs Sey een 
buie-otq= Log matt ὁ αλλ onal ΣΝ 
ἡαρηῶ es inlay δ Ty RA g 
δεν, κυ u γλϊμγο ναι fe gine wil pigs onk 

Libation aa ee ‘Nae εν 
aft κα ἡ toa φϑν μὲ at δνδήνγὐη! ema 
᾿ εν. tie wires εἴ ΓΝ 
—- ies ii | eo) ae aK 
oe eo then ie ; 
a < " προ να. με | 
4" δος ᾿ ᾿ τῷ Υ͵ 
EAR. ' ΞΕ 




Amone ancient writers Erotian is the only one 
who expressly ascribes this little treatise to Hippo- 
erates himself. Modern critics generally regard it as 
old, but as not by Hippocrates, the chief exception 
being Littré. Adams is uncertain, but is inclined to 
think that Hippocrates was not the author. 

Thus the external evidence in support of the view 
that Hippocrates was the author of this treatise is very 
slight indeed. The internal evidence is considerably 

(1) The writer, like Hippocrates! holds that 
health is caused by a “ coction ” of the “ humours.” 

(2) He recognises the importance of “ critical” 
days in an illness. 

(3) He holds that medical science is founded on 
observation and reasoning, not on speculation. 

(4) He attaches great importance to the use of 
“slops’’ of various degrees of consistency. 

All these doctrines are in conformity with the 
views expounded in the works assigned to Hippo- 
crates. On the other hand, no stress is laid upon 
prognosis, which Hippocrates considered of primary 
importance. Again, it would be impossible to show 

from the works of Hippocrates that the father of 

1 By ‘‘ Hippocrates” is meant the writer of Prognostic, 
of Regimen in Acute Diseases, and of Epidemics, I., Il. 



medicine thought little of the power of heat and 
cold in producing health or disease; our author, 
however, rates them very low. Moreover, like the 
Pythagorean physician Alemaeon, he holds that 
there is an indefinite number of “opposites,” the 
harmony or crasis of which produces health. The 
historical Hippocrates is said to have reduced the 
number of the humours to four, although I can find 
no trace of this limitation to four in any treatise 
earlier than the one on the Nature of Man, which 
is not generally considered authentic. 

It may be said that, were the external evidence 
stronger, the treatise would be accepted as an 
authentic work of Hippocrates. 

Littré! argues that the well-known passage in the 
Phaedrus,? where ‘ Hippocrates the Asclepiad’’ is 
mentioned as holding a theory that a knowledge 
of the human body is impossible without a know- 
ledge of the universe—interpreted to mean an ex- 
amination of the δύναμις (or δυνάμεις) of a body 
according to its inter-relations with other things 
—refers to Chapter XX of the περὶ ἀρχαίης ἰητρικῆς, 
and not, as Galen maintains, to the treatise On the 
Nature of Man. Littré also points out that a passage 
in our treatise * is very similar to one in Regimen in 
Acute Diseases, the authenticity of which is un- 


1 ij. pp. 294-310. Gomperz is inclined to support this view. 

2 270, C. D. Littré’s discussion of the sentence τὸ τοίνυν 
περὶ φύσεως σκόπει τί ποτε λέγει Ἱπποκράτης τε καὶ ὃ dpOds 
λόγος, to show that it does not refer to any actual words of 
Hippocrates, is, of course, quite beside the mark. The 
sentence means ‘‘what H. and right reason mean by περὶ 

3 pp. 314, 315, ¢ Chapter X. 


Littré may have shown that there is a resemblance 
to our author in the Phaedrus passage. Resem- 
blances, however, show merely that the writer was 
Hippocratic, not that he was Hippocrates. 

The reference, in Chapter XV, to participation 
(kowvwetr) in εἴδη and to ‘ absolute existences’ (αὐτό 
τι ἐφ᾽ ἑωυτοῦ) might lead a critic to infer that the 
writer lived in the age of Plato. But there are two 
insuperable difficulties to this hypothesis. One is 
that in Chapter XX the word σοφιστής is used in its 
early sense of “philosopher,” which implies that 
the writer lived before Plato attached to the word 
the dishonourable meaning it has in later Greek. 
The other is that the writer attacks the intrusion of 
philosophic speculation into the science of medicine, 
and the speculation he has constantly in mind, as 
being, apparently, the most influential in his day, is 
that of Empedocles,t who is actually mentioned in 
Chapter XX as a typical writer περὶ φύσεως. There is 
a sentence in Chapter XIV which closely resembles, 
in both thought and diction, the fragments of Anaxa- 
goras.2- It certainly looks as though the writer of 
Ancient Medicine was not unfamiliar with the works 
of this philosopher. All this evidence tends to fix 
the date as approximately 430-420 B.c., and to 
suggest as the writer either Hippocrates or a very 
capable supporter of the medical school of which 
Hippocrates was a contemporary member. 

The author of Ancient Medicine in Chapter II asserts 

1 Or possibly that of the Milesian school with its doctrine of 
opposites, of which opposites the Empedoclean ‘‘ roots” are 
four, definitely corporealised. 

2 ὅταν δέ τι τούτων ἀποκριθῇ Kal αὐτὸ ἐφ᾽ ἑωυτοῦ γένηται, τότε 
καὶ φανερόν ἐστι καὶ λυπεῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον. 



that empiric medicine was in his day an old art, and 
that the attempt to foist the method of philosophy 
upon it was comparatively modern. He is obviously 
correct. Hippocratic science must have been the 
ripe fruit of a long period of active inquiry ; 
philosophy began early in the sixth century B.c., 
and it was late in that century that medicine 
and philosophy were combined in the persons of 
prominent Pythagoreans.! It was only natural that, 
as the main interest of philosophy shifted from 
cosmology to biology, philosophy should occupy 
itself with medical problems. The union was closest 
in Empedocles, thinker, seer, and “ medicine-man, 
but by the end of the fifth century philosophy 
had discarded medicine, although to its great loss 
medicine did not discard philosophy.2 

Several recent critics, notably Professor A. E. 
Taylor,? have pointed out the importance of this 
little work in the history of thought. It has even 
been urged that it proves that the technical phrases, 
and perhaps the doctrine also, of the theory of 
Ideas, usually ascribed to Plato, were well-known 
to educated men a generation at least before Plato. 
The language used in Chapter XV_ is, indeed, 
strikingly like the terminology of Plato, far too 
much so to be a mere coincidence. 

However this may be, it is plain that in the fifth 
century B.c, there were thinkers, holding principles 
nearly akin to those of modern science, who were 
violently opposed to the application of philosophic 

1 See Burnet, Early Greek Philosophy, pp. 223-226 for 
Alemaeon, and pp. 339-341 for the later Pythagoreans, 

2 See especially Burnet, op. cit. pp. 234-235. 

3 Varia Socratica, pp. 74-78 and 214-218, 



procedure to science. ‘This procedure the writer 
calls the method of ὑποθέσεις. The student of Plato 
is at once reminded of the Phaedo, Republic, and 
Sophist, in which dialogues a theory of knowledge 
is expounded which is stated to be the best possible 
method of inquiry until the Ideas have been appre- 
hended. It should be noticed that a ὑπόθεσις is 
something very different from a modern scientific 
hypothesis. The latter is a summary of observed 
phenomena, intended to explain. them by pointing 
out their causal relationship. The former is not a 
summary of phenomena; it is a postulate, intended 
to be accepted, not as an explanation, but as a foun- 
dation (ὑπο-τίθημι) upon which to build a super- 
structure. An hypothesis must by tested by further 
appeals to sense-experience ; a ὑπόθεσις must not be 
so tested, it must be taken for granted as an obvious 
truth. Plato would have nothing to do with appeals 
to sense-experience. According to him, if a ὑπόθεσις 
is not accepted, it must be abandoned, and a more 
general ὑπόθεσις postulated, until one is reached to 
which the opponent agrees.1_ The writer of Ancient 
, Medicine suggests,? as the proper sphere of ὑποθέσεις, 
the celestial regions and those beneath the earth. 
Here, among τὰ ἀφανέα τε καὶ ἀπορεόμενα, Where we 
have no means of applying a satisfactory test, where 
in fact sense-perception fails us, is the proper place 
for ὑποθέσει. He would exclude them all from 
medicine, but he is constantly suggesting what we 
moderns call “hypotheses.” The best examples of 
ὑποθέσεις are the axioms and postulates of geometry. 

1 Phaedo, 101 D, E. 
* Chapter I. The language of the author is more than a 
little sarcastic. 



These are not tested or proved; they are assumed, 
and upon the assumptions a whole science is built. 

In place of ὑποθέσεις the author of Ancient Medicine 
relies, asa modern scientific thinker relies, on careful 
observation and critical examination! of phenomena, 
hoping thereby to reach, not the complete and _ per- 
fect knowledge Plato hoped to attain through his 
Ideas, but an approximation to truth.” 

So the two methods, that of Greek philosophy and 
that of modern science, stand face to face. The 
struggle between them was, for the time being, short. 
Medicine, almost the only branch of Greek science 
scientifically studied, was worsted in the fight, and 
medical science gradually degenerated from rational 
treatment to wild speculation and even quackery 
and superstition.* The transcendant genius of Plato, 
strong in that very power of persuasion the use of 
which he so much deprecated, won the day. The 
philosophic fervour which longed with passionate 
desire for unchangeable reality, that felt a lofty con- 
tempt for the material world with its ever-shifting 
phenomena, that aspired to rise to a heavenly region 
where changeless Ideas might be apprehended by pure. 
intelligence purged from every bodily taint, was more 
than a match for the humble researches of men who 
wished to relieve human suffering by a patient study 
of those very phenomena that Plato held of no account. 

1 χογισμῷ, Chapter XII. 

2 εἰ μὴ ἔχει περὶ πάντα ἀκρίβειαν, ἀλλὰ πολὺ μᾶλλον διὰ τὸ 
ἐγγὺς οἶμαι τοῦ ἀτρεκεστάτου δύνασθαι ἥκειν. Ibid. The forty- 
two clinical histories, given in the Ypidemics of Hippocrates, 
are excellent examples of the observation which the Hip- 
pocratic school considered the only foundation of science. 

3 See Τὸ. Τὶ, Withington, in Mfalaria and Greek History, by 
W. H. S. Jones and E. T. Withington. 



So for centuries philosophy flourished and science 
languished, in spite of Aristotle, Euclid and Archi- 


(1) The rejection of ὑποθέσεις and the defence of 
the old method in medicine (Ch. I-III). 

(2) The origin of medicine, and its connection 
with the art of dieting (111--Χ 11}. 

(3) The comparative unimportance of the four 
“‘ opposites” in health and disease (XIII-XV). 

(4) The importance of certain secretions as com- 
pared with heat and cold (XVI-XIX). 

(5) The correct method of studying medicine 


There has never been published any separate 
edition of this treatise, but of course it is included 
in all the great editions of Hippocrates. Not much 
was done to improve the text before Littré, who 
seems to have bestowed care and thought upon the 
little book. The edition of Kiihlewein introduced 
a radical reformation of the pseudo-ionic forms that 
disfigured earlier texts, and also several improvements 
in detail, but his changes are not always happy. 

The chief manuscript authority is A,! which seems 
infinitely superior to all the others. The next most 
important manuscript is M, the others being of very 
little help. 

In this edition I have kept closely to the spelling 
of Kihlewein, but the text itself is my own. It 

1 Called by Littré 2253. 


follows the MS. A very closely, but on several 
occasions I have accepted (with acknowledgements) 
the emendations of Coray, Reinhold, Ermerins, 
Littré, Diels and Kiihlewein. One passage I have 
rejected on my own authority, and in another I 
have presented a new combination of readings which 
I think restores sense out of nonsense. I have 
generally noted readings only when the choice makes 
a decided difference to the translation. 

The translator is often perplexed how to render 
semi-technical words which belong to a time when 
the ideas underlying them were in a transition stage, 
or when ideas were current which the progress of 
time has destroyed. “ Hot” and “cold” were no 
longer bodies, but they were not yet qualities. As 
Professor Taylor! shows, the word εἶδος is most 
elusive, referring to the form, appearance, structure 
of a thing, the physique of persons, ete., and yet it is 
becoming capable of being applied to immaterial 
reality. There are about half a dozen words to 
describe the process which we describe by the single 
word “ digestion.’ 2. These nice distinctions must be 
lost in an English version. The most difficult word 
of all is perhaps δύναμις. Scientific thought in the 
fifth century Β.6. held that certain constituents of 
the body, and indeed of the material world generally, 
manifested themselves to our senses and feelings in 
certain ways. These are their δυνάμεις, “ powers,” 
or, as we may sometimes translate, “ properties,” 

1 Loe. cit. 

2 In deference to authority I translate ἀπαλλάσσειν in 
Chapters X and XX ‘“‘ come off” well or ill, But Iam almost 
convinced that in both cases the word means ‘‘ to get rid of 
food,” ‘‘to digest.”” Compare Chapter III, p. 18, 1. 32. 



* characteristics,” “ effects.”” Almost equally difficult 
is the word φύσις. This appears sometimes to have 
the meaning which Professor Burnet oe it has in 
early philosophy, “ primordial matter,” primitive 
element or elements,” the “ stuff” of which the 
world is made. Often, again, it has its later mean- 
ing, “ nature,” while sometimes the two senses are 
combined or confused. In all these cases perfect 
consistency of rendering can only be achieved by 
sacrificing the thought. In my work I have been 
constantly impressed, and depressed, by the truth 
of the proverb, “Translators are traitors.” 




I. πόσοι μὲν ἐπεχείρησαν. περὶ ἰητρικῆς λέγειν 
ἢ γράφειν, ὑπόθεσιν αὐτοὶ αὐτοῖς ὑποθέμενοι τῷ 
λόγῳ, θερμὸν ἢ ψυχρὸν ἢ ὑγρὸν ἢ ξηρὸν ἢ ἄλλο 
τι ὃ ἂν θέλωσιν, ἐ ἐς ὡραχὺ ἄγοντες τὴν ἀρχὴν τῆς 
αἰτίης τοῖσι ἀνθρώποισι νούσων τε καὶ θανάτου, 
καὶ πᾶσι τὴν αὐτήν, ἕν ἢ δύο ὑποθέμενοι, ἐν 
πολλοῖσι μὲν Kal! οἷσι λέγουσι καταφανέες εἰσὶ 
ἁμαρτάνοντες, μάλιστα δὲ ἄξιον μέμψασθαι, ὃ ὅτι 
ἀμφὶ τέχνης ἐούσης, ἢ χρέονταί τε πάντες ἐπὶ 
τοῖσι μεγίστοισι καὶ τιμῶσι μάλιστα τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς 
χειροτέχνας καὶ δημιουργούς. εἰσὶν δὲ δημιουργοὶ 
οἱ μὲν φαῦλοι, οἱ δὲ πολλὸν διαφέροντες" ὅπερ, εἰ 
μὴ ἣν ἰητρικὴ ὅλως, μηδ᾽ ἐν αὐτῇ ἔσκεπτο μηδ᾽ 
εὕρητο μηδέν, οὐκ a ἣν, ἀλλὰ πάντες ὁμοίως 
αὐτῆς ἄπειροί τε καὶ ἀνεπιστήμονες ἦσαν, τύχῃ 
δ᾽ ἂν “πάντα τὰ τῶν καμνόντων διοικεῖτο. νῦν δ᾽ 
οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει, ἀλλ᾽ ὥσπερ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τεχνέων 
πασέων οἱ δημιουργοὺὴ πολλὸν ἀλλήλων διαφέ- 
ρουσιν κατὰ χεῖρα καὶ κατὰ γνώμην, οὕτω δὲ καὶ 
ἐπὶ ἰητρικῆς. διὸ οὐκ ἠξίουν αὐτὴν ἔγωγε κενῆς " 

1 καί MSS. : καινοῖσι Kiithlewein after Schone, 
2 κενῆς M: καινῆς A. 



I. Att who, on attempting to speak or to write 
on medicine, have assumed for themselves a postulate 
as a basis for their discussion—heat, cold, moisture, 
dryness, or anything else that they may fancy— 
who narrow down the causal principle of diseases 
and of death among men, and make it the same 
in all cases, postulating one thing or two, all these 
obviously blunder in many points even of their state- 
ments,! but they are most open to censure because 
they blunder in what is an art, and one which all 
men use on the most important occasions, and give 
the greatest honours to the good craftsmen and 
practitioners in it. Some practitioners are poor, 
others very excellent; this would not be the case if 
an art of medicine did not exist at all, and had not 
been the subject of any research and discovery, but 
all would be equally inexperienced and unlearned 
therein, and the treatment of the sick would be 
in all respects haphazard. But it is not so ; just 
as in all other arts the workers vary much in skill 
and in knowledge,? so also is it in the case of 
medicine. Wherefore I have deemed that it has 

1 Or, reading καινοῖσι x.7.A., “οὗ their novelties.” 
2 Or ‘‘manual skill” and ‘‘ intelligence.” 





ὑποθέσιος δεῖσθαι ὥσπερ τὰ ἀφανέα τε καὶ ἀπο- 
ρεόμενα, περὶ ὧν ἀνάγκη, ἤν τις ἐπιχειρῇ τι λέγειν, 
ὑποθέσει χρῆσθαι, οἷον περὶ τῶν μετεώρων ἢ τῶν 
ὑπὸ γῆν: ἃ el! τις λέγοι καὶ γινώσκοι ὡς ἔχει, 
οὔτ᾽ ἂν αὐτῷ τῷ λέγοντι οὔτε τοῖς ἀκούουσι δῆλα 
ἂν εἴη, εἴτε ἀληθέα ἐστὶν εἴτε μή. οὐ γὰρ ἔστι 
πρὸς ὅ τι χρὴ ἀνενέγκαντα εἰδέναι τὸ σαφές. 

IL. Ἰητρικῇ δὲ πάλαι πάντα ὑπάρχει, καὶ ἀρχὴ 
καὶ ὁδὸς εὑρημένη, καθ᾽ ἣν τὰ εὑρημένα πολλά τε 
καὶ καλῶς ἔχοντα εὕρηται ἐν πολλῷ χρόνῳ, καὶ 
τὰ λοιπὰ εὑρεθήσεται, ἤν τις ἱκανός τε ἐὼν καὶ τὰ 
εὑρημένα εἰδὼς ἐκ τούτων ὁρμώμενος ζητῇ. ὅστις 
δὲ ταῦτα ἀποβαλὼν καὶ ἀποδοκιμάσας πάντα, 
ἑτέρῃ ὁδῷ καὶ ἑτέρῳ σχήματι ἐπιχειρεῖ ζητεῖν, 
καί φησί τι ἐξευρηκέναι, ἐξηπάτηται Σ καὶ ἐξαπα- 
Tata: ἀδύνατον yap: δι᾽ ἃς δὲ ἀνάγκας ἀδύνατον, 
ἐγὼ πειρήσομαι ἐπιδεῖξαι, λέγων καὶ ἐπιδεικνύων 
τὴν τέχνην ὅ τι ἐστίν ἐκ δὲ τούτου καταφανὲς 
ἔσται ἀδύνατα ἐόντα ἄλλως πως τούτων εὑρί- 
σκεσθαι. μάλιστα δέ μοι δοκεῖ περὶ ταύτης δεῖν 
λέγοντα τῆς τέχνης γνωστὰ λέγειν τοῖσι δημότῃσι. 
οὐ γὰρ περὶ ἄλλων τινῶν οὔτε ζητεῖν οὔτε λέγειν 
προσήκει ἢ περὶ τῶν παθημάτων ὧν αὐτοὶ οὗτοι 

1 ἃ εἴ suggested by Littré: ἀεί A. 

2 So the MSS. ἐξαπατᾷ τε has been suggested. See Diels 
in Hermes XLV. 125. 

3 ὅ τι ἐστίν M: ὅτι Aand ἔστιν Kiihlewein. 

1 Or, reading καινῆς, ““ὦ novel postulate.” But the writer’s 
objection is not that the postulate is novel, but that it is a 
postulate. A postulate, he says, is ‘‘ empty ” in a sphere 
where accurate and verifiable knowledge is possible. Only 



no need of an empty postulate,’ as do insoluble 
mysteries, about which any exponent must use a 
postulate, for example, things in the sky or below 
the earth. If a man were to learn and declare the 
state of these, neither to the speaker himself nor to 
his audience would it be clear whether his state- 
ments were true or not. For there is no test the 
application of which would give certainty. 

II. But medicine has long had all its means to 
hand, and has discovered both a principle and a 
method, through which the discoveries made during 
a long period are many and excellent, while full dis- 
covery will be made, if the inquirer be competent, 
conduct his researches with knowledge of the dis- 
coveries already made, and make them his starting- 
point. But anyone who, casting aside and rejecting 
all these means, attempts to conduct research in 
any other way or after another fashion, and asserts 
that he has found out anything, is and has been the 
victim of deception.2. His assertion is impossible ; 
the causes of its impossibility I will endeavour to 
expound by a statement and exposition of what the 
art is.3 In this way it will be manifest that by any 
other means discoveries are impossible. But it is 
particularly necessary, in my opinion, for one who 
discusses this art to discuss things familiar to ordin- 
ary folk. For the subject of inquiry and discussion 
is simply and solely the sufferings of these same 

in regions where science cannot penetrate are ὑποθέσεις 
legitimate. For this reason I read κενῆς. 

2 Or, with the reading suggested, ‘‘ both deceives and is 

3 Or, reading ὅτι ἔστιν, ‘that the art really is an art, 
really exists,” 



νοσεουσί τε καὶ πονέουσι. αὐτοὺς μὲν οὖν τὰ 
σφέων αὐτῶν παθήματα καταμαθεῖν, ὡς γίνεται 
καὶ παύεται καὶ δι’ οἵας προφάσιας αὔξεταί τε 
20 καὶ φθίνει, δημότας ἐόντας οὐ ῥηίδιον' ὑπ᾽ ἄλλου 
δὲ εὑρημένα καὶ λεγόμενα, εὐπετές. οὐδὲν γὰρ 
ἕτερον ἢ ἀναμιμνήσκεται ἕκαστος ἀκούων τῶν 
αὐτῷ 1 συμβαινόντων. εἰ δέ τίς τῆς τῶν ἰδιωτέων 
γνώμης ἀποτεύξεται καὶ μὴ διαθήσει τοὺς ἀκού- 
οντας οὕτως, τοῦ ἐόντος ἀποτεύξεται. L διὰ 
26 ταῦτα οὖν ταῦτα οὐδὲν δεῖ ὑποθέσιος. 

TIT. Τὴν γὰρ ἀρχὴν οὔτ᾽ ἂν εὑρέθη ἡ τέχνη ἡ 
ἰητρικὴ οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἐζητηήθη---οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτῆς ἔδει--- 
εἰ τοῖσι κάμνουσι τῶν ἀνθρώπων. τὰ αὐτὰ διαιτω- 
μένοισί τε καὶ προσφερομένοισι, ἅπερ οἱ ὑγιαίν:ν- 
τες ἐσθίουσί τε καὶ πίνουσι καὶ τἄλλα διαιτέονται, 
συνέφερεν, καὶ μὴ ἣν ἕτερα τούτων βελτίω. νῦν 
δὲ αὐτὴ ἡ ἀνάγκη ἰητρικὴν ἐποίησεν ᾿ξητηθῆναί τε 
καὶ εὑρεθῆναι ἀνθρώποισι, ὅτι τοῖσι κάμνουσι 
ταὐτὰ προσφερομένοισι, ἅπερ οἱ ὑγιαίνοντες, οὐ 

10 συνέφερεν, ὡς οὐδὲ νῦν συμφέρει. ἔτι δὲ ἄνωθεν 
ἔγωγε ἀξιῶ οὐδ᾽ ἂν τὴν τῶν ὑγιαινόντων δίαιτάν 
τε καὶ τροφήν, ἣ νῦν χρέονται, εὑρεθῆναι, εἰ 
ἐξήρκει τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ταὐτὰ ἐσθίοντι καὶ πίνοντι 
βοΐ τε καὶ ἵππῳ καὶ πᾶσιν ἐκτὸς ἀνθρώπου, οἷον 
τὰ ἐκ τῆς γῆς φυόμενα, καρπούς τε καὶ ὕλην καὶ 
χόρτον. ἀπὸ τούτων γὰρ καὶ τρέφονται καὶ 
αὔξονται καὶ ἄπονοι διάγουσιν οὐδὲν προσδεόμενοι 
ἄλλης διαίτης. καί τοι τήν γε ἀρχὴν ἔγωγε δοκέω 
καὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον τοιαύτῃ τροφῇ κεχρῆσθαι. τὰ 

20 δὲ νῦν διαιτήματα εὑρημένα καὶ τετεχνημένα ἐν 

1 ἑωυτῷ most MSS, 


ordinary folk when they are sick or in pain. Now 
to learn by themselves how their own sufferings 
come about and cease, and the reasons why they get 
worse or better, is not an easy task for ordinary 
folk; but when these things have been discovered 
and are set forth by another, it is simple. For 
merely an effort of memory is required of each man 
when he listens to a statement of his experiences. 
But if you miss being understood by laymen, 
and fail to put your hearers in this condition, you 
will miss reality. Therefore for this reason also 
medicine has no need of any postulate. 

111. For the art of medicine would never have been 
discovered to begin with, nor would any medical re- 
search have been conducted—for there would have 
been no need for medicine—if sick men had profited 
by the same mode of living and regimen as the food, 
drink and mode of living of men in health, and if 
there had been no other things for the sick better 
than these. But the fact is that sheer necessity has 
caused men to seek and to find medicine, because 
sick men did not, and do not, profit by the same 
regimen as do men in health. To trace the matter 
yet further back, I hold that not even the mode of 
living and nourishment enjoyed at the present time 
by men in health would have been discovered, had a 
man been satisfied with the same food and drink as 
satisfy an ox, a horse, and every animal save man, 
for example the products of the earth—fruits, wood 
and grass. For on these they are nourished, grow, 
and live without pain, having no need at all of any 
other kind of living. Yet I am of opinion that to 
begin with man also used this sort of nourishment. 
Our present ways of living have, I think, been 





πολλῷ χρόνῳ γεγενῆσθαί μου δοκεῖ. ὡς γὰρ 
ἔπασχον πολλά τε καὶ δεινὰ ὑ ὑπὸ ἰσχυρῆς τε καὶ 
θηριώδεος διαίτης ἀ ὠμά τε καὶ ἄκρητα καὶ μεγάλας 
δυνάμιας “ἔχοντα ἐσφερόμενοι. οἷά περ ἂν καὶ 
νῦν ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν πάσχοιεν πόνοισί τε ἰσχυροῖσι καὶ 
νούσοις περιπίπτοντες καὶ διὰ τάχεος θανάτοισι. 
ἧσσον μὲν οὗν ταῦτα τότε εἰκὸς ἣν πάσχειν διὰ 
τὴν συνήθειαν, ἰσχυρῶς δὲ καὶ τότε. καὶ τοὺς 
μὲν πλείστους Te Kal ἀσθενεστέρην φύσιν ἐ ἔχοντας 
ἀπόλλυσθαι εἰκός, τοὺς δὲ τούτων ὑπερέχοντας 
πλείω χρόνον ἀντέχειν" ὥσπερ καὶ νῦν ἀπὸ τῶν 
ἰσχυρῶν βρωμάτων οἱ μὲν ῥηϊδίως ἀπαλλάσσονται, 
οἱ δὲ μετὰ πολλῶν πόνων τε καὶ κακῶν. διὰ δὴ 
ταύτην τὴν αἰτίην καὶ οὗτοί μοι δοκέουσι ζητῆσαι 
τροφὴν ἁρμόξουσαν τῇ φύσει καὶ εὑρεῖν ταύτην, 
ἣ νῦν χρεώμεθα. ἐκ μὲν οὖν τῶν πυρῶν βρέξαντές 
σφας καὶ πτίσαντες καὶ καταλέσαντές τε καὶ 
διασήσαντες καὶ φορύξαντες καὶ ὀπτήσαντες ἀπε- 
τέλεσαν ἄρτον, ἐκ δὲ τῶν κριθέων μᾶζαν: ἄλλα τε 
πολλὰ περὶ ταῦτα πρηγματευσάμενοι ἥψησάν τε 
καὶ ὦπτησαν καὶ ἔμιξαν, καὶ ἐκέρασαν τὰ ἰσχυρά 
τε καὶ ἄκρητα τοῖς ἀσθενεστέροις, πλάσσοντες 
πάντα πρὸς “τὴν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου φύσιν τε αὶ 
δύναμιν, ἡγεύμενοι, ὅσα μὲν ἂν ἰσχυρότερα 7) Rie 
δυνήσεται κρατεῖν ἡ φύσις, ἢν ἐμφέρηται, ἀπὸ 
τούτων δ᾽ αὐτῶν πόνους Te καὶ νούσους καὶ θανά- 
tous ἔσεσθαι, ὁπόσων δ᾽ ἂν δύνηται ἐπικρατεῖν, 
ἀπὸ τούτων τροφήν τε καὶ αὔξησιν καὶ ὑγιείην. 
τῷ δὲ εὑρήματι τούτῳ καὶ ζητήματι τί ἄν τις 
1 So Littré, but he does not admit the conjecture into his 

text. The MSS. showa great variety of readings, giving the 
same sense but irregular constructions, 



discovered and elaborated during a long period ot 
time. For many and terrible were the sufferings 
of men from strong and brutish living when they 
partook of crude foods, uncompounded and _possess- 
ing great powers!—the same in fact as men would 
suffer at the present day, falling into violent pains and 
diseases quickly followed by death. Formerly indeed 
they probably suffered less, because they were used to 
it, but they suffered severely even then. The majority 
naturally perished, having too weak a constitution, 
while the stronger resisted longer, just as at the 
present time some men easily deal with strong foods, 
while others do so only with many severe pains. 
For this reason the ancients too seem to me to 
have sought for nourishment that harmonised with 
their constitution, and to have discovered that which 
we use now. So from wheat, after steeping it, 
winnowing, grinding and sifting, kneading, baking, 
they produced bread, and from barley they produced 
cake. Experimenting with food they boiled or 
baked, after mixing, many other things, combining 
the strong and uncompounded with the weaker 
components so as to adapt all to the constitution and 
power of man, thinking that from foods which, being 
too strong, the human constitution cannot assimi- 
late when eaten, will come pain, disease, and death, 
while from such as can be assimilated will come 
nourishment, growth and health. To this discovery 
and research what juster or more appropriate name 

10r ‘strong qualities,” 





ὄνομα δικαιότερον ἢ προσῆκον “μᾶλλον θείη ἢ 
ἰητρικήν; ὅτι γε εὕρηται ἐπὶ τῇ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 
ὑγιείῃ τε καὶ σωτηρίῃ καὶ τροφῇ, ἄχλαγμα ἐκείνης 
τῆς διαίτης, ἐξ ἧς οἱ πόνοι καὶ νοῦσοι καὶ θάνατοι 

VE Ke δὲ μὴ πέχνη αὕτη νομίζεται εἶναι, οὐκ 
ἀπεοικός" ἧς γὰρ μηδείς ἐστιν ἰδιώτης, ἀλλὰ 
πάντες ἐπιστήμονες διὰ τὴν Χρ holy TE καὶ ἀνάγκην, 
οὐ προσήκει ταύτης οὐδένα τεχνίτην καλεῖσθαι" 
ἐπεὶ τό γε εὕρημα μέγα τε καὶ πολλῆς σκέψιος 
τε καὶ τέχνης. ἔτι γοῦν καὶ νῦν οἱ τῶν γυμνασίων 
τε καὶ ἀσκησίων ἐπιμελόμενοι αἰεί τι προσεξευ- 
ρίσκουσιν κατὰ τὴν αὐτὴν ὁδὸν ζητέοντες ὅ τι 
ἐσθίων τε καὶ πίνων ἐπικρατήσει τε αὐτοῦ μάλιστα 
καὶ eens αὐτὸς ἑωυτοῦ ἔσται. 

Υ. Σκεψώμεθα δὲ καὶ τὴν ὁμολογεομένως ἰητρι- 
κήν, τὴν ἀμφὶ τοὺς κάμνοντας εὑρημένην, ἣ καὶ 
ὄνομα καὶ τεχνίτας "ἔχει, ἦρά τι καὶ αὐτὴ τῶν 
αὐτῶν ἐθέλει, καὶ πόθεν ποτὲ ἦρκται. ἐμοὶ μὲν 
γάρ, ὅπερ ἐν ἀρχῇ εἶπον, οὐδ᾽ ἂν ζητῆσαι ἐ ἰητρικὴν 
δοκεῖ οὐδείς, εἰ ταὐτὰ διαιτήματα τοῖσί τε κάμνουσι 
καὶ τοῖσι ὑγιαίνουσιν ἥρμοζεν. ἔτι γοῦν καὶ νῦν 
ὅσοι ἰητρικῇ μὴ χρέονται, οἵ τε βάρβαροι καὶ 
τῶν ᾿Βλλήνων ἔνιοι, τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον, ὅνπερ οἱ 
ὑγιαίνοντες, διαιτέονται πρὸς ἡδονήν, καὶ οὔτ᾽ ἂν 
ἀπόσχοιντο οὐδενὸς ὧν ἐπιθυμέουσιν οὔθ᾽ ὑπο- 
στείλαιντο ἄν. οἱ δὲ ζητήσαντες καὶ εὑρόντες 
ἰητρικὴν τὴν αὐτὴν ἐκείνοισι διάνοιαν ἔχοντες, 
περὶ ὧν μοι ὁ πρότερος λόγος εἴρηται, πρῶτον 
μέν, οἶμαι, ὑφεῖλον τοῦ πλήθεος τῶν σιτίων αὐτῶν 
τούτων, καὶ ἀντὶ πλειόνων ὀλίγιστα ἐποίησαν. 
ἐπεὶ δὲ αὐτοῖσι τοῦτο ἔστι μὲν ὅτε πρός τινας 


could be given than medicine, seeing that it has 
been fiecovered with a view to the health, saving 
and nourishment of man, in the place of that 
mode of living from which came the pain, disease and 
death ? 

IV. That it is not commonly considered an art is 
not unnatural, for it is inappropriate to call anyone 
an artist in a craft in which none are laymen, but 
all possess knowledge through being compelled to 
use it. Nevertheless the discovery was a great one, 
implying much investigation and art. At any rate 
even at the present day those who study gymnastics 
and athletic exercises are constantly making some 
fresh discovery by investigating on the same metiod 
what food and what annie are best assimilated and 
make a man grow stronger. 

V. Let us donee: ΠΗ whether the acknowledged 
art of medicine, that was discovered for the treat- 
ment of the sick and has both a name and artists, 
has the same object as the other art, and what its 
origin was. In my opinion, as I said at the begin- 
ning, nobody would have even sought for Ἧτο χε 
if the same ways of life had suited youl the sick and 
those in health. At any rate even at the present day 
such as do not use medical science, foreigners and 
some Greeks, live as do those in lealth, just as they 
please, and would neither forgo nor restrict the satis- 
faction of any of their desires. But those who sought 
for and discovered medicine, having the same inten- 
tion as the men I discussed Aleit in the first place, 
I think, lessened the bulk of the fancies and, without 
altering their character, greatly diminished their 
quantity. But they unde that this treatment was 

1 7.4. that of dieting in health. See Chapter VII. 






TOV καμνόντων ἤρκεσε καὶ φανερὸν ἐγένετο whe- 
λῆσαν, οὐ μέντοι πᾶσί γε, GAN ἦσάν τινες οὕτως 
ἔχοντες, ὡς μὴ ὀλίγων σιτίων δύνασθαι ἐπικρατεῖν, 
ἀσθενεστέρου δὲ δή τινος οἱ τοιοίδε ἐδόκεον δεῖ- 
σθαι, εὗρον τὰ ῥυφήματα μίξαντες ὀλίγα τῶν 
ἰσχυρῶν πολλῷ τῷ ὕδατι καὶ ἀφαιρεύόμενοι τὸ 
ἰσχυρὸν τῇ κρήσει τε καὶ ἑψήσει. ὅσοι δὲ μηδὲ 
τῶν ῥυφημάτων ἐδύναντο ἐπικρατεῖν, ἀφεῖλον καὶ 
ταῦτα, καὶ ἀφίκοντο ἐς πόματα, καὶ ταῦτα τῇσι 
τε κρήσεσι καὶ τῷ πλήθει διαφυλάσσοντες ὡς 
μετρίως ἔχοι, μήτε πλείω τῶν δεόντων μήτε ἀκρη- 
τέστερα προσφερόμενοι “μηδὲ ἐνδεέστερα. 

Vil. ἘΠ δὲ χρὴ τοῦτο εἰδέναι, ὅτι τισὶ τὰ 
βυφήμαπα ἐν τῇσι νούσοισιν οὐ συμφέρει, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἄντικρυς," ὅταν ταῦτα προσαίρωνται, παροξύ- 
νονταί σφισι οἵ τε πυρετοὶ καὶ τὰ ἀλγήματα: καὶ 
δῆλον τὸ προσενεχθὲν τῇ μὲν νούσῳ τροφή τε 
καὶ αὔξησις γενόμενον, τῷ δὲ σώματι φθίσις τε 
καὶ ἀρρωστίη. ὅσοι δὲ ἂν τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐν 
ταύτῃ τῇ διαθέσει ἐόντες προσενέγκωνται ξηρὸν 
σιτίον ἢ μᾶζαν ἢ ἄρτον, καὶ ἢν πάνυ σμικρόν, 
δεκαπλασίως ἂν μᾶλλον καὶ ἐπιφανέστερον κακω- 
θεῖεν ἢ ῥυφέοντες, δι’ οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἢ διὰ τὴν ἰσχὺν 
τοῦ βρώματος πρὸς τὴν διάθεσιν" καὶ ὅτῳ ῥυφεῖν 
μὲν συμφέρει, ἐσθίειν δ᾽ οὔ, εἰ πλείω φάγοι, πολὺ 
Ἃ a , a > ? , Ν > > / 
ἂν μᾶλλον κακωθείη, ἢ εἰ OALya? Kal εἰ ὀλίγα 
δέ, πονήσειεν ἄν. πάντα δὴ τὰ αἴτια τοῦ πόνου 
ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ ἀνάγεται, τὰ ἰσχυρότατα μάλιστά τε 
καὶ ἐπιφανέστατα λυμαίνεσθαι τὸν ἄνθρωπον καὶ 
τὸν ὑγιᾶ ἐόντα καὶ τὸν κάμνοντα. 

1 ἄντικρυς M: φανερῶς A: Hesychius gives φανερῶς as an 
explanation of ἄντικρυς. 


suflicient only occasionally, and although clearly 
beneficial with some patients, it was not so in all 
cases, aS some were in such a condition that they 
could not assimilate even small quantities of food. 
As such patients were thought to need weaker nutri- 
ment, slops were invented by mixing with much 
water small quantities of strong foods, and by taking 
away from their strength by compounding and 
boiling. Those that were not able to assimilate them 
were refused even these slops, and were reduced to 
taking liquids, these moreover being so regulated in 
composition and quantity as to be moderate, and 
nothing was administered that was either more or 
less, or less compounded, than it ought to be. 

VI. lt must be clearly understood that some are 
not benefited in disease by slops, but when they 
take them, their fever and pain grow manifestly 
worse, and it is plain that what is taken proves 
nourishment and increase to the disease, but wears 
away and enfeebles the body. Any men who in this 
condition take dry food, barley-cake or bread, even 
though it be very little, will be hurt ten times 
more, and more obviously, than if they take slops, 
simply and solely because the food is too strong 
for their condition; and a man to whom slops are 
beneficial, but not solid food, will suffer much more 
harm if he eat more than if he eat little, though 
he will feel pain even if he eat little. Now all the 
causes of the pain can be reduced to one, namely, 
it is the strongest foods that hurt a man most and 
most obviously, whether he be well or ill. 

2 ἢ εἰ ὀλίγα Ermerins: ἢ ὀλίγα A: the words are generally 
omitted in MSS. 





Vile Tesoun φαίνεται ἑτεροῖον διανοηθεὶς ὁ 
καλεύμενος ὦ ἰητρὸς καὶ ὁμολογεομένως χειροτέχνης, 
ὃς ἐξεῦρε τὴν ἀμφὶ τοὺς κάμνοντας δίαιτάν τε καὶ 
τροφήν, ἢ ἐκεῖνος ὁ ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς τοῖσι πᾶσιν ἀνθρώ- 
ποισιν τροφήν, ἡ νῦν χρώμεθα, ἐξ ἐκείνης τῆς 
ἀγρίης τε καὶ θηριώδεος διαίτης εὑρών Te καὶ 
παρασκευασάμενος; ἐμοὶ μὲν γὰρ φαίνεται ὁ ὁ αὐτὸς 
λόγος καὶ ἕν καὶ ὅμοιον τὸ εὕρημα. ὁ μέν, ὅσων 
μὴ ἐδύνατο ἡ φύσις ἡ ἀνθρωπίνη ὑγιαίνουσα 
ἐπικρατεῖν ἐμπιπτόντων διὰ τὴν θηριότητά τε καὶ 
τὴν ἀκρησίην, ὁ δέ, ὅσων ἡ διάθεσις, ἐν οἵῃ ἂν 
ἑκάστοτε ἕκαστος τύχῃ διακείμενος, μὴ δύνηται 
ἐπικρατεῖν, ταῦτα ἐζήτησεν ἀφελεῖν. τί δὴ τοῦτο 
ἐκείνου διαφέρει ἀλλ᾽ ἢ t πλέον Τ' τό γε εἶδος, καὶ 
ὅτι ποικιλώτερον καὶ πλείονος πρηγματίης, ἀρχὴ 
δὲ ἐκείνη ἡ πρότερον γενομένη; 

VIII. Ee δέ τις σκέπτοιτο τὴν τῶν καμνόντων 
δίαιταν πρὸς τὴν τῶν ὑγιαινόντων, εὕροι ἂν τὴν 
τῶν θηρίων τε καὶ τῶν ἄλλων “ζῴων οὐ βλαβε- 
ρωτέρην πρὸς τὴν τῶν ὑγιαινόντων. ἀνὴρ “γὰρ 
κάμνων νοσήματι μήτε τῶν χαλεπῶν τε καὶ ἀπό- 
ρων “μήτε αὖ τῶν παντάπασιν εὐηθέων, ἀλλ᾽ 6 τι 
αὐτῷ ἐξαμαρτάνοντι μέλλει ἐπίδηλον el ἢ εἰ 
ἐθέλοι καταφαγεῖν ἄρτον καὶ κρέας ἢ ἄλλο τι ὧν 
οἱ ὑγιαίνοντες ἐσθίοντες ὠφελέονται, μὴ πολλόν, 
ἀλλὰ πολλῷ ἔλασσον ἢ ὑγιαίνων ἂν ἐδύνατο, 
ἄλλος τε τῶν ὑγιαινόντων φύσιν ἔχων μήτε 

1 πλέον MSS. : omitted by Reinhold. Was πλέον a misread 
gloss (πλὴν) on ἀλλ᾽ 7H? 

1 Or ‘‘appearance.” The two pursuits are really one, but 
they appear toa eee observer to differ. 



VII. What difference then can be seen between 
the purpose of him we call physician, who is an 
acknowledged handicraftsman, the discoverer of the 
mode of life and of the nourishment suitable for the 
sick, and his who discovered and prepared originally 
nourishment for all men, which we now use, instead 
of the old savage and brutish mode of living? My 
own view is that their reasoning was identical and the 
discovery one and the same. The one sought to 
do away with those things which, when taken, the 
constitution of man in health could not assimilate 
because of their brutish and uncompounded character, 
the other those things which the temporary condi- 
tion of an individual prevented him from assimilating. 
How do the two pursuits differ, except in their scope ! 
and in that the latter is more complex and requires 
the greater application, while the former is the 
starting point and came first in time ? 

VIII. A consideration of the diet of the sick, as 
compared with that of men in health, would show 
that the diet of wild beasts and of animals generally 
is not more harmful, as compared with that of men 
in health.? Take a man sick of a disease which is 
neither severe and desperate nor yet altogether mild, 
but likely to be pronounced under wrong treatment, 
and suppose that he resolved to eat bread, and meat, 
or any other food that is beneficial to men in health, 
not much of it, but far less than he could have taken 
had he been well; take again a man in health, with 
a constitution neither altogether weak nor altogether 

2 The text here is very uncertain; I have combined that 
of Littré with that of Kiihlewein so as to give a good sense: 
‘“‘The diet of men in health is as injurious to the sick as the 
diet of wild beasts is to men in health.” 

VOL Ι: D 25 





παντάπασιν ἀσθενέα μήτε αὖ ἰσχυρὴν φάγοι τι 
ὧν βοῦς ἢ ἵππος φαγὼν ἂν ὠφελοῖτό τε καὶ 
ἰσχύοι, ὀρόβους ἢ κριθὰς 7) ἄλλο τι τῶν τοιούτων, 
μὴ πολύ, ἀλλὰ πολλῷ μεῖον ἢ δύναιτο, οὐκ ἂν 
ἧσσον ὁ ὑγιαίνων τοῦτο ποιήσας πονήσειέ τε καὶ 
κινδυνεύσειε κείνου τοῦ νοσέοντος, ὃς τὸν ἄρτον ἢ 
τὴν μᾶζαν ἀκαίρως προσηνέγκατο. ταῦτα δὴ 
πάντα τεκμήρια, OTL αὕτη ἡ τέχνη πᾶσα ἡ ἰητρικὴ 
τῇ αὐτῇ ὁδῷ ζητεομένη εὑρίσκοιτο ἄν. 

IX. Kai εἰ μὲν ἣν ἁπλοῦν, ὥσπερ ὑφήγητο, 
ὅσα μὲν ἦν ἰσχυρότερα, ἔβλαπτεν, ὅσα δ᾽ ἣν 
ἀσθενέστερα, ὠφέλει τε καὶ ἔτρεφεν καὶ τὸν κάμ- 
νονταὰ καὶ τὸν ὑγιαίνοντα, εὐπετὲς ἂν ἣν τὸ πρῆγμα" 
πολλὸν γὰρ τοῦ ἀσφαλέος ἂν ἔδει περιλαμβά- 
νοντας ἄγειν ἐπὶ τὸ ἀσθενέστερον. νῦν δὲ οὐκ 
ἔλασσον ἁμάρτημα, οὐδὲ ἧσσον λυμαίνεται τὸν 
ἄνθρωπον, ἢν ἐλάσσονα καὶ ἐνδεέστερα τῶν ἱκα- 
νῶν προσφέρηται. .τὸ γὰρ τοῦ λιμοῦ μένος δύνα- 
ται ἰσχυρῶς ἐν τῇ φύσει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ γυιῶσαι 
καὶ ἀσθενέα ποιῆσαι καὶ ἀποκτεῖναι. πολλὰ δὲ 
καὶ ἄλλα κακὰ ἑτεροῖα τῶν ἀπὸ πληρώσιος, οὐχ 
ἧσσον δὲ δεινά, καὶ ἀπὸ κενώσιος. διότι πολλὸν 
ποικιλώτερά τε καὶ διὰ πλείονος ἀκριβείης ἐστί. 
δεῖ γὰρ μέτρου τινὸς στοχάσασθαι. μέτρον δὲ 
οὔτε ἀριθμὸν οὔτε σταθμὸν ἄλλον, πρὸς ὃ ἀναφέ- 
ρων εἴσῃ τὸ ἀκριβές, οὐκ ἂν εὕροις ἀλλ᾽ ἢ τοῦ 
σώματος τὴν αἴσθησιν. διὸ ἔργον οὕτω κατα- 
μαθεῖν ἀκριβέως, ὥστε σμικρὰ ἁμαρτάνειν ἔνθα 
ἢ ἔνθα. κἂν ἐγὼ τοῦτον τὸν ἰητρὸν ἰσχυρῶς 
ἐπαινέοιμι τὸν σμικρὰ ἁμαρτάνοντα. τὸ δὲ ἀτρε- 
κὲς ὀλιγάκις ἔστι κατιδεῖν. ἐπεὶ οἱ πολλοί γε 
τῶν ἰητρῶν τὰ αὐτά μοι δοκέουσιν τοῖσι κακοῖσι 


strong, and suppose he were to eat one of the foods 
that would be beneficial and strength-giving to an ox 
or a horse, vetches or barley or something similar, 
not much of it, but far less than he could take. If 
the man in health did this he would suffer no less 
pain and danger than that sick man who took bread 
or barley-cake at a time when he ought not. ΑἸ] this 
goes to prove that this art of medicine, if research be 
continued on the same method, can all be discovered. 

IX. If the matter were simple, as in these in- 
stances, and both sick and well were hurt by too 
strong foods, benefited and nourished by weaker 
foods, there would be no difficulty. For recourse to 
weaker food must have secured a great degree of 
safety. But as it is, if a man takes insufficient food, 
the mistake is as great as that of excess, and harms 
the man just as much. For abstinence has upon 
the human constitution a most powerful effect, to 
enervate, to weaken and to kill. Depletion produces 
many other evils, different from those of repletion, but 
just as severe. Wherefore the greater complexity of 
these ills requires a more exact method of treatment. 
For it is necessary to aim at some measure. But no 
measure, neither number nor weight, by reference to 
which knowledge can be made exact, can be found 
except bodily feeling. Wherefore it is laborious to 
make knowledge so exact that only small mistakes 
are made here and there. And that physician who 
makes only small mistakes would win my hearty 
praise. Perfectly exact truth is but rarely to be seen. 
For most physicians seem to me to be in the same 






κυβερνήτῃσι πάσχειν. καὶ γὰρ ἐκεῖνοι ὅταν ἐν 
γαλήνῃ κυβερνῶντες ἁμαρτάνωσιν, οὐ καταφανέες 
εἰσίν" ὅταν δὲ αὐτοὺς κατάσχῃ χειμών τε μέγας 
καὶ ἄνεμος ἐξώστης, φανερῶς πᾶσιν ἤδη ἀνθρώ- 
ποις Ov ἀγνωσίην καὶ ἁμαρτίην δῆλοί εἰσιν ἀπο- 
λέσαντες τὴν ναῦν. οὕτω δὴ καὶ οἱ κακοί τε καὶ 
οἱ πλεῖστοι ἰητροί, ὅταν μὲν θεραπεύωσιν ἀνθρώ- 
πους μηδὲν δεινὸν ἔχοντας, ἐς ods ἄν τις τὰ 
μέγιστα ἐξαμαρτάνων. οὐδὲν δεινὸν ἐργάσαιτο-- 
πολλὰ δὲ τοιαῦτα νοσήματα καὶ πολλόν τι πλείω 
τῶν δεινῶν ἀνθρώποις συμβαένει---ἐν μὲν τοῖσι 
τοιούτοις ἁμαρτάνοντες οὐ καταφανέες εἰσὶν τοῖσιν 
ἰδιώτῃσιν" ὅταν δ᾽ ἐντύχωσιν μεγάλῳ τε καὶ 
ἰσχυρῷ καὶ ἐπισφαλεῖ νοσήματι, τότε σφέων τά 
Te ἁμαρτήματα καὶ ἡ ἀτεχνίη πᾶσι καταφανής" 
οὐ γὰρ ἐς μακρὸν αὐτῶν ἑκατέρου αἱ τιμωρίαι, 
ἀλλὰ διὰ τάχεος πάρεισιν. 

X. "OT 6 οὐδὲν ἐλάσσους ἀπὸ κενώσιος ἀκαίρου 
eae γίνονται TO ἀνθρώπῳ ἢ ἀπὸ πληρώ- 
σιος, καταμανθάνειν καλῶς ἔχει ἐπαναφέροντας 
mls Nabiac teh 7 othe Sif 
ἐπὶ τοὺς ὑγιαίνοντας. ἔστι yap οἷσιν αὐτῶν 
συμφέρει μονοσιτεῖν, καὶ τοῦτο διὰ τὸ συμφέρον 
οὕτως αὐτοὶ ἐτάξαντο, ἄλλοισι δὲ ᾿ἀριστῆν διὰ 
τὴν αὐτὴν ἀνάγκην" οὕτω γὰρ αὐτοῖσι συμφέρει. 
καὶ μὴν τοῦτ᾽ εἰσὶ oc) δι᾿ ἡδονὴν ἢ ἢ Ov ἄλλην τινὰ 
συγκυρίην ἐπετήδευσαν ὁπότερον αὐτῶν. τοῖς 
μὲν γὰρ πλείστοισι τῶν ἀνθρώπων οὐδὲν διαφέρει, 
ὁπότερον ἂν ἐπιτηδεύσωσιν, εἴτε μονοσιτεῖν εἴτε 
ἀριστῆν, τούτῳ τῷ ἔθει χρῆσθαι. εἰσὶ δέ τινες 
οἱ οὐκ ἂν δύναιντο ἔξω τοῦ συμφέροντος ποιέοντες 
ῥηϊδίως ἀπαλλάσσειν, ἀλλὰ συμβαίνει αὐτῶν 

1 καὶ μὴν τοῦτ᾽ εἰσὶ of Reinhold: μὴ τούτοισιν of MSS. 


case as bad pilots; the mistakes of the latter are 
unnoticed so long as they are steering in a calm, but, 
when a great storm overtakes them with a violent 
gale, all men realise clearly then that it is their 
ignorance and blundering which have lost the ship. 
So also when bad physicians, who comprise the great 
majority, treat men who are suffering from no serious 
complaint, so that the greatest blunders would not 
affect them seriously—such illnesses occur very often, 
being far more common than serious disease—they 
are not shown up in their true colours to laymen if 
their errors are confined to such cases; but when 
they meet with a severe, violent and dangerous 
illness, then it is that their errors and want of skill 
are manifest to all. The punishment of the impostor, 
whether sailor or doctor, is not postponed, but follows 

X. That the discomforts a man feels after un- 
seasonable abstinence are no less than those of 
unseasonable repletion, it were well to learn by a 
reference to men in health. For some of them 
benefit by taking one meal only each day, and 
because of this benefit they make a rule of having 
only one meal; others again, because of the same 
reason, that they are benefited thereby, take lunch 
also. Moreover some have adopted one or other of 
these two practices for the sake of pleasure or for 
some other chance reason. For the great majority 
of men can follow indifferently either the one habit or 
the other, and can take lunch or only one daily meal. 
Others again, if they were to do anything outside what 
is beneficial, would not get oft easily, but if they 






VA / “ 
ἑκατέροισι παρ᾽ ἡμέρην μιαν καὶ ταύτην οὐχ ὅλην 
/ (δ. \ / Ls \ \ 
μεταβάλλουσιν ὑπερφυὴς κακοπάθεια. οἱ μὲν yap 
\ / - / 
ἢν ἀριστήσωσιν μὴ συμφέροντος αὐτοῖσι, εὐθέως 
\ \ lal \ \ , 
Bapées καὶ νωθροὶ καὶ TO σῶμα καὶ THY γνώμην 
a NaN, / x 
χάσμης Te καὶ νυσταγμοῦ Kal δίψης πλήρεες" ἢν 
δὲ καὶ ἐπιδειπνήσωσι, καὶ φῦσα καὶ στρόφος καὶ 
ἡ κοιλίη καταρρήγνυται. καὶ πολλοῖσιν ἀρχὴ 
΄ / \ 
νούσου αὕτη μεγάλης ἐγένετο, Kal ἢν τὰ σιτία, ἃ 
/ le 
μεμαθήκεσαν ἅπαξ ἀναλίσκειν, ταῦτα δὶς προσ- 
\ / a SEK 
ενέγκωνται Kal μηδὲν πλείω. τοῦτο δέ, ἢν ἀρι- 
Qn ο [οἱ / 
στῆν μεμαθηκώς τις---καὶ οὕτως αὐτῷ συμφέρον 
lo / ¢ 
ἣν---μὴ ἀριστήσῃ, ὅταν τάχιστα παρέλθῃ ἡ ὥρη, 
7). ᾽ ΄ὔ 7, , > ΄ SUN ΄ 
εὐθὺς ἀδυναμίη δεινή, τρόμος, ἀψυχίη" ἐπὶ τού- 
γ᾽ Ν lal s / \ 
τοις ὀφθαλμοὶ κοῖλοι, οὖρον χλωρότερον Kal 
/ / 
θερμότερον, στόμα πικρόν, καὶ Ta σπλάγχνα 
an ε ΄ , , 
δοκεῖ of κρέμασθαι, σκοτοδινίη, δυσθυμίη, δυσερ- 
γείη. ταῦτα δὲ πάντα, καὶ ὅταν δειπνεῖν ἐπιχει- 
\ € a ΄ 
ρήσῃ, ἀηδέστερος μὲν ὁ σῖτος, ἀναλίσκειν δὲ οὐ 
ο , , / 
δύναται ὅσα ἀριστιζόμενος πρότερον ἐδείπνει. 
“ \ > \ \ / ἊΝ , 
ταῦτα δὲ αὐτὰ μετὰ στρόφου καὶ ψόφου κατα- 
\ 4 / / 
Baivovta συγκαίει THY κοιλίην, δυσκοιτέουσί τε 
, / \ , 
καὶ ἐνυπνιάζουσι τεταραγμένα τε Kal θορυβώδεα. 
an \ / ε A 4 , 
πολλοῖσι δὲ Kal τούτων αὕτη ἀρχὴ νούσου ἐγένετο. 
/ lal 
ΧΙ. Σκέψασθαι δὲ χρή, διὰ τίνα αἰτίην αὐτοῖσιν 
nr fal 5 , 
ταῦτα συνέβη. τῷ μέν, οἶμαι, μεμαθηκότι μονο- 
- ry \ / \ € , 
σιτεῖν, OTL οὐκ ἀνέμεινεν τὸν χρόνον TOV ἱκανόν, 
fal nw fol , 
μέχρι αὐτοῦ ἡ κοιλίη τῶν TH TPOTEpaly προσενη- 
΄ / 
νεγμένων σιτίων ἀπολαύσῃ τελέως καὶ ἐπικρα- 
͵ \ A \ ς ΄ b ? SEIN, 
τήσῃ καὶ λαπαχθῇ TE καὶ ἡσυχάσῃ, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ 


change their respective ways for a single day, nay, 
for a part of a single day, they suffer excessive dis- 
comfort. Some, who lunch although lunch does not 
suit them, forthwith become heavy and sluggish in 
body and in mind, a prey to yawning, drowsiness and 
thirst ; while, if they go on to eat dinner as well, 
flatulence follows with colic and violent diarrhoea. 
Many have found such action to result in a serious 
illness, even if the quantity of food they take twice 
a day be no greater than that which they have 
grown accustomed to digest once a day. On the 
other hand, if a man who has grown accustomed, 
and has found it beneficial, to take lunch, should 
miss taking it, he suffers, as soon as the lunch-hour 
is passed, from prostrating weakness, trembling and 
faintness. Hollowness of the eyes follows; urine 
becomes paler and hotter, and the mouth bitter; his 
bowels seem to hang; there come dizziness, depres- 
sion and listlessness. Besides all this, when he 
attempts to dine, he has the following troubles: 
his food is less pleasant, and he cannot digest what 
formerly he used to dine on when he had lunch. 
The mere food, descending into the bowels with 
colic and noise, burns them, and disturbed sleep 
follows, accompanied by wild and troubled dreams. 
Many such sufferers also have found these symptoms 
the beginning of an illness. 

XI. It is necessary to inquire into the cause why 
such symptoms come to these men. The one who 
had grown accustomed to one meal suffered, I think, 
because he did not wait sufficient time, until his 
digestive organs had completely digested and assimi- 
lated the food taken the day before, and until they 
had become empty and quiet, but had taken fresh 







, \ 
ζέουσάν τε καὶ ἐζυμωμένην Kawa ἐπεσηνέγκατο. 

δὲ τοιαῦται κοιλίαι πολλῷ τε βραδύτερον 
πέσσουσι καὶ πλείονος δέονται ἀναπαύσιός τε καὶ 
ἡσυχίης. ὁ δὲ μεμαθηκὼς ἀριστίξεσθαι, διότι, 
ἐπειδὴ τάχιστα ἐδεήθη τὸ σῶμα τροφῆς καὶ τὰ 
πρότερα κατανάλωτο καὶ οὐκ εἶχεν οὐδεμίαν 
ἀπόλαυσιν, οὐκ εὐθέως αὐτῷ προσεγένετο καινὴ 
τροφή. φθίνει δὴ καὶ συντήκεται ὑπὸ λιμοῦ. πάντα 
γάρ, ἃ λέγω πάσχειν τὸν τοιοῦτον ἄνθρωπον, 
λιμῷ ἀνατίθημι. φημὶ δὲ καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους ἀνθρώ- 
πους ἅπαντας, οἵτινες ἂν ὑγιαίνοντες ἄσιτοι δύο 
ἡμέρας ἢ τρεῖς γένωνται, ταῦτα πείσεσθαι, οἱάπερ 
ἐπὶ τῶν ἀναρίστων γενομένων εἴρηκα. 

XII. Τὰς δὲ τοιαύτας φύσιας ἔγωγέ. φημι τὰς 
ταχέως τε καὶ ἰσχυρῶς τῶν ἁμαρτημάτων ἀπο- 
λαυούσας ἀσθενεστέρας εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων. ἐγγύ- 
Tata δὲ τοῦ ἀσθενέοντός ἐστιν ὁ ἀσθενής, ἔτι δὲ 
ἀσθενέστερος ὁ ἀσθενέων, καὶ μᾶλλον αὐτῷ προσ- 
ἥκει ὅ TL ἂν τοῦ καιροῦ ἀποτυγχάνῃ πονεῖν. 
χαλεπτὸν de? "τοιαύτης ἀκριβείης ἐ ἐούσης περὶ τὴν 
τέχνην τυγχάνειν αἰεὶ τοῦ ἀτρεκεστάτου. πολλὰ 
δὲ εἴδεα κατ᾽ ἰητρικὴν ἐς τοσαύτην ἀκρίβειαν ἥ ἥκει, 
περὶ ὧν εἰρήσεται. οὔ φημι δὲ δεῖν διὰ τοῦτο 
τὴν τέχνην ὡς οὐκ ἐοῦσαν οὐδὲ καλῶς ξητεομένην 
τὴν ἀρχαίην ἀποβάλλεσθαι, εἰ μὴ ἔχει περὶ πάντα 
ἀκρίβειαν, ἀλλὰ πολὺ μᾶλλον διὰ τὸ ἐγγὺς οἶμαι 
τοῦ ἀτρεκεστάτου δύνασθαι ἥκειν λογισμῷ ἐκ 
πολλῆς ἀγνωσίης θαυμάζειν τὰ ἐξευρημένα, ὡς 
Hens καὶ ὀρθῶς ἐξεύρηται καὶ οὐκ ἀπὸ τύχης. 

1 ἐπὶ ζέουσαν Zwinger: ἐπιζέουσαν MSS. 
2 Littré with some MSS. reads μὴ here. 
3 After λογισμῷ in a MS. now lost occurred the words 
προσίεσθαι καὶ. 



food while the organs were still in a state of hot 
turmoil and ferment. Such organs digest much more 
slowly than others, and need longer rest and quiet. 
The man accustomed to take lunch, since no 
fresh nourishment was given him as soon as _ his 
body needed nourishment, when the previous meal 
was digested and there was nothing to sustain him, 
naturally wastes and pines away through want. For 
I put down to want all the symptoms which I have 
said such a man shows. And I assert furthermore 
that all other men besides, who when in good health 
fast for two or three days, will show the same 
symptoms as I have said those exhibit who do not 
take their lunch. 

XII. Such constitutions, I contend, that rapidly 
and severely feel the effects of errors, are weaker 
than the others. A weak man is but one step 
removed from a sickly man, but a sickly man is 
weaker still, and is more apt to suffer distress when- 
ever he misses the due season. And, while the art 
can admit of such nice exactness, it is difficult always 
to attain perfect accuracy. But many departments of 
medicine have reached such a pitch of exactness, 
and I will speak about them later. I declare, how- 
ever, that we ought not to reject the ancient art as 
non-existent, or on the ground that its method of 
inquiry is faulty, just because it has not attained 
exactness in every detail, but much rather, because 
it has been able by reasoning to rise from deep 
ignorance to approximately perfect accuracy, I think 
we ought to admire the discoveries as the work, not 
of chance, but of inquiry rightly and correctly con- 





XIII. ᾿Επὶ δὲ τῶν τὸν καινὸν τρόπον τὴν τέχνην 
ζητεύντων ἐξ ὑποθέσιος τὸν λόγον. ἐπανελθεῖν 
βούλομαι. εἰ γάρ τί ἐστιν θερμὸν ἢ ψυχρὸν ἢ 
ξηρὸν ἢ ἢ ὑγρὸν τὸ λυμαινόμενον τὸν ἄνθρωπον, καὶ 
δεῖ τὸν ὀρθῶς ἰ ἰητρεύοντα βοηθεῖν τῷ μὲν θερμῷ 
ἐπὶ τὸ ψυχρόν, τῷ δὲ ψυχρῷ ἐπὶ τὸ θερμόν, τῷ 
δὲ ξηρῷ ἐπὶ τὸ ὑγρόν, τῷ δὲ ὑγρῷ ἐπὶ τὸ ξηρόν. 
ἔστω μοι ἄνθρωπος μὴ τῶν ἰσχυρῶν φύσει, ἀλλὰ 
τῶν ἀσθενεστέρων" οὗτος δὲ πυροὺς ἐσθιέτω, οὺς 
ἂν ἀπὸ τῆς ἅλω ἀνέλῃ, ὠμοὺς καὶ ἀργούς, καὶ 
κρέα ὠμὰ καὶ πινέτω ὕδωρ. ταύτῃ χρεώμενος τῇ 
διαίτῃ εὖ οἶδ᾽ ὅτι πείσεται πολλὰ καὶ δεινά" καὶ 
γὰρ πόνους πονήσει καὶ τὸ σῶμα ἀσθενὲς ἔσται 
καὶ ἡ κοιλίη φθαρήσεται καὶ ζῆν πολὺν χρόνον 
οὐ δυνήσεται. τί δὴ χρὴ βοήθημα παρεσκευάσθαι 
ὧδ᾽ ἔχοντι; θερμὸν ἢ ψυχρὸν ἢ ξηρὸν ἢ ὑγρόν; 
δῆλον γὰρ ὅ ὅτι τούτων Tl. εἰ γὰρ τὸ λυμαινόμενόν 
ἐστιν τούτων τὸ ἕτερον, τῷ ὑπεναντίῳ προσήκει 
λῦσαι, ὡς ὁ ἐκείνων λόγος ἔχει. τὸ μὲν γὰρ 
βεβαιότατόν τε καὶ προφανέστατον φάρμακον 
ἀφελόντα τὰ διαιτήματα, οἷς ἐχρῆτο, ἀντὶ μὲν 
τῶν πυρῶν ἄρτον διδόναι, ἀντὶ δὲ τῶν ὠμῶν κρεῶν 
ἐἑφθά, πιεῖν τε ἐπὶ τούτοισιν οἴνου. ταῦτα μετα- 
βαλόντα οὐχ οἷόν τε μὴ οὐχ ὑγιᾶ 'γενέσθαι, ἤν 
γε μὴ παντάπασιν ἢ διεφθαρμένος ὑπὸ χρόνου τε 
καὶ τῆς διαίτης. τί δὴ φήσομεν; πότερον αὐτῷ 
ἀπὸ ψυχροῦ κακοπαθέοντι θερμὰ ταῦτα προσε- 
νέγκαντες ὠφέλησαν ἢ ἢ τἀναντία; οἶμαι γὰρ ἔγωγε 

πολλὴν ἀπορίην τῷ ἐρωτηθέντι παρασχεῖν. ὁ γὰρ 
τὸν ἄρτον παρασκευάξων τῶν πυρῶν τὸ θερμὸν 

ἢ τὸ ψυχρὸν ἢ τὸ ξηρὸν ἢ τὸ ὑγρὸν ἀφείλατο ; 



XIII. But I want to return to the theory of those 
who prosecute their researches in the art after 
the novel fashion, building on a postulate. For if 
there be such a thing as heat, or cold, or dryness, 
or moistness, which injures a man, it necessarily 
follows that the scientific healer will counteract cold 
with hot, hot with cold, moist with dry and dry 
with moist. Now suppose we have a man whose 
constitution is not strong, but weaker than the 
average. Let this man’s food be wheat straight 
from the threshing-floor, unworked and uncooked, 
and raw meat, and let his drink be water. The use 
of this diet will assuredly cause him much severe 
suffering ; he will experience pains and_ physical 
weakness, his digestion will be ruined and he will 
not be able to live long. Well, what remedy should 
be prepared for a man in this condition? Heat or 
cold or dryness or moistness ? One of these, plainly ; 
for, according to the theory of the new school, if 
the injury was caused by one of the opposites, the 
other opposite ought to be a specific. Of course the 
most obvious as well as the most reliable medicine 
would be to abandon his old diet, and to give him 
bread instead of wheat, boiled meat instead of raw 
meat, and besides these things, a little wine to 
drink. This change must restore him to his health, 
unless indeed it has been entirely ruined by long 
continuance of the diet. What then shall we say? 
That he was suffering from cold, and that the taking 
of these hot things benefited him? Or shall we say 
the opposite? I think that I have nonplussed my 
opponent. For is it the heat of the wheat, or the 
cold, or the dryness, or the moistness, that the baker 
took away from it? .For a thing which has been 






ὃ γὰρ καὶ πυρὶ καὶ ὕδατι δέδοται καὶ ἄλλοις 
πολλοῖσι ἤργασται, ὧν ἕκαστον ἰδίην δύναμιν καὶ 
φύσιν ἔχει, τὰ μὲν τῶν ὑπαρχόντων ἀποβέβληκε, 
ἄλλοισι δὲ κέκρηταί τε καὶ μέμικται. 

XIV. Οἶδα μὲν γὰρ καὶ τάδε δήπου, ὅ ὅτι δια- 
φέρει ἐς τὸ σῶμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου. καθαρὸς ἄρτος ἢ 
συγκομιστός, ἢ ἀπτίστων πυρῶν ἢ ἐπτισμένων, 
ἢ πολλῷ ὕδατι πεφυρημένος ἢ ὀλίγῳ, ἢ ἰσχυρῶς 
πεφυρημένος, ἢ ἀφύρητος, ἢ ἔξοπτος ἢ “ἔνωμος, 
ἄλλα τε πρὸς τούτοισι μυρία. ὡς δ᾽ αὔτως καὶ 
περὶ μάζης. καὶ αἱ δυνάμιες μεγάλαι τε ἑκάστου 
καὶ οὐδὲν ἡ ἑτέρη τῇ ἑτέρῃ ἐοικυῖα. ὅστις δὲ 
ταῦτα οὐκ ἐπέσκεπται ἢ σκεπτόμενος οὐκ οἶδεν, 
πῶς ἄν τι οὗτος δύναιτο τῶν κατ᾽ ἄνθρωπον 
παθημάτων εἰδέναι; ὑπὸ γὰρ ἑνὸς ἑκάστου τούτων 
πάσχει τε καὶ ἑτεροιοῦται ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἢ τοῖον ἢ 
τοῖον. καὶ διὰ τούτων πᾶς ὁ βίος καὶ ὑγιαίνοντι 
καὶ ἐκ νούσου ἀνατρεφομένῳ καὶ κάμνοντι. οὐκ 
ἂν οὖν ἕτερα τούτων χρησιμώτερα οὐδὲ ἀναγκαι- 
ότερα εἴη εἰδέναι δήπου, ὡς δὲ καλῶς καὶ λογισμῷ 
προσήκοντι ζητήσαντες πρὸς τὴν τοῦ ἀνθρώπου 
φύσιν εὗρον αὐτὰ οἱ πτρῶτοι εὑρόντες καὶ φήθησαν 
ἀξίην τὴν τέχνην θεῷ προσθεῖναι, ὥσπερ καὶ 
νομίζεται. οὐ γὰρ τὸ ξηρὸν οὐδὲ τὸ ὑγρὸν οὐδὲ 
τὸ θερμὸν οὐδὲ τὸ ψυχρὸν οὐδὲ ἄλλο τούτων 
ἡγησάμενοι οὐδὲν οὔτε λυμαίνεσθαι οὔτε προσδεῖ- 
σθαι οὐδενὸς τούτων τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ἀλλὰ τὸ 
ἰσχυρὸν ἑκάστου καὶ τὸ κρέσσον τῆς φύσιος τῆς 
ἀνθρωπείης, οὗ μὴ ἠδύνατο κρατεῖν, τοῦτο BXa- 

1 Or ‘‘ power.” 2 Or “ powers.” 



exposed to fire and to water, and has been made by 
many other things, each of which has its own indivi- 
dual property! and nature, has lost some of its qualities 
and has been mixed and combined with others. 

XIV. Of course I know also that it makes a differ- 
ence to a man’s body whether bread be of bolted or 
of unbolted flour, whether it be of winnowed or of 
unwinnowed wheat, whether it be kneaded with 
much water or with little, whether it be thoroughly 
kneaded or unkneaded, whether it be thoroughly 
baked or underbaked, and there are countless other 
differences. Barley-cake varies in just the same 
way. The properties? too of each variety are 
powerful, and no one is like to any other. But how 
could he who has not considered these truths, or 
who considers them without learning, know anything 
about human ailments? For each of these differences 
produces in a human being an effect and a change of 
one sort or another, and upon these differences is 
based all the dieting of a man, whether he be in 
health, recovering from an illness, or suffering from 
one. Accordingly there could surely be nothing 
more useful or more necessary to know than these 
things, and how the first discoverers, pursuing their 
inquiries excellently and with suitable application 
of reason to the nature of man, made their dis- 
coveries, and thought the art worthy to be ascribed 
to a god, as in fact is the usual belief. For they did, 
not consider that the dry or the moist or the hot or 
the cold or anything else of the kind injures a man, 
or that he has need of any such thing, but they 
considered that it is the strength of each thing, that 
which, being too powerful for the human constitu- 
tion, it cannot assimilate, which causes harm, and 





πτειν ἡγήσαντο καὶ τοῦτο ἐξήτησαν ἀφαιρεῖν. 
ἰσχυρότατον δ᾽ ἐστὶ τοῦ μὲν γλυκέος τὸ γλυκύ- 
τατον, τοῦ δὲ πικροῦ τὸ πικρότατον, τοῦ δὲ ὀξέος 
τὸ ὀξύτατον, ἑκάστου δὲ πάντων τῶν ἐνεόντων ἡ 
ἀκμή. ταῦτα γὰρ ἑώρων καὶ ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ 
ἐνεόντα καὶ λυμαινόμενα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. ἔνε γὰρ 
ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ ἁλμυρὸν καὶ πικρὸν καὶ γλυκὺ 
καὶ ὀξὺ καὶ στρυφνὸν καὶ πλαδαρὸν καὶ ἄλλα 
μυρία παντοίας δυνάμιας ἔχοντα πλῆθός τε καὶ 
ἰσχύν. ταῦτα μὲν μεμιγμένα καὶ κεκρημένα 
ἀλλήλοισιν οὔτε φανερά ἐστιν οὔτε λυπεῖ τὸν 
ἄνθρωπον. ὅταν δέ τι τούτων ἀποκριθῇ καὶ αὐτὸ 
ἐφ᾽ ἑωυτοῦ γένηται, τότε καὶ φανερόν ἐστι καὶ 
λυπεῖ τὸν ἄνθρωπον: τοῦτο δέ, τῶν βρωμάτων 
ὅσα ἡμῖν ἀνεπιτήδειά ἐστιν καὶ λυμαίνεται τὸν 
ἄνθρωπον ἐμπεσόντα, τούτων. ἕν ἕκαστον ἢ πικρόν 
ἐστιν "ἢ ἁλμυρὸν ἢ ὀξὺ ἢ ἄλλο τι ἄκρητόν 
τε καὶ ἰσχυρόν, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο “ταρασσόμεθα 
ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν, ὥσπερ καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ἐν τῷ σώματι 
ἀποκρινομένων. πάντα δὲ ὅσα ἄνθρωπος ἐσθίει 
ἢ πίνει, τὰ τοιαῦτα βρώματα ἥκιστα τοιούτου 
χυμοῦ ἀκρήτου τε καὶ διαφέροντος δῆλά ἐστιν 
μετέχοντα, οἷον ἄρτος τε καὶ μᾶξα καὶ τὰ ἑπόμενα 
τούτοις, οἷς εἴθισται ὁ ἄνθρωπος πλείστοισί τε 
καὶ αἰεὶ χρῆσθαι, ἔξω τῶν πρὸς ἡδονήν τε καὶ κόρον 
ἠρτυμένων τ καὶ ἐσκευασμένων. _ καὶ ἀπὸ τούτων 
πλείστων ἐσιόντων ἐς τὸν ἄνθρωπον τάραχος καὶ 
ἀπόκρισις τῶν ἀμφὶ τὸ σῶμα δυναμίων ἥκιστα 
γίνεται, ἰσχὺς δὲ καὶ αὔξησις καὶ τροφὴ μάλιστα 
δι’ οὐδὲν ἕτερον γίνεται ἢ ὅτι εὖ τε κέκρηται καὶ 
οὐδὲν ἔχει οὔτε ἄκρητον οὔτε ἰσχυρόν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅλον 
ἕν τε γέγονε καὶ ἁπλοῦν. 



this they sought to take away. The strongest 
part of the sweet is the sweetest, of the bitter 
the most bitter, of the acid the most acid, and 
each of all the component parts of man has its 
extreme. For these they saw are component 
parts of man, and that they are injurious to 
him ; for there is in man salt and bitter, sweet 
and acid, astringent and insipid,! and a vast number 
of other things, possessing properties of all sorts, 
both in number and in strength. These, when 
mixed and compounded with one another are neither 
apparent nor do they hurt a man; but when one of 
them is separated off, and stands alone, then it is 
apparent and hurts a man. Moreover, of the foods 
that are unsuitable for us and hurt a man when 
taken, each one of them is either bitter, or salt, 
or acid, or something else uncompounded and 
strong, and for this reason we are disordered by 
them, just as we are by the secretions separated 
off in the body. But all things that a man eats 
or drinks are plainly altogether free from such an 
uncompounded and potent humour, e.g. bread, cake, 
and suchlike, which men are accustomed constantly 
to use in great quantity, except the highly seasoned 
delicacies which gratify his appetite and greed. 
And from such foods, when plentifully partaken of 
by a man, there arises no disorder at all or isolation 
of the powers? resident in the body, but strength, 
growth and nourishment in great measure arise from 
them, for no other reason except that they are 
well compounded, and have nothing undiluted and 
strong, but form a single, simple whole. 

1 Or ‘flat,’ the opposite of “sharp.” 2. Or “ properties.” 




᾽ ’ v τε \ , :) lal 
XV. ᾿Απορέω δ᾽ ἔγωγε, οἱ τὸν λόγον ἐκεῖνον 
͵ iol ς fa 
λέγοντες καὶ ἄγοντες ἐκ ταύτης τῆς ὁδοῦ ἐπὶ 
e / / / 
ὑπόθεσιν THY τέχνην τίνα ποτὲ τρόπον θεραπεύ- 
\ “ A 
ovat τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ὥσπερ ὑποτίθενται. οὐ 
γάρ ἐστιν αὐτοῖς, οἶμαι, ἐξευρημένον αὐτό τι ἐφ᾽ 
ἑωυτοῦ θερμὸν ἢ ψυχρὸν ἢ ξηρὸν ἢ ὑγρὸν μηδενὶ 
ἄλλῳ εἴδει κοινωνέον. ἀλλ᾽ οἴομαι ἔγωγε ταὐτὰ 
βρώματα καὶ πόματα αὐτοῖσι ὑπάρχειν, οἷσι 
, / A πὴ 
πάντες χρεώμεθα. προστιθέασι δὲ τῷ μὲν εἶναι 
θερμῷ, τῷ δὲ ψυχρῷ, τῷ δὲ ξηρῷ, τῷ δὲ ὑγρῷ, 
ἐπεὶ ἐκεῖνό γε ἄπορον “προστάξαι τῷ κάμνοντι 
θερμόν τι προσενέγκασθαι. εὐθὺ γὰρ ἐρωτήσει" 
“ aA 3 ΄ A 
τί; ὥστε ληρεῖν ἀνάγκη ἢ ἐς τούτων TL τῶν γινω- 
σκομένων καταφεύγειν. εἰ δὲ δὴ τυγχάνει τι 
\ \ / » \ Χ 3N\ 
θερμὸν ἐὸν στρυφνόν, ἄλλο δὲ θερμὸν ἐὸν πλα- 
ἐφ ya \ \ ” ” » \ \ 
dapov, ἄλλο δὲ θερμὸν ἄραδον ἔχον --ἔστι yap Kal 
» \ \ \ » 7 ΄ » 
ἄλλα πολλὰ θερμὰ καὶ ἄλλας δυνάμιας ἔχοντα 
id lal e / n 
ἑωυτοῖς ὑπεναντίας --- ἢ διοίσει τὸ" αὐτῶν προσε- 
νεγκεῖν τὸ θερμὸν καὶ στρυφνὸν ἢ τὸ θερμὸν καὶ 
πλαδαρὸν ἣ ἢ ἅμα τὸ ψυχρὸν καὶ στρυφνόν- ἔστι 
γὰρ καὶ τοιοῦτο--ἢ τὸ ψυχρόν τε καὶ πλαδαρόν' 
ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐγὼ οἶδα, πᾶν τοὐναντίον ἀφ᾽ ἑκατέρου 
αὐτῶν ἀποβαίνει, οὐ μοῦνον ἐν ἀνθρώπῳ, ἀλλὰ 
\ ’ / \ 3 , ‘ > ” lal 
καὶ ἐν OKUTEL καὶ ἐν ξύλῳ καὶ ἐν ἄλλοις πολλοῖς, 
\ \ 
ἅ ἐστιν ἀνθρώπου ἀναισθητότερα. οὐ γὰρ τὸ 
θερμόν ἐστιν τὸ τὴν μεγάλην δύναμιν ἐ ἔχον, ἀλλὰ 
τὸ στρυφνὸν καὶ τὸ πλαδαρὸν καὶ τἄλλα ὅσα μοι 
εἴρηται καὶ ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ καὶ ἔξω τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, 
καὶ ἐσθιόμενα καὶ πινόμενα καὶ ἔξωθεν ἐπιχριό- 
μενά τε καὶ προσπλασσόμενα. 

1.2 διοίσει τι M: εἰ δεοίσει τί A: εἰ δεήσει τι most MSS.: 
δεήσει δέ τι Littré: ἢ μὴ διοίσει τι ; Gomperz. 



XV. Iam ata loss to understand how those who 
maintain the other view, and abandon the old method 
to rest the art on a postulate, treat their patients 
on the lines of their postulate. For they have 
not discovered, I think, an absolute hot or cold, 
dry or moist, that participates in no other form. 
But 1 think that they have at their disposal the 
same foods and the same drinks as we all use, 
and to one they add the attribute of being hot, to 
another, cold, to another, dry, to another, moist, 
since it would be futile to order a patient to take 
something hot, as he would at once ask, “ What hot 
thing?” So that they must either talk nonsense 
or have recourse to one of these known substances. 
And if one hot thing happens to be astringent, and 
another hot thing insipid, and a third hot thing 
causes flatulence (for there are many various kinds 
of hot things, possessing many opposite powers), 
surely it will make a difference whether he adminis- 
ters the hot astringent thing, or the hot insipid 
thing, or that which is cold and astringent at the 
same time (for there is such a thing), or the cold 
insipid thing. For [ am sure that each of these 
pairs produces exactly the opposite of that produced 
by the other, not only in a man, but in a leathern 
or wooden vessel, and in many other things less 
sensitive than man. For it is not the heat which 
possesses the great power, but the astringent and 
the insipid, and the other qualities I have mentioned, 
both in man and out of man, whether eaten or 
drunk, whether applied externally as ointment or as 






XK Vie Ψυχρότητα δ᾽ ἐγὼ καὶ θερμότητα πασέων 
ἥκιστα τῶν δυναμίων νομίξω δυναστεύειν ἐν τῷ 
σώματι διὰ τάσδε τὰς αἰτίας" ὃν μὲν ἂν δήπου 
χρόνον μεμιγμένα αὐτὰ ἑωυτοῖς ἅμα τὸ θερμόν 
τε καὶ ψυχρὸν ἐνῇ, οὐ λυπεῖ. “κρῆσις γὰρ καὶ 
μετριότης TO μὲν θερμῷ γίνεται ἀπὸ τοῦ ψυχροῦ, 
τῷ δὲ ψυχρῷ ἀπὸ τοῦ θερμοῦ. ὅταν δ᾽ ἀπο- 
κριθῇ χωρὶς ἑκάτερον, τότε λυπεῖ. ἐν δὲ δὴ 
τούτῳ τῷ καιρῷ, ὅταν τὸ ψυχρὸν ἐπιγένηται 
καί τι λυπήσῃ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, διὰ τάχεος 

πρῶτον δ αὐτὸ τοῦτο πάρεστιν τὸ θερμὸν 
αὐτόθεν ἐκ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου, οὐδεμιῆς βοηθείης οὐδὲ 
παρασκευῆς δεόμενον. καὶ ταῦτα καὶ ἐν ὑγιαί- 
νουσι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἀπεργάζεται καὶ ἐν κάμνουσι. 
τοῦτο μέν, εἴ τις θέλει ὑγιαίνων χειμῶνος διαψῦξαι 
τὸ σῶμα ἢ λουσάμενος ψυχρῷ, ἢ ἄλλῳ τῳ τρόπῳ, 
ὅσῳ ἂν ἐπὶ πλεῖον αὐτὸ ποιήσῃ, καὶ ἤν γε μὴ 
παντάπασιν παγῇ τὸ σῶμα, ὅταν εἵματα λάβῃ 
καὶ ἔλθῃ ἐς τὴν σκέπην, ἔτι μᾶλλον καὶ ἐπὶ 
πλεῖον θερμαίνεται τὸ σῶμα' τοῦτο δέ, εἰ ἐθέλοι 
ἐκθερμανθῆναι ἰ ἰσχυρῶς ἢ λουτρῷ θερμῷ ἢ πυρὶ 
πολλῷ, ἐκ δὲ τούτου τὸ αὐτὸ εἷμα ἔχων ἐν τῷ 
αὐτῷ χωρίῳ τὴν διατριβὴν ποιεῖσθαι ὥσπερ διε- 
ψυγμένος, πολὺ φαίνεται καὶ ψυχρότερος καὶ 

ἄλλως φρικαλεώτερος" ἢ εἰ ῥιπιξόμενός τις ὑπὸ 
πνίγεος καὶ παρασκευαζόμενος αὐτὸς ἑωυτῷ ψῦχος 
ἐκ τοιούτου ἂν τρόπου διαπαύσαιτο τοῦτο ποιέων, 
δεκαπλάσιον ἔσται τὸ καῦμα καὶ πνῖγος ἢ τῷ 
μηδὲν τοιοῦτο ποιέοντι. 

Τόδε δὴ καὶ πολὺ μέζον." ὅσοι, ἂν διὰ χιόνος 
ἢ ἄλλου ψύχεος βαδίσαντες ῥιγώσωσι δια- 
φερόντως πόδας ἢ χεῖρας ἢ κεφαλήν, οἷα 


XVI. And I believe that of all the powers! none 
hold less sway in the body than cold and heat. My 
reasons are these. So long as the hot and cold in the 
body are mixed up together, they cause no pain. For 
the hot is tempered and moderated by the cold, and 
the cold by the hot. But when either is entirely se- 
parated from the other, then it causes pain. And at 
that season, when cold comes upon a man and causes 
him some pain, for that very reason internal heat 
first is present quickly and spontaneously, without 
needing any help or preparation. The result is the 
same, whether men be diseased or in_ health. 
For instance, if a man in health will cool his 
body in winter, either by a cold bath or in any 
other way, the more he cools it (provided that his 
body is not entirely frozen) the more he becomes 
hotter than before when he puts his clothes on and 
enters his shelter. Again, if he will make himself 
thoroughly hot by means of either a hot bath of 
a large fire, and afterwards wear the same clothes 
and stay in the same place as he did when chilled, he 
feels far colder and besides more shivery than before. 
Or if a man fan himself because of the stifling heat 
and make coolness for himself, on ceasing to do this 
in this way he will feel ten times the stifling heat felt 
by one who does nothing of the sort. 

Now the following is much stronger evidence still. 
All who go afoot through snow or great cold, and 
become over-chilled in feet, hands or head, suffer at 

1 Or ‘‘ properties.” 





πάσχουσιν ἐς τὴν νύκτα, ὅταν περισταλεωσί 
τε καὶ ἐν ἀλέῃ γένωνται ὑπὸ καύματος καὶ 
κνησμοῦ. καὶ ἔστιν οἷσι φλύκταιναι ἀνίστανται 
ὥσπερ τοῖς ἀπὸ πυρὸς κατακεκαυμένοις. καὶ οὐ 
πρότερον τοῦτο πάσχουσιν, πρὶν θερμανθέωσιν. 
οὕτως ἑτοίμως ἑκάτερον αὐτῶν ἐπὶ θάτερον παρα- 
γίνεται. μυρία δ᾽ ἂν καὶ ἄλλα ἔχοιμι εἰπεῖν. τὰ 
δὲ κατὰ τοὺς νοσέοντας, οὐχὶ ὅσοις ἂν ῥῖγος 
γένηται, τούτοις ὀξύτατος ὁ πυρετὸς ἐκλάμπει; 
καὶ οὐχὶ ὅπως ἰσχυρός, ἀλλὰ καὶ παυόμενος 
δι᾽ ὀλίγου, καὶ ἄλλως τὰ πολλὰ ἀσινὴς καὶ ὅσον 
ἂν χρόνον παρῇ διάθερμος; καὶ διεξιὼν διὰ παντὸς 
τελευτᾷ ἐς τοὺς πόδας μάλιστα, οὗπερ τὸ ῥῖγος 
καὶ ἡ ψύξις νεηνικωτάτη καὶ ἐπὶ πλεῖον ἐνεχρό- 
νισεν' πάλιν τε ὅταν ἱδρώσῃ τε καὶ ἀπαλλαγῇ ὁ 
TUPETOS, πολὺ μᾶλλον διέψυξε ἢ ἢ εἰ μὴ ἔλαβε τὴν 
ἀρχήν. ὧ οὖν διὰ τάχεος οὕτω παραγίνεται τὸ 
ἐναντιώτατόν τε καὶ ἀφαιρεόμενον τὴν δύναμιν 
ἀπὸ τωὐτομάτου, τί ἂν ἀπὸ τούτου μέγα ἢ δεινὸν 
γένοιτο; ἢ τί δεῖ πολλῆς ἐπὶ τούτῳ βοηθείης; 
XVII. Εἴποι ἄν τις" ἀλλ᾽ οἱ πυρεταίνοντες 
τοῖσι καὐσοισίτε καὶ περιπνευμονίῃσι καὶ ἄλλοισι 
ἰσχυροῖσι νοσήμασι οὐ ταχέως ἐκ τῆς θέρμης 
ἀπαλλάσσονται, οὐδὲ πάρεστιν ἐνταῦθα ἔτι τὸ 
θερμὸν ἢ ἢ τὸ “Ψυχρόν. ἐγὼ δέ μοι τοῦτο μέγιστον 
τεκμήριον ἡγεῦμαι εἶναι, ὅτι οὐ διὰ τὸ θερμὸν 
ἁπλῶς πυρεταίνουσιν οἱ ἄνθρωποι, οὐδὲ τοῦτο εἴη 
τὸ αἴτιον THs κακώσιος μοῦνον, ἀλλ᾽ ἔστι καὶ 
πικρὸν καὶ θερμὸν τὸ αὐτό, καὶ ὀξὺ καὶ θερμόν, 

1 οὐχὶ ὅπως Diels: οὐχὶ οὕτως A: οὐχ οὕτως Μ. 
2 ἰσχυρὺς Coray: ἰσχυρῶς MSS. 



night very severely from burning and tingling when 
they come into a warm place and wrap up; in some 
cases blisters arise like those caused by burning in 
fire. But it is not until they are warmed that they 
experience these symptoms. So ready is cold to pass 
into heat and heat into cold. I could give a multi- 
tude of other proofs. But in the case of sick folk, is it 
not those who have suffered from shivering in whom 
breaks out the most acute fever? And not only is it 
not powerful, but after a while does it not subside, 
generally without doing harm all the time it remains, 
hot as it is? And passing through all the body it 
ends in most cases in the feet, where the shivering 
and chill were most violent and lasted unusually long. 
Again, when the fever disappears with the breaking 
out of the perspiration, it cools the patient so that 
he is far colder than if he had never been attacked at 
all. What important or serious consequence, there- 
fore, could come from that thing on which quickly 
supervenes in this way its exact opposite, spontane- 
ously annulling its effect?! Or what need has it of 
elaborate tr eatment} p 

XVII. An opponent may retort, “But patients 
whose fever comes from ardent fevers,’ pneumonia, 
or other virulent disease, do not quickly get rid of 
their feverishness, and in these cases the heat and 
cold no longer alternate.” Now I consider that 
herein lies my strongest evidence that men are not 
feverish merely through heat, and that it could not be 
the sole cause of the harm; the truth being that one 
and the same thing is both bitter and hot, or acid and 

1 Or ‘‘ power.” 
2 καῦσος was almost certainly a form of remittent malaria. 
See my Malaria and Greek History (index), 







Kal ἁλμυρὸν Kal θερμόν, καὶ ἄλλα μυρία, καὶ 
πάλιν γε ψυχρὸν μετὰ δυναμίων ἑ ἑτέρων. τὰ μὲν 
οὖν λυμαινόμενα ταῦτ᾽ ἐστί: συμπάρεστι δὲ καὶ 
τὸ θερμόν, ῥώμης μὲν ἔχον ὅσον τὸ" ἡγεύμενον 
καὶ παροξυνόμενον καὶ αὐξόμενον ἅμα ἐκείνῳ, 
δύναμιν δὲ οὐδεμίαν πλείω τῆς προσηκούσης. 

XVIII. Δῆλα δὲ ταῦτα ὅτι ὧδε ἔχει ἐπὶ τῶνδε 
τῶν σημείων: πρῶτον μὲν ἐπὶ τὰ φανερώτερα, 
ὧν πάντες ἔμπειροι πολλάκις ἐσμέν τε καὶ ἐσό- 
μεθα. τοῦτο μὲν γάρ, ὅσοισι ἂν ἡμέων Koputa 
ἐγγένηται καὶ ῥεῦμα κινηθῇ διὰ τῶν ῥινῶν, τοῦτο 
ὡς τὸ πολὺ δριμύτερον τοῦ πρότερον γινομένου 
τε καὶ ἰόντος ἐκ τῶν ῥινῶν καθ᾽ ἑκάστην ἡμέρην 
καὶ οἰδεῖν μὲν ποιεῖ τὴν ῥῖνα καὶ συγκαίει θερμήν 
τε καὶ διάπυρον ἐσχάτως, ἣν δὴ ὃ τὴν χεῖρα προσ- 
φέρῃς" ay πλείω χρόνον παρῇ, καὶ ἐξελκοῦται 
τὸ χωρίον ἄσαρκόν τε καὶ σκληρὸν ἐόν. παύεται 
δέ πως τὸ καῦμα ἐκ τῆς ῥινός, οὐχ ὅταν τὸ ῥεῦμα 
γίνηται καὶ ἡ φλεγμονὴ ἦ, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπειδὰν παχύ- 
τερόν τε καὶ ἧσσον δριμὺ ῥ ῥέῃ, πέπον καὶ μεμιγμέ- 
νον μᾶλλον τοῦ πρότερον EO τότε δὲ ἤδη 
καὶ τὸ καῦμα πέπαυται. ἀλλ᾽ οἷσι δὲ ὃ ὑπὸ ψύχεος 
φανερῶς αὐτοῦ μούνου γίνεται μηδενὸς ἄλλου 
συμπαραγενομένου, πᾶσι δὲ ἡ αὐτὴ ἀπαλλαγή, 
ἐκ μὲν τῆς ψύξιος διαθερμαιθῆναι, ἐκ δὲ τοῦ 
καύματος διαψυχθῆναι, καὶ ταῦτα ταχέως παρα- 
γίνεται καὶ πέψιος οὐδεμιῆς προσδεῖται. τὰ δ᾽ 

1 μὲν ἔχον ὅσον τὸ Reinhold: μετέχον, ὡς ἂν τὸ MSS. 

ἐπὶ τὰ AM: ἐστι many MSS.: ἔπι τὰ Kiihlewein. 
ἐσχάτως, ἣν δὴ Coray: ἐσχάτως. ἢν δὲ MSS. 
τοῦ πρότερον γινομένου Coray and Reinhold: τὸ πρότερον 
γινομένῳ A: τῷ πρότερον γινομένῳ Μ. 

5 ἀλλ᾽ οἷσι δὲ Littré: ἄλλοισι δὲ MSS. 

"Ὁ (ὦ to 


hot, or salt and hot, with numerous other combina- 
tions, and cold again combines with other powers.} 
It is these things which cause the harm. Heat, too, 
is present, but merely as a concomitant, having the 
strength of the directing factor which is aggravated 
and increases with the other factor, but having no 
power” greater than that which properly belongs 
to it. 

XVIII. That this is so is plain if we consider the 
following pieces of evidence. First we have the more 
obvious symptoms, which all of us often experience 
and will continue so to do. In the first place, those 
of us who suffer from cold in the head, with discharge 
from the nostrils, generally find this discharge more 
acrid than that which previously formed there and 
daily passed from the nostrils; it makes the nose 
swell, and inflames it to an extremely fiery heat, as 
is shown if you put your hand upon it.3 And if the 
disease be present for an unusually long time, the 
part actually becomes ulcered, although it is without 
flesh and hard. But in some way the heat of the 
nostril ceases, not when the discharge takes place 
and the inflammation is present, but when the 
running becomes thicker and less acrid, being matured 
and more mixed than it was before, then it is that 
the heat finally ceases. But in cases where the evil 
obviously comes from cold alone, unaccompanied by 
anything else, there is always the same change, heat 
following chill and chill heat, and these supervene 
at once, and need no coction. In all other instances, 

1 Or “ properties.” 

2 Or ‘‘ effect.” 

° Or, with the MSS. reading, ‘And if you keep putting 
your hand to it, and the catarrh last a long time,” ete. 






ἄλλα πάντα, ὅσα διὰ χυμῶν δριμύτητας καὶ 
ἀκρησίας, φημὶ ἔγωγε γίνεσθαι τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον 
καὶ ἀποκαθίστασθαι “πεφθέντα καὶ κρηθέντα. 
XIX “Ὅσα τε αὖ ἐπὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς τρέπεται 
τῶν ῥευμάτων, ἰσχυρὰς καὶ παντοίας δριμύτητας 
ἔχοντα, ἑλκοῖ μὲν βλέφαρα, κατεσθίει δ᾽ ἐνίων 
γνάθους τε καὶ τὰ ὑπὸ τοῖσι ὀφθαλμοῖσι, ἐφ᾽ ὅ τι 
ἂν ἐπιρρυῇ, ῥήγνυσι δὲ καὶ διεσθίει τὸν ἀμφὶ τὴν 
ὄψιν χιτῶνα. ὀδύναι δὲ καὶ καῦμα καὶ φλογμὸς 
ἔσχατος κατέχει μέχρι τινός, μέχρι ἂν τὰ ῥεύματα 
πεφθῇ καὶ γένηται παχύτερα καὶ λήμη ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν 
ἦ. τὸ δὲ πεφθῆναι γίνεται ἐκ τοῦ μιχθῆναι καὶ 
κρηθῆναι ἀλλήλοισι καὶ συνεψηθῆναι. τοῦτο δέ, 
ὅσα ἐς τὴν φάρυγγα, ἀφ᾽ ὧν βράγχοι γίνονται 
καὶ συνάγχαι, ἐρυσιπέλατά τε καὶ περιπνευμονίαι, 
πάντα ταῦτα τὸ μὲν πρῶτον ἁλμυρά τε καὶ ὑγρὰ 
καὶ δριμέα ἀφίει, καὶ ἐν τοῖσι τοιούτοις ἔρρωται 
τὰ νοσήματα. ὅταν δὲ παχύτερα καὶ πεπαίτερα 
γένηται καὶ πάσης δριμύτητος ἀπηλλαγμένα, τότε 
ἤδη καὶ οἱ πυρετοὶ παύονται καὶ τἄλλα τὰ λυπέ- 
οντα τὸν ἄνθρωπον. δεῖ δὲ δήπου ταῦτα αἴτια 
ἑκάστου ἡγεῖσθαι εἶναι, ὧν παρεόντων μὲν τοιου- 
τότροπον γίνεσθαι ἀνάγκη, μεταβαλλόντων δὲ ἐς 
ἄλλην κρῆσιν παύεσθαι. ὁπόσα οὖν ἀπ᾽ αὐτῆς 
τῆς "θέρμης εἰλικρινέος ἢ ψύξιος γίνεται καὶ μὴ 
μετέχει ἄλλης δυνάμιος μηδεμιῆς, οὕτω παύοιτο 
ἄν, ὅταν μεταβάλλῃ ἐ εκ τοῦ θερμοῦ ἐς τὸ ψυχρὸν 
καὶ ἐκ τοῦ ψυχροῦ ἐς τὸ θερμόν. μεταβάλλει 
δὲ ὅ OVTrEp προείρηταί μοι τρόπον. ἔτι τοίνυν τἄλλα 
ὅσα κακοπαθεῖ ὁ ἄνθρωπος πάντα ἀπὸ δυναμίων 
γίνεται. τοῦτο μὲν γάρ, ὅταν πικρότης τις ἀπο- 
χυθῇ, ἣν δὴ χολὴν ξανθὴν καλέομεν, οἷαι ἄσαι 


where acrid and unmixed humours come into play, 
I am confident that the cause is the same, and that 
restoration results from coction and mixture. 

XIX. Again, such discharges as settle in the eyes, 
possessing powerful, acrid humours of all sorts, ulcerate 
the eyelids, and in some cases eat into the parts on to 
which they run, the cheeks and under the eyes; and 
they rupture and eat through the covering of the 
eyeball. But pains, burning and intense inflamma- 
tion prevail until the discharges are concocted and 
become thicker, so that rheum is formed from them. 
This coction is the result of mixture, compounding 
and digestion. Secondly, the discharges that settle 
in the throat, giving rise to soreness, angina, 
erysipelas and pneumonia, all these at first emit salt, 
watery and acrid humours, whereby the diseases are 
strengthened. But when they become thicker and 
more matured, and throw off all trace of their acridness, 
then the fevers too subside with the other symptoms 
that distress the patient. We must surely consider 
the cause of each complaint to be those things the 
presence of which of necessity produces a complaint 
of a specific kind, which ceases when they change 
into another combination. All conditions, then, 
resulting from heat or cold pure and simple, with no 
other power! as a factor, must cease when heat 
changes into cold or cold into heat. This change 
takes place in the manner I have described above. 
Moreover, all other complaints to which man is liable 
arise from powers. Thus, when there is an out- 
pouring of the bitter principle, which we call yellow 

* Or “quality.” 2 Or ‘‘ qualities.” 





καὶ καύματα καὶ , ἀδυναμίαι κατέχουσιν" ἀπαλ- 
λασσόμενοι, δὲ τούτου, ἐνίοτε, καὶ καθαιρόμενοι, ἣ ἢ 

αὐτόματοι ἢ ὑπὸ φαρμάκου, ἢ ἣν ἐν καιρῷ τι αὐτῶν 
γίνηται, φανερῶς καὶ τῶν πόνων καὶ τῆς θέρμης 
ἀπαλλάσσονται. ὅσον δ᾽ ἂν χρόνον ταῦτα μετέ- 
wpa ἢ καὶ ἄπεπτα καὶ ἄκρητα, μηχανὴ οὐδεμία 
οὔτε τῶν πόνων παύεσθαι οὔτε τῶν πυρετῶν. 
καὶ ὅσοισι δὲ ὀξύτητες προσίστανται δριμεῖαί τε 
καὶ ἰώδεες, οἷαι λύσσαι καὶ δήξιες σπλάγχνων καὶ 
θώρηκος καὶ ἀπορίη: οὐ παύεταί τι! τούτου πρό- 
τερον, πρὶν ἢ ἀποκαθαρθῇ τε καὶ καταστορεσθῇ 
καὶ μιχθῇ τοῖσιν ἄλλοισιν" πέσσεσθαι δὲ καὶ 
μεταβάλλειν καὶ λεπτύνεσθαί τε καὶ παχύνεσθαι 
ἐς χυμῶν εἶδος δι᾿ ἄλλων εἰδέων καὶ παντοίων--- 
διὸ καὶ κρίσιες καὶ ἀριθμοὶ τῶν χρόνων ἐν τοῖσι 
τοιούτοισι μέγα δύνανται--- πάντων δὴ τούτων 
ἥκιστα προσήκει θερμῷ ἢ ἢ ψυχρῷ πάσχειν' οὔτε 
γὰρ ἂν τοῦτό γε σαπείη οὔτε παχυνθείη. tri 
yap αὐτὸ φήσωμεν εἶναι; κρήσιας αὐτῶν ἄλλην 
πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐχούσας δύναμιν. 13 ἐπεὶ ἄλλῳ ye 
οὐδενὶ TO θερμὸν μιχθὲν παύσεται τῆς θέρμης ἢ ἢ 

1 7. Ermerins from a lost MS: te M: omitted by A. 

2 τί γὰρ αὐτὸ φήσωμεν εἶναι; κρήσιας αὐτῶν ἄλλην πρὸς ἄλληλα 
ἐχούσας δύναμιν. SoA. M has τί δ᾽ ἂν αὐτὸ φαίημεν... κρῆ- 
als τε αὐτέων ἐστι, πλὴν πρὸς ἄλληλα ἔχουσα δύναμιν. Kiihle- 
wein reads φήσομεν, deletes the question stop at εἶναι and 
puts it after δύναμιν. Littré has τί δ᾽ ἂν αὐτὸ φαίημεν εἶναι; 
κρήσιας αὐτέων, ἄλλην πρὸς ἄλληλα ἐχούσας δύναμιν. 

1 Or ‘‘ distress.” 2 Or ‘‘ property.” 

3 There are many reasons for supposing that this sentence 
is either (a) in its wrong place, or (δ) an interpolation. It 
seems quite irrelevant, and αὐτῶν should grammatically refer 
to τὸ θερμὸν and τὸ ψυχρόν, but there is not a crasis of these, 




bile, great nausea, burning and weakness prevail. 
When the patient gets rid of it, sometimes by pur- 
gation, either spontaneous or by medicine, if the 
purging be seasonable he manifestly gets rid both 
of the pains and of the heat. But so long as these 
bitter particles are undissolved, undigested and un- 
compounded, by no possible means can the pains and 
fevers be stayed. And those who are attacked by 
pungent and acrid acids suffer greatly from frenzy, 
from gnawings of the bowels and chest, and from 
restlessness.!. No relief from these symptoms is 
secured until the acidity is purged away, or calmed 
down and mixed with the other humours. But 
coction, alteration, thinning or thickening into the 
form of humours through other forms of all sorts 
(wherefrom crises also and fixing their periods de- 
rive great importance in cases of illness)—to all 
these things surely heat and cold are not in the least 
liable. For neither could either ferment or thicken. 
{For what shall we call it? Combinations of humours 
that exhibit a power? that varies with the various 
factors.*f Since the hot will give up its heat only 
when mixed with the cold, and the cold can be 

but only of χυμοί. Hot and cold mixed produce only hot or 
cold, not a crasis. The sentence might be more relevantly 
placed at the end of Chapter XVIII, as an explanation of the 
process ἀποκαθίστασθαι πεφθέντα καὶ κρηθέντα. But transposition 
will not remove the other difficulties of the sentence. What 
is avté? Health or disease? If health, then there is but 
one crasis producing it, not ‘‘many, having various proper- 
ties.” If disease, then it cannot be a crasis at all, but 
ἀκρασία. Finally, ἄλλην πρὸς ἄλληλα is dubious Greek. The 
whole sentence looks like an interpolation, though it is hard 
to say why it was introduced. The scribe of M seems to 
have felt the difficulties, for he wrote κρῆσις, πλὴν for ἄλλην, 
and ἔχουσα. 






TO ψυχρῷ οὐδέ γε τὸ ψυχρὸν ἢ τῷ θερμῷ. τὰ 
δὲ ἄλλα πάντα τὰ περὶ τὸν ἄνθρωπον, ὅσῳ ἂν 
πλείοσι μίσγηται, τοσούτῳ ἠπιώτερα καὶ βελτίω. 
πάντων δὲ ἄριστα διάκειται ὁ ἄνθρωπος, ὅταν 
πᾶν réconta καὶ ἐν ἡσυχίῃ ἢ, μηδεμίαν δύναμιν 
ἰδίην ἀποδεικνύμενον, περὶ οὗ ἡγεῦμαι ἐπιδεδεῖ- 

XX. Λέγουσι δέ τινες ἰητροὶ καὶ σοφισταί, ὡς 
οὐκ εἴη δυνατὸν ἰητρικὴν εἰδέναι ὅστις μὴ οἶδεν 
ὅ τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος. ἀλλὰ τοῦτο δεῖ καταμαθεῖν 
τὸν μέλλοντα ὀρθῶς θεραπεύσειν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους. 
τείνει δὲ αὐτοῖς ὁ λόγος ἐς φιλοσοφίην, καθάπερ 
᾿᾿μπεδοκλῆς ἢ ἄλλοι οἱ περὶ φύσιος “γεγράφασιν 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς ὅ τί ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ὅπως ἐγένετο 
πρῶτον. καὶ ὁπόθεν συνεπάγῃ. ᾿ ἐγὼ δὲ τοῦτο μέν, 
ὅσα τινὶ εἴρηται ἢ σοφιστῇ, ἢ ἰητρῷ ἢ γέγραπται 
περὶ φύσιος, ἡ ἧσσον νομίζω τῇ ree τέχνῃ προσ- 
ἥκειν ἢ τῇ γραφικῇ. νομίζω δὲ περὶ φύσιος 
γνῶναί τι σαφὲς eS ἄλλοθεν εἶναι ἢ ἐξ 
ἰητρικῆς" τοῦτο δὲ οἷόν τε καταμαθεῖν, ὅταν αὐτήν 
τις τὴν ἰητρικὴν ὀρθῶς περιλάβη: μέχρι δὲ τούτου 
πολλοῦ μοι δοκεῖ δεῖν' λέγω δὲ ταύτην τὴν ἷστο- 
ρίην εἰδέναι, ἄνθρωπος τί ἐστιν καὶ Ov οἵας αἰτίας 
γίνεται καὶ τἄλλα ἀκριβέως. ἐπεὶ τοῦτό γέ μοι 
δοκεῖ ἀναγκαῖον εἶναι ἰητρῷ περὶ φύσιος εἰδέναι 
καὶ πάνυ σπουδάσαι ὡς εἴσεται, εἴπερ τι μέλλει 
τῶν δεόντων ποιήσειν, ὅ τί τέ ἐστιν ἄνθρωπος 
πρὸς τὰ ἐσθιόμενά τε καὶ πινόμενα καὶ ὅ τι πρὸς 


1 πᾶν added by Kiihlewein. 
? Reinhold transposes from καὶ ὅπως to συνεπάγη to the 
end of the first sentence of the chapter. 



neutralized only by the hot. But all other com- 
ponents of man become milder and better the 
greater the number of other components with which 
they are mixed. A man is in the best possible 
condition when there is complete coction and rest, 
with no particular power! displayed. About this I 
think that I have given a full explanation. 

XX. Certain physicians and philosophers assert that 
nobody can know medicine who is ignorant what a 
man is; he who would treat patients properly must, 
they say, learn this. But the question they raise is one 
for philosophy; it is the province of those who, like 
Empedocles, have written on natural science,” what 
man is from the beginning, how he came into being 
at the first, and from what elements he was originally 
constructed. But my view is, first, that all that 
philosophers or physicians have said or written on 
natural science no more pertains to medicine than to 
painting. I also hold that clear knowledge about 
natural science can be acquired from medicine and 
from no other source, and that one can attain this 
knowledge when medicine itself has been properly 
comprehended, but till then it is quite impossible— 
I mean to possess this information, what man is, 
by what causes he is made, and similar points 
accurately. Since this at least I think a physician 
must know, and be at great pains to know, about 
natural science, if he is going to perform aught of his 
duty, what man is in relation to foods and drinks, 

1 Or “‘ property.” 

2 About ‘‘nature,” how the universe was born and grew 
out of primal elements. We might almost translate φύσις by 
“ evolution.” 

8. Or, perhaps, “‘ pertains even less to medicine than to 





Ta ἄλλα ἐπιτηδεύματα, καὶ 6 τι ἀφ᾽ ἑκάστου 
ἑκάστῳ συμβήσεται, καὶ μὴ ἁπλῶς οὕτως" πονὴη- 
ρόν ἐστιν βρῶμα τυρός. πόνον γὰρ παρέχει τῷ 
πληρωθέντι αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ τίνα τε πόνον καὶ διὰ 
τί καὶ τίνι τῶν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἐνεόντων ἀνεπιτή- 
δείον. ἔστι γὰρ, καὶ ἄλλα πολλὰ βρώματα καὶ 
πόματα πονηρά, ἃ διατίθησι τὸν ἄνθρωπον οὐ Tov 
αὐτὸν τρόπον. οὕτως οὖν μοι ἔστω οἷον" οἶνος 
ἄκρητος πολλὸς ποθεὶς διατίθησί πως τὸν ἄνθρω- 
πον" καὶ πάντες ἂν οἱ εἰδότες τοῦτο γνοίησαν, ὅτι 
αὕτη δύναμις οἴνου καὶ αὐτὸς αἴτιος" καὶ οἷσί 
γε τῶν ἐν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τοῦτο δύναται μάλιστα, 
οἴδαμεν. τοιαύτην δὴ βούλομαι ἀληθείην καὶ 
περὶ τῶν ἄλλων φανῆναι. τυρὸς γάρ, ἐπειδὴ 
τούτῳ σημείῳ ἐχρησάμην, οὐ πάντας ἀνθρώπους 
ὁμοίως λυμαίνεται, ἀλλ᾽ εἰσὶν οἵτινες αὐτοῦ πλη- 
ρούμενοι οὐδ᾽ ὁτιοῦν βλάπτονται, ἀλλὰ καὶ ἰσχύν, 
οἷσιν ἂν συμφέρῃ, θαυμασίως παρέχεται. εἰσὶ 
δ᾽ οἱ χαλεπῶς ἀπαλλάσσουσι. διαφέρουσιν οὖν 
τούτων αἱ φύσιες. “διαφέρουσιν δὲ κατὰ τοῦτο, 
ὅπερ ἐν τῷ “σώματι ἔνεστι πολέμιον τυρῷ καὶ ὑπὸ 
τούτου ἐγείρεταί τε καὶ κινεῖται" οἷς ὁ τοιοῦτος 
χυμὸς τυγχάνει πλείων ἐνεὼν καὶ μᾶλλον ἐνδυνα- 
στεύων ἐν τῷ σώματι, τούτους μᾶλλον καὶ κακο- 
παθεῖν εἰκός. εἰ δὲ πάσῃ τῇ ἀνθρωπίνῃ φύσει 
ἣν κακόν, πάντας ἂν ἐλυμήνατο. ταῦτα δὲ εἴ τις 
εἰδείη, οὐκ ἂν πάσχοι τάδε. 

ΧΧΙ. Ἔν τῇσιν ἀνακομιδῆσι τῇσιν ἐκ τῶν 
νούσων, ἔτι δὲ καὶ ἐν That νούσοισι, τῇσι μακρῇσι 
γίνονται πολλαὶ συνταράξιες, αἱ μὲν ἀπὸ τωύτο- 
μάτου, αἱ δὲ καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν προσενεχθέντων τῶν 



and to habits generally, and what will be the effects 
of each on each individual. It is not sufficient to 
learn simply that cheese is a bad food, as it gives a 
pain to one who eats a surfeit of it; we must know 
what the pain is, the reasons for it, and which con- 
stituent of man is harmfully affected. For there are 
many other bad foods and bad drinks, which affect a 
man in different ways. I would therefore have the 
point put thus:—‘Undiluted wine, drunk in large 
quantity, produces a certain effect upon a man.” ΑἹ] 
who know this would realise that this is a power of 
wine, and that wine itself is to blame,! and we know 
through what parts of a man it chiefly exerts this 
power. Such nicety of truth I wish to be manifest 
in all other instances. ΤῸ take my former example, 
cheese does not harm all men alike; some can eat 
their fill of it without the slightest hurt, nay, those 
it agrees with are wonderfully strengthened thereby. 
Others come off badly. So the constitutions of these 
men differ, and the difference lies in the constituent of 
the body which is hostile to cheese, and is roused and 
stirred to action under its influence. Those in whom 
a humour of sucha kind is present in greater quantity, 
and with greater control over the body, naturally suffer 
more severely. But if cheese were bad for the human 
constitution without exception, it would have hurt 
all. He who knows the above truths will not fall 
into the following errors. 

XXI. In convalescence from illness, and also in 
protracted illnesses, many disturbances occur, some 
spontaneously and some from things casually 

1 See Appendix on p. 64. 

1 The MSS. have πάσχοι. τὰ δ᾽ ἐν κιτιλ. I have adopted 
the punctuation of Gomperz. 






τυχόντων. οἷδα δὲ τοὺς πολλοὺς ἐ ἰητρούς, ὥσπερ 
τοὺς ἰδιώτας, ἢν τύχωσι περὶ τὴν ἡμέρην ταύτην 
τι κεκαινουργηκότες, ἢ "λουσάμενοι. ἢ περιπατή- 
σαντες ἢ φαγόντες τι ἑτεροῖον, ταῦτα δὲ πάντα 
βελτίω προσενηνεγμένα ἢ μή, οὐδὲν ἧσσον τὴν 
αἰτίην τούτων τινὶ ἀνατιθέντας καὶ τὸ μὲν αἴτιον 
ἀγνοεῦντας, τὸ δὲ συμφορώτατον, ἢν οὕτω τύχῃ, 
ἀφαιρέοντας. δεῖ δὲ οὔ, ἀλλ᾽ εἰδέναι, τί λουτρὸν 
ἀκαίρως προσγενόμενον ἐργάσεται ἢ τί κόπος. 
οὐδέποτε yap ἡ αὐτὴ κακοπάθεια τούτων οὐδε- 
TEpoU, | οὐδέ γε ἀπὸ πληρώσιος οὐδ᾽ ἀπὸ βρώματος 
τοίου ἢ τοίου. ὅστις οὖν ταῦτα μὴ εἴσεται ὡς ἕκα- 
στα ἔχει πρὸς τὸν ἄνθρωπον, οὔτε γινώσκειν τὰ 
γινόμενα aT αὐτῶν δυνήσεται οὔτε χρῆσθαι ὀρθῶς. 

XXII. Δεῖν δέ μοι δοκεῖ καὶ ταῦτα εἰδέναι, ὅ ὅσα 
τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ παθήματα ἀπὸ δυναμίων γίνεται καὶ 
ὅσα ἀπὸ σχημάτων. λέγω δέ τι τοιοῦτον, δύνα- 
μιν μὲν εἶναι τῶν χυμῶν τὰς ἀκρότητάς τε καὶ 
ἰσχύν, σχήματα δὲ λέγω ὅσα ἔνεστιν ἐν τῷ 
ἀνθρώπῳ, τὰ μὲν κοῖλά τε καὶ ἐξ εὐρέος ἐς 
στενὸν συνηγμένα, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐκπεπταμένα, τὰ δὲ 
στερεά τε καὶ στρογγύλα, τὰ δὲ πλατέα τε καὶ 
ἐπικρεμάμενα, τὰ δὲ διατεταμένα, τὰ δὲ μακρά, 
τὰ δὲ πυκνά, τὰ δὲ μανά τε καὶ τεθηλότα, τὰ δὲ 
σπογγοειδέα τε καὶ ἀραιά. τοῦτο μὲν οὖν, 
ἑλκύσαι ἐφ᾽ ἑωυτὸ καὶ ἐπισπάσασθαι ὑγρότητα 
ἐκ τοῦ ἄλλου σώματος, πότερον τὰ κοῖλά τε καὶ 
ἐκπεπταμένα ἢ τὰ στερεά τε καὶ στρογγύλα ἢ τὰ 
κοῖλά τε καὶ ἐς στενὸν ἐξ εὐρέος συνηγμένα. δύ- 
vatTo ἂν μάλιστα; οἶμαι μὲν τὰ τοιαῦτα, τὰ ἐς 
στενὸν συνηγμένα ἐκ κοίλου τε καὶ εὐρέος. κατα- 
μανθάνειν δὲ δεῖ ταῦτα ἔξωθεν ἐκ τῶν φανερῶν. 


administered. I am aware that most physicians, 
like laymen, if the patient has done anything 
unusual near the day of the disturbance—taken a 
bath or a walk, or eaten strange food, these things 
being all beneficial—nevertheless assign the cause to 
one of them, and, while ignorant of the real cause, 
stop what may have been of the greatest value. _In- 
stead of so doing they ought to know what will be 
the result of a bath unseasonably taken or of fatigue. 
For the trouble caused by each of these things is 
also peculiar to each, and so with surfeit or such and 
such food. Whoever therefore fails to know how 
each of these particulars affects a man will be able 
neither to discover their consequences nor to use 
them properly. 

XXII. I hold that it is also necessary to know which 
diseased states arise from powers and which from 
structures. What I mean is roughly that a “ power”’ 
is an intensity and strength of the humours, while 
“structures” are the conformations to be found in 
the human body, some of which are hollow, tapering ὦ 
from wide to narrow; some are expanded, some 
hard and round, some broad and suspended, some 
stretched, some long, some close in texture, some loose 
in texture and fleshy, some spongy and porous. Now 
which structure is best adapted to draw and attract 
to itself fluid from the rest of the body, the hollow 
and expanded, the hard and round, or the hollow 
and tapering? I take it that the best adapted is 
the broad hollow that tapers. One should learn this 
thoroughly from unenclosed objects? that can be 

1 Or “contracting.” 

2 i.e. objects that are not concealed, as are the internal 

VOL. 1. E 57 





τοῦτο μὲν γάρ, τῷ στόματι κεχηνὼς ὑγρὸν οὐδὲν 
ἀνασπάσεις" προμυλλήνας δὲ καὶ συστείλας, 
πιέσας τε τὰ χείλεα καὶ ἔπειτεν ἢ αὐλὸν προσ- 
θέμενος ῥηϊδίως ἀνασπάσαις ἂν 6 πὶ ἐθέλοις. 
τοῦτο δέ, αἱ σικύαι προσβαλλόμεναι. ἐξ εὐρέος 
ἐς στενώτερον συνηγμέναι πρὸς τοῦτο τετέχ- 
νηνταῖι, πρὸς τὸ ἕλκειν ἐκ τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ ἐπι- 
σπᾶσθαι, ἄλλα τε πολλὰ τοιουτότροπα. τῶν δὲ 
ἔσω φύσει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου σχῆμα τοιοῦτον κύστις 
τε καὶ κεφαλή, καὶ ὑστέρη γυναιξίν: καὶ φανε- 
ρῶς ταῦτα μάλιστα ἕλκει καὶ πλήρεά ἐστιν 
ἐπάκτου ὑγρότητος αἰεί. τὰ δὲ κοῖλα καὶ ἐκ- 
πεπταμένα ἐπεσρυεῖσαν μὲν ὑγρότητα μάλιστα 
δέξαιτο πάντων, ἐπισπάσαιτο δ᾽ ἂν οὐχ ὁμοίως. 
τὰ δέ γε στερεὰ καὶ στρογγύλα οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἐπισπά- 
σαιτο οὔτ᾽ ἂν ἐπεσρυεῖσαν δέξαιτο" περιολι- 
σθάνοι τε γὰρ καὶ οὐκ ἔχοι ἕδρην, ἐφ᾽ ἧς μένοι. 
τὰ δὲ σπογγοειδέα τε καὶ ἀραιά, οἷον σπλήν τε 
καὶ πνεύμων καὶ μαζοί, προσκαθεζόμενα μάλιστα 
ἀναπίνοι καὶ σκληρυνθείη ἂν καὶ αὐξηθείη ὑγρό- 
τητος προσγενομένης ταῦτα μάλιστα. οὐ γὰρ 
ἂνϑ ὥσπερ ἐν κοιλίῃ, ἐν ἣ τὸ ὑγρόν, ἔξω τε 
περιέχει αὐτὴ ἡ κοιλίη, ἐξαλίζοιτ᾽ ἂν Kal 
ἑκάστην ἡμέρην, ἀλλ᾽ ὅταν πίῃ καὶ δέξηται αὐτὸ 
ἐς ἑωυτὸ τὸ ὑγρόν, τὰ κενὰ καὶ ἀραιὰ ἐπληρώθη 
καὶ τὰ σμικρὰ πάντῃ καὶ ἀντὶ μαλθακοῦ τε καὶ 
ἀραιοῦ σκληρὸς τε καὶ πυκνὸς ἐγένετο καὶ οὔτ᾽ 
ἐκπέσσει οὔτ᾽ ἀφίησι. ταῦτα δὲ πάσχει διὰ τὴν 
φύσιν τοῦ σχήματος. ὅσα δὲ φῦσάν τε καὶ 
ἀνειλήματα ἀπεργάζεται ἐν τῷ σώματι, προσήκει 

1 ἀνασπάσεις two late Paris MSS. (2144, 2145): ἀνασπά- 


seen. For example, if you open the mouth wide 
you will draw in no fluid; but if you protrude and 
contract it, compressing the lips, and then insert 
a tube, you can easily draw up any liquid you wish. 
Again, cupping instruments, which are broad and 
tapering, are so constructed on purpose to draw and 
attract blood from the flesh. There are many other 
instruments of a similar nature. Of the parts within 
the human frame, the bladder, the head, and the 
womb are of this structure. ‘These obviously attract 
powerfully, and are always full of a fluid from with- 
out. Hollow and expanded parts are especially 
adapted for receiving fluid that has flowed into them, 
but are not so suited for attraction. Round solids 
will neither attract fluid nor receive it when it has 
flowed into them, for it would slip round and find no 
place on which to rest. Spongy, porous parts, like 
the spleen, lungs and breasts, will drink up readily 
what is in contact with them, and these parts 
especially harden and enlarge on the addition of 
fluid. They will not be evacuated every day, as are 
bowels, where the fluid is inside, while the bowels 
themselves contain it externally; but when one of 
these parts drinks up the fluid and takes it to itself, 
the porous hollows, even the small ones, are every- 
where filled, and the soft, porous part becomes hard 
and close, and neither digests nor discharges. This 
happens because of the nature of its structure. When 
wind and flatulence are produced in the body, the 

σειεν 5141 : ἀνασπάσειε 2143: ἀνασπάσαις A, The opt. may be 
right, as in this treatise the potential optative sometimes 
occurs without ἄν. See p. 44,1. 59, and p. 52, 1. 2. 

2 ἔπειτεν Kiithlewein: καὶ ἐπί re A: καὶ ἔτι τε Μ. 

3 Littré adds, after ἄν, ἐν σπληνί. 






ἐν μὲν τοῖσι κοίλοισι καὶ εὐρυχώροισι, οἷον κοιλίῃ 
τε καὶ θώρηκι, ψόφον τε καὶ πάταγον ἐμποιεῖν. 
ὅτε γὰρ ἂν μὴ ἀποπληρώσῃ οὕτως ὥστε στῆναι, 
ἀλλ᾽ ἔχῃ μεταβολάς τε καὶ κινήσιας, ἀνάγκη 
ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν ψόφον καὶ καταφανέας κινήσιας γί- 
νεσθαι. ὅσα δὲ σαρκώδεά τε καὶ μαλθακά, ἐν 
τοῖσι τοιούτοισι νάρκη τε καὶ πληρώματα οἷα ἐν 
τοῖσι ἀποπληγεῖσιϊ γίνεται. ὅταν δ᾽ ἐγκυρήσῃ 
πλατεῖ τε καὶ ἀντικειμένῳ, καὶ “πρὸς αὐτὸ ἀν- 
τιπέσῃ, καὶ φύσει τοῦτο τύχῃ ἐὸν μήτε ἰσχυρόν, 
ὥστε δύνασθαι ἀνέχεσθαι τὴν βίην καὶ μηδὲν 
κακὸν παθεῖν, μήτε μαλθακόν τε καὶ ἀραιόν, ὥστ᾽ 
ἐκδέξασθαί τε καὶ ὑπεῖξαι, ἁπαλὸν δὲ καὶ τε- 
θηλὸς καὶ ἔναιμον καὶ πυκνόν, οἷον ἧπαρ, διὰ μὲν 
τὴν πυκνότητα καὶ πλατύτητα ἀνθέστηκε τε καὶ 
οὐχ ὑπείκει, φῦσα δ᾽ ἐπισχομένη 2 αὔξεταί τε καὶ 
ἰσχυροτέρη γίνεται καὶ ὁρμᾷ μάλιστα͵ πρὸς τὸ 
ἀντιπαῖον. διὰ δὲ τὴν ἁπαλότητα καὶ τὴν ἐναιμό- 
τητα οὐ δύναται ἄνευ πόνων εἶναι, καὶ διὰ ταύτας 
τὰς προφάσιας ὀδύναι τε ὀξύταται καὶ πυκνό- 
ταται πρὸς τοῦτο τὸ χωρίον γίνονται ἐμπυήματά 
τε καὶ φύματα πλεῖστα. γίνεται δὲ καὶ ὑπὸ 
φρένας ἰσχυρῶς, ἧσσον δὲ πολλόν. διάτασις 
μὲν γὰρ φρενῶν πλατείη καὶ ἀντικειμένη, φύσις 
δὲ νευρωδεστέρη τε καὶ ἰσχυροτέρη, διὸ ἧσσον 
ἐπώδυνά ἐστιν. γίνεται δὲ καὶ περὶ ταῦτα καὶ 
πόνοι καὶ φύματα. 

XXIII. Πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα καὶ ἔσω καὶ ἔξω 
τοῦ σώματος εἴδεα σχημάτων, ἃ μεγάλα ἀλλήλων 
διαφέρει πρὸς τὰ παθήματα καὶ νοσέοντι καὶ 
ὑγιαίνοντι, οἷον κεφαλαὶ σμικραὶ ἢ μεγάλαι, 
τράχηλοι λεπτοὶ ἢ παχέες, μακροὶ ἢ βραχέες, 


rumbling noise naturally occurs in the hollow, broad 
parts, such as the bowels and the chest. For when 
the flatulence does not fill a part so as to be at rest, 
but moves and changes its position, it cannot be but 
that thereby noise and perceptible movements take 
place. In soft, fleshy parts occur numbness and 
obstructions, such as happen in apoplexy. And when 
flatulence meets a broad, resisting body, and rushes 
on it, and this happens by nature to be neither strong 
so as to endure its violence without harm, nor soft 
and porous so as to give way and admit it, but tender, 
fleshy, full of blood, and close, like the liver, because 
it is close and broad it resists without yielding, while 
the flatulence being checked increases and becomes 
stronger, dashing violently against the obstacle. But 
owing to its tenderness and the blood it contains, 
the part cannot be free from pain, and this is why 
the sharpest and most frequent pains occur in this 
region, and abscesses and tumours are very common. 
Violent pain, but much less severe, is also felt under 
the diaphragm. For the diaphragm is an extended, 
broad and resisting substance, of a stronger and more 
sinewy texture, and so there is less pain. But here 
too occur pains and tumours. 

XXIII. There are many other structural forms, 
both internal and external, which differ widely from 
one another with regard to the experiences of a 
patient and of a healthy subject, such as whether 
the head be large or small, the neck thin or thick, 
long or short, the bowels long or round, the chest and 

1 ἀποπληγεῖσι Littré: ἀποσφαγίσι A: ἀποσφαγεῖσι M: ἀπο- 
φραγεῖσι Coray. 
2 ἐπισχομένη Reinhold: ἐπιχεομένη A: ἐπιδεχομένη M. 





,ὔ NEN ΄ , \ 
κοιλίαι μακραὶ ἢ oTpoyyuhat, θώρηκος καὶ πλεὺ- 
ρέων πλατύτητες ἢ στενότητες, ἄ ἄλλα μυρία, ἃ δεῖ 
πάντα εἰδέναι 7 διαφέρει, ὃ ὅπως τὰ αἴτια ἑκάστων 
εἰδὼς ὀρθῶς φυλάσσηται" 

tf rn rn 
XXIV. Περὶ δὲ δυναμίων χυμῶν αὐτῶν τε 
/ a 
ἕκαστος ὅ TL δύναται ποιεῖν τὸν ἄνθρωπον 
b “ / 
ἐσκέφθαι, ὥσπερ καὶ πρότερον εἴρηται, καὶ τὴν 
Χ ΄ 
συγγένειαν ὡς ἔχουσι, πρὸς ἀλλήλους. λέγω 
δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτον" εἰ γλυκὺς χυμὸς ἐὼν μεταβάλλοι 
ἐς ἄλλο εἶδος, μὴ ἀπὸ συγκρήσιος, ἀλλὰ αὐτὸς 
al n 

ἐξιστάμενος, ποῖός τις ἂν πρῶτος γένοιτο, πικρὸς 
By id \ Xx Ν A 5) j? 3 ἿΩ , , 
ἢ ἁλμυρὸς ἢ στρυφνὸς ἢ ὀξύς; οἶμαι μέν, ὀξύς. 
ὁ ἄρα ὀξὺς χυμὸς ἀνεπιτήδειος προσφέρειν ἂν 
τῶν λοιπῶν εἴη μάλιστα, εἴπερ ὁ γλυκὺς τῶν 
γεπάντων ἀνεπιτηδείοτατος.: οὕτως εἴ τις δύναιτο 
ζητέων ἔξωθεν ἐπιτυγχάνειν, καὶ δύναιτο ἂν 

/ > / 3, δ \ / 7 
πάντων ἐκλέγεσθαι αἰεὶ τὸ βέλτιστον. βέλτιστον 

ἈΝ ᾿ lel 

δέ ἐστι αἰεὶ TO πβῤῥοσωτάτω TOD ἀνεπιτηδείου 

1 1 obtain this reading by combining A, which has ἀνεπιτή- 
δειος, ἂν before τῶν λοιπῶν, and τῶν before ye, with the avem- 
τηδειότατος of M. Other MSS. have ἂν ἐπιτήδειος, omit ἂν 
before τῶν λοιπῶν and τῶν before ye, and read ἐπιτηδειότατος. 

Kiihlewein has 6 ἄρα ὀξὺς χυμὸς ἂν ἐπιτήδειος προσφέρειν τῶν 
λοιπῶν εἴη μάλιστα, εἴπερ ὁ γλυκύς γε ἐπιτηδειότατος. 



ribs broad or narrow, and there are very many other 
things, the differences between which must all be 
known, so that knowledge of the causes of each thing 
may ensure that the proper precautions are taken. 

XXIV. As I have said before, we must examine the 
powers of humours, and what the effect of each is 
upon man, and how they are related to one another. 
Let me give an example. Ifa humour that is sweet 
assumes another form, not by admixture, but by a 
self-caused change, what will it first become, bitter, 
or salt, or astringent, or acid? I think acid. There- 
fore where sweet humour is the least suitable of all, 
acid humour is the next least suitable to be admi- 
nistered.! If a man can in this way conduct with 
success inquiries outside the human body, he will 
always be able to select the very best treatment. 
And the best is always that which is farthest re- 
moved from the unsuitable. 

1 Because :— 

(1) Health is a crasis of all the humours, none being in 
excess ; 

(2) Sweet humour passes readily into acid ; 

(3) Therefore, when sweet is the least suitable as a remedy 
(there being an excess of it already), acid (which is likely to 
be reinforced from the sweet) is the next least suitable. 

Kiihlewein’s text makes sense only if we transpose ὀξύς and 
γλυκύς. If you want ὀξὺς χυμός for crasis you can get it best 
by adding ὀξύς, next best by adding γλυκύς, which naturally 
turns into ὀξύς. 




οἶνος ἄκρητος πολλὸς ποθεὶς διατίθησί πως τὸν ἄνθρωπον" Kal 
πάντες ἂν οἱ εἰδότες τοῦτο γνοίησαν, ὅτι αὕτη δύναμις οἴνου καὶ 
αὐτὸς αἴτιος. 

So A; other MSS. have ἀσθενέα after ἄνθρωπον, ἰδόντες for 
of εἰδότες, 7 after αὕτη and ἐστιν after αὐτός. 

This passage contradicts the general argument, which is 
that in medicine statements about foods must not be made 
ἁπλῶς. Cheese is not bad food; it is only bad in certain 
conditions, and in certain ways, and at certain times. In 
these circumstances cheese has a δύναμις which does not 
belong to cheese in itself, but is latent until certain conditions 
call it forth. The error, says the writer, is not made in the 
case of wine. Everybody knows that in itself wine is not 
bad; it is drinking to excess, or at wrong times, which is 

Now the reading of A (in fact any MS. reading) makes the 
writer say that wine itself is to blame (αὐτὸς attios)—an 
obvious contradiction of the general argument. My colleague 
the Rev. H. J. Chaytor most ingeniously suggests that αὐτός 
refers not to wine but to the man. He would therefore 
translate ‘‘ this δύναμις of wine and the man himself are to 
blame.” But not only is it more natural for αὐτός to refer to 
wine, but the writer’s whole point is that in and by itself no 
food is αἴτιος. A food isa cause only in certain conditions, 
or, rather, certain conditions call forth certain δυνάμεις. 

I think, therefore, that the right reading is ὅτι τοιαύτη 
δύναμις οἴνου καὶ οὐκ αὐτὸς αἴτιος. ‘* Such and such a δύναμις 
of wine (7. 6. a δύναμις caused by excess of wine acting upon 
the human φύσις) is to blame and not mere wine by itself.” 
ὅτι τοιαύτη might easily turn into ὅτι αὕτη, and the omission 
of οὐ by scribes is not uncommon. 

There is an attractive vigour about the reading ἰδόντες for 
of εἰδότες, and it may be correct. ‘‘ Anybody can see at a 
glance that in the case of wine it is excess, etc., and not 
merely wine itself which is to blame.” 




No ancient critic appears to have doubted the 
authenticity of this work, and only Haller among 
the moderns has rejected it. 

It is divided roughly into two parts. The first 
(Chapters I-XI) deals chiefly with the effects of 
climate and situation upon health; the second 
(XII-XXIV) deals chiefly with the effects of climate 
upon character. At the end of XII a portion has 
been lost dealing with the Egyptians and Libyans. 

The style of the book has the dignified restraint 
which we associate with the Hippocratic group of 
treatises. In tone it is strikingly dogmatic, con- 
clusions being enunciated without the evidence upon 
which they are based. Modern physicians are 
sceptical about many of these conclusions while 
fully recognizing the value of the principle that 
geographical conditions and climate influence health. 

The second part of the work is scarcely medical 
at all, but rather ethnographical. It bears a close 
resemblance to certain parts of Herodotus, but lacks 
the graceful bonhomie which is so characteristic of 
the latter writer. Indeed it is hard not to see a 
close connection between the account of the im- 
potent effeminates of Chapter XXII and the évapees 
of Herodotus I. 105. 



MSS: ano EpiTions. 

Tue chief MSS. are V and ἽΒδ, the latter being 
a fifteenth-century MS. at Rome called Codex 
Barberinus. To these must be added the readings 
of a MS. called by Kiihlewein b, which is now lost, 
but its readings have been noted by Gadaldinus of 
Venice. There are two Paris MSS. worth noticing. 
One (2255 or E) divides the treatise into two parts, 
and the other (7027) is a Latin translation which 
sometimes helps in the reconstruction of the text. 

The work has often been edited. The earliest 
edition was published at Venice in 1497, and there 
were at least ten others during the sixteenth 
century.! The best edition is that of Coray (2 vols., 
Paris, 1800). Though verbose it is both scholarly 
and medically accurate, Coray being a Greek by 
birth, a medical man by training, and a scholar by 

There are English translations by Peter Low 
(London, 1597), John Moffat (London, 1788), Francis 
Clifton (London, 1734), and, of course, Francis 
Adams (London, 1849). 

The following table, taken from Aetius III. 164, 
may prove useful in determining the periods of the 
year mentioned in the Hippocratic writings. 

March 23. . ἰσημερία ἐαρινή. 

Aprill . . ai πληιάδες ἀκρόνυχοι φαίνονται. 

April 19 . , ai πληιάδες ἑσπέριοι κρύπτονται. 

April 21. . at πληιάδες ἅμα ἡλίου ἀνατολῇ ἐπι- 

May7. . . ai πληιάδες ἑῷαι φαίνονται (heliacal 

1 See Littré, II. 9, 10. 


June6. . . ἀρκτοῦρος δύνει. 
June 25. . τροπαὶ θεριναί. 
July 1... ὃ κύων Epos ἐπιτέλλει. 

September 17 ἀρκτοῦρος ἐπιτέλλει (heliacal rising). 
September 25 ἰσημερία φθινοπωρινή. 

November 6 at πληιάδες ἑῷαι δύνουσι (cosmic 

December 29 τροπαὶ χειμεριναί. 

February 25 ἀρκτοῦρος ἑσπέριος ἐπιτέλλει καὶ 
(26) χελιδόνες πέτονται καὶ φαί 

Spring began with the equinox, but was often 
popularly dated from the appearance of swallows 
and the acronychal rising of Arcturus in February. 
The heliacal rising of the Pleiades marked the 
beginning of summer, which ended with that of 
Arcturus, an event nearly coinciding with the 
autumnal equinox. Finally, winter began with the 
cosmic setting of the Pleiades. 

A star is said to rise heliacally when it gets far 
enough in front of the sun to be visible before 
dawn. It sets cosmically when it gets so much 
further in advance as to be first seen setting in the 
west before dawn. The acronychal is the evening 
rising of a star, when it is visible all night, and 
contrasts with the heliacal, or morning, rising, when 
it soon disappears in the sun’s rays. 

Galen, in his commentary on the third section of 
Aphorisms, implies that there are two meanings of 
μεταβολαὶ τῶν ὡρέων, acommon term in Azrs Waters 

Places : 

(1) the actual changes from season to season ; 


(2) sharp contrasts of weather during the 

It is clear from the passages in Airs Waters Places 
where the phrase occurs that it may have either 
meaning. The notion underlying it is that of 
violent change in the weather. 

The reader should note the meanings of the 
following : 

(1) “ between the winter rising of the sun and 
the winter setting,” ὁ. 6. roughly E.S.E. 
ἴο ὟΥ.5.Ὁ0ν. ; 

(2) “between the summer setting and the 
summer rising,” ὁ. 6. roughly W.N.W. to 
E:N.E: 3 

(9) “between the summer and winter risings,” 

z.e. roughly E.N.E. to E.S.E. 

The exact number of degrees is a question of 
latitude. The directions given above are roughly 
correct for the Mediterranean area. 





᾿Ιητρικὴν ὅστις βούλεται ὀρθῶς ζητεῖν, τάδε 
χρὴ ποιεῖν" πρῶτον μὲν ἐνθυμεῖσθαι τὰς ὥρας 
τοῦ ἔτεος, ὅ τι δύναται ἀπεργάξεσθαι ἑκάστη" 
οὐ γὰρ ἐοίκασιν ἀλλήλοισιν οὐδέν, ἀλλὰ πολὺ 
διαφέρουσιν αὐταί τε ἐφ᾽ ἑωυτέων καὶ ev τῇσι 
μεταβολῇσιν' ἔπειτα δὲ τὰ πνεύματα τὰ θερμά 
τε καὶ τὰ ψυχρά, μάλιστα μὲν τὰ κοινὰ πᾶσιν 
ἀνθρώποισιν, ἐ ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ τὰ ἐν ἑκάστῃ χώρῃ 
ἐπιχώρια ἐόντα. δεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων ἐνθυ- 
μεῖσθαι τὰς δυνάμιας" ὥσπερ γὰρ ἐν τῷ “στόματι 
διαφέρουσι καὶ ἐν τῷ σταθμῷ, οὕτω καὶ ἡ δύναμις 
διαφέρει πολὺ ἑκάστου. ὥστε ἐς πόλιν ἐπειδὰν 
ἀφίκηταί τις, ἧς ἄπειρός ἐστι, διαφροντίσαι χρὴ 
τὴν θέσιν αὐτῆς, ὅκως κεῖται καὶ πρὸς τὰ πνεύ- 
ματα, καὶ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου. οὐ γὰρ 
τωὐτὸ δύναται ἥ ἥτις πρὸς βορέην κεῖται καὶ ἥτις 
πρὸς νότον οὐδ᾽ ἥτις πρὸς ἥλιον ἀνίσχοντα οὐδ᾽ 
ἥτις πρὸς δύνοντα. ταῦτα δὲ χρὴ" ἐνθυμεῖσθαι 
ὡς κάλλιστα καὶ τῶν ὑδάτων πέρι ὡς ἔχουσι, 
καὶ πότερον ἑλώδεσι χρέονται καὶ μαλθακοῖσιν 
ἢ σκληροῖσί τε καὶ ἐκ μετεώρων καὶ “πετρωδέων 
εἴτε ἁλυκοῖσι καὶ ἀτεράμνοισιν' καὶ τὴν γῆν, 
πότερον ψιλή τε καὶ ἄνυδρος ἢ δασεῖα καὶ 
ἔφυδρος καὶ εἴτε ἔγκοιλός ἐστι καὶ πνιγηρὴ εἴτε 
μετέωρος καὶ Wuypy καὶ τὴν δίαιταν τῶν ἀνθρώ- 
πων, ὁκοίῃ ἥδονται, πότερον φιλοπόται καὶ 



Whoever wishes to pursue properly the science of 
medicine must proceed thus. First he ought to 
consider what effects each season of the year can 
produce ; for the seasons are not at all alike, but 
differ widely both in themselves and at their changes. 
The next point is the hot winds and the cold, 
especially those that are universal, but also those 
that are peculiar to each particular region. He 
must also consider the properties of the waters; for 
as these differ in taste and in weight, so the property 
of each is far different from that of any other. 
Therefore, on arrival at a town with which he is 
unfamiliar, a physician should examine its position 
with respect to the winds and to the risings of 
the sun. For a northern, a southern, an eastern, 
and a western aspect has each its own individual 
property. He must consider with the greatest care 
both these things and how the natives are off for 
water, whether they use marshy, soft waters, or 
such as are hard and come from rocky heights, 
or brackish and harsh. The soil too, whether bare 
and dry or wooded and watered, hollow and hot 
or high and cold. The mode of life also of the 
inhabitants that is pleasing to them, whether they 

1 χρὴ Ὁ: omitted in other MSS. 





ἀριστηταὶ καὶ ἀταλαίπωροι ἢ φιλογυμνασταί τε 
καὶ φιλόπονοι. καὶ ἐδωδοὶ καὶ ἄποτοι. 

Il. Καὶ ἀπὸ τούτων χρὴ ἐνθυμεῖσθαι ἕκαστα. 
εἰ ,“γὰρ ταῦτα εἰδείη τις καλῶς, μάλιστα μὲν 
πάντα, εἰ δὲ μή, τά γε πλεῖστα, οὐκ ἂν αὐτὸν 
λανθάνοι ἐς πόλιν ἀφικνεόμενον, ἧς ἂν ἄπειρος 
ἢ, οὔτε “Ψοσήματα ἐπιχώρια οὔτε τῶν κοινῶν ἧ 
φύσις, ὁκοίη τίς ἐστιν" ὥστε μὴ ἀπορεῖσθαι ἐν 
τῇ θεραπείῃ τῶν νούσων μηδὲ διαμαρτάνειν' ἃ 
εἰκός ἐστι γίνεσθαι, ἢν μή τις ταῦτα πρότερον 
εἰδὼς προφροντίσῃ περὶ ἑκάστου" τοῦ δὲ χρόνου 
προϊόντος καὶ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ λέγοι ἄν, ὁκόσα τε 
νοσήματα μέλλει πάγκοινα τὴν πόλιν κατασχή- 
σειν ἢ θέρεος ἢ ἢ χειμῶνος, ὁκόσα τε ἴδια ἑκάστῳ 
κίνδυνος γίνεσθαι ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς διαίτης. 
εἰδὼς γὰρ, ΤΩΝ ὡρέων τὰς μεταβολὰς καὶ τῶν 
ἄστρων τὰς ὦ ἐπιτολάς τε καὶ δύσιας, καθότι 
ἕκαστον τούτων γίνεται, προειδείη ἂν τὸ ἔτος 
ὁκοῖόν τι μέλλει γίνεσθαι. οὕτως ἄν τις ἐννοεύ- 
μενος καὶ προγινώσκων τοὺς καιροὺς μάλιστ᾽ ἂν 
εἰδείη περὶ ἑκάστου καὶ τὰ πλεῖστα τυγχάνοι 
τῆς ὑγιείης καὶ κατορθοίη οὐκ ἐλάχιστα ἐν τῇ 
τέχνῃ. εἰ δὲ δοκέοι τις ταῦτα μετεωρολόγα εἶναι, 
εἰ μετασταίη τῆς γνώμης, μάθοι a ἄν, ὅτι οὐκ ἐλά- 
χίστον μέρος συμβάλλεται ἀστρονομίη ἐς ἰητρι- 
κήν, ἀλλὰ πάνυ πλεῖστον. ἅμα γὰρ τῇσιν ὥρῃσι 
καὶ αἱ νοῦσοι καὶ αἱ κοιλίαι μεταβάλλουσιν 
τοῖσιν ἀνθρώποισιν: 

ΠῚ: “Oxos δὲ χρὴ ἕκαστα. τῶν προειρημένων 
σκοπεῖν καὶ βασανίζειν, ἐγὼ φράσω σαφέως. 

1 τὰς added by Wilamowitz. 


are heavy drinkers, taking lunch, and inactive, or 
athletic, industrious, eating much and drinking little. 

11. Using this evidence he must examine the 
several problems that arise. For if a physician 
know these things well, by preference all of them, 
but at any rate most, he will not, on arrival at a 
town with which he is unfamiliar, be ignorant of 
the local diseases, or of the nature of those that 
commonly prevail; so that he will not be at a loss 
in the treatment of diseases, or make blunders, as is 
likely to be the case if he have not this knowledge 
before he consider his several problems. As time 
and the year passes he will be able to tell what 
epidemic diseases will attack the city either in 
summer or in winter, as well as those peculiar to 
the individual which are likely to occur through 
change in mode of life. For knowing the changes 
of the seasons, and the risings and settings of the 
stars, with the circumstances of each of these 
phenomena, he will know beforehand the nature of 
the year that is coming. Through these considera- 
tions and by learning the times beforehand, he will 
have full knowledge of each particular case, will 
succeed best in securing health, and will achieve the 
greatest triumphs in the practice of his art. If it 
be thought that all this belongs to meteorology, he 
will find out, on second thoughts, that the contri- 
bution of astronomy to medicine is not a very small 
one but a very great one indeed. For with the 
seasons men’s diseases, like their digestive organs, 
suffer change. 

III. I will now set forth clearly how each of the 
foregoing questions ought to be investigated, and 

1 That is, taking more than one full meal every day. 






ἥτις μὲν πόλις πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα κεῖται τὰ θερμά 
-- ταῦτα δ᾽ ἐστὶ μεταξὺ τῆς τε χειμερινῆς ἀνα- 
τολῆς τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν χειμερινῶν 
—Kal αὐτῇ ταῦτα τὰ πνεύματά ἐστι σύννομα, 
τῶν δὲ ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων πνευμάτων σκέπη, ἐν 
ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει ἐστὶ τά τε ὕδατα πολλὰ καὶ 
idhara,! καὶ ἀνάγκη εἶναι μετέωρα, τοῦ μὲν θέρεος 
θερμά, τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος ψυχρά: τούς τε ἀνθρώ- 
πους τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑγρὰς ἔχειν καὶ φλεγματώδεας, 
τάς τε κοιλίας αὐτῶν πυκνὰ ἐκταράσσεσθαι ἀπὸ 
τῆς κεφαλῆς τοῦ φλέγματος ἐπικαταρρέοντος" τά 
τε εἴδεα ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος αὐτῶν GTOVOTEPA | εἶναι" 
ἐσθίειν δ᾽ οὐκ ἀγαθοὺς εἶναι οὐδὲ πίνειν. ὁκόσοι 
μὲν γὰρ κεφαλὰς ἀσθενέας ἐ ἔχουσιν, οὐκ ἂν εἴησαν 
ἀγαθοὶ πίνειν" ἡ γὰρ κραιπάλη μᾶλλον πιέξει. 
νοσήματά τε τάδε ἐπιχώρια εἶναι" πρῶτον μὲν 
τὰς γυναῖκας νοσερὰς καὶ ῥοώδεας εἶναι" ἔπειτα 
πολλὰς ἀτόκους ὑπὸ νούσου καὶ οὐ φύσει ἐκτιτρώ- 
σκεσθαί τε πυκνά' τοῖσί τε παιδίοισιν ἐ ἐπιπίπτειν 
σπασμούς τε καὶ ἄσθματα καὶ ἃ “Ψομίξζουσι τὸ 
παιδίον 5 ποιεῖν καὶ ἱερὴν νοῦσον εἶναι" τοῖσι δὲ 
ἀνδράσι δυσεντερίας καὶ διαρροίας καὶ ἠπιάλους 
καὶ πυρετοὺς πολυχρονίους χειμερινοὺς καὶ ἐπι- 
νυκτίδας πολλὰς καὶ αἱμορροΐδας ἐν τῇ ἕδρῃ. 
πλευρίτιδες δὲ καὶ περιπνευμονίαι καὶ καῦσοι 
καὶ ὁκόσα ὀξέα νοσήματα “νομίζονται εἶναι οὐκ 
ἐγγίνονται πολλά. οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε, ὅκου ἂν 
κοιλίαι ὑγραὶ ἔωσι, τὰς νούσους ταύτας ἰσχύειν. 
ὀφθαλμίαι τε ἐγγίνονται ὑγραὶ καὶ οὐ χαλεπαί, 
1 Perhaps one should read ὑφαλυκά. 

2 παιδίον MSS. : θεῖον Coray, who readsé for ἃ, and Zwinger 
in margin. 



the tests to be applied. A city that lies exposed 
to the hot winds—these are those between the winter 
rising of the sun and its winter setting—when 
subject to these and sheltered from the north winds, 
the waters here are plentiful and brackish, and must 
be near the surface,! hot in summer and cold in winter. 
The heads of the inhabitants are moist and full of 
phlegm, and their digestive organs are frequently 
deranged from the phlegm that runs down into them 
from the head. Most of them have a rather flabby 
physique, and they are poor eaters and poor drinkers. 
For men with weak heads will be poor drinkers, as 
the after-effects are more distressing to them. The 
endemic diseases are these. In the first place, 
the women are unhealthy and subject to excessive 
fluxes. Then many are barren through disease and 
not by nature, while abortions are frequent. Children 
ave liable to convulsions and asthma, and to what 
they think causes the disease of childhood, and to 
be a sacred disease.2 Men suffer from dysentery, 
diarrhoea, ague, chronic fevers in winter, many 
attacks? of eczema, and from hemorrhoids. Cases 
of pleurisy, pneumonia, ardent fever, and of diseases 
considered acute, rarely occur. These diseases 
cannot prevail where the bowels are loose. Inflam- 
mations of the eyes occur with running, but are not 

1 μετέωρος ““ elevated,” both here and in Chapter XXIV, 
seems, when applied to springs, to mean the opposite of 
‘*@eep,” 1. 6. rising from a point near the surface of the soil. 
Contrast Chapter VII, where water ἐκ βαθυτάτων πηγέων is 
said to be warm in winter and cool in summer. 

2 That is, epilepsy. Coray’s reading means, ‘‘that 
affection which they think is caused by Heaven, and to be 

δ᾽ “forms.” 





ὀλιγοχρόνιοι, ἣν μή TL κατάσχῃ νόσημα πάγκοι- 
νον ἐκ μεταβολῆς μεγάλης. καὶ ὁκόταν τὰ 
πεντήκοντα ἔτεα ὑπερβάλωσι,2 κατάρροοι ἐπι- 
γενόμενοι ἐκ τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου παραπληκτικοὺς 
ποιέουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, ὁκόταν ἐξαίφνης ἡλιω- 
θέωσι τὴν κεφαλὴν ἢ ῥιγώσωσι. ταῦτα μὲν τὰ 
νοσήματα αὐτοῖσιν ἐπιχώριά ἐστι. χωρὶς δέ, 
ἤν τι πάγκοινον κατάσχῃ νόσημα ἐκ μεταβολῆς 
τῶν ὡρέων, καὶ τούτου μετέχουσιν. 

IEE Ὁκόσαι δ᾽ ἀντικέονται τούτων πρὸς τὰ 
πνεύματα τὰ ψυχρὰ τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν 
θερινῶν τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῆς ἀνατολῆς τῆς θερινῆς, 
καὶ αὐτῇσι ταῦτα τὰ πνεύματα ἐπιχώριά ἐστι, 
τοῦ δὲ νότου καὶ τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων σκέπη, 
ὧδε ἔχει περὶ τῶν πολίων τούτων" πρῶτον μὲν 
τὰ ὕδατα σκληρά τε καὶ ψυχρὰ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ 
πλῆθος ἐγγίνεται.3 τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπους εὐτόνους 
τε καὶ σκελιφροὺς ἀνάγκη εἶναι, τούς τε πλείους 
τὰς κοιλίας ἀτεράμνους ἔχειν καὶ σκληρὰς τὰς 
κάτω, τὰς δὲ ἄνω εὐροωτέρας" χολώδεάς τε 
μᾶλλον ἢ φλεγματίας εἶναι. τὰς δὲ κεφαλὰς 

ὑγιηρὰς ἔχουσι καὶ σκληράς" ῥηγματίαι τέ εἰσιν 
ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος. νοσεύματα δὲ αὐτοῖσιν ἐπιδημεῖ 
τάδε'" πλευρίτιδές Te πολλαὶ ai Te ὀξεῖαι “ομιζό- 
μεναι νοῦσοι. ἀνάγκη δὲ ὧδε ἔχειν, ὁκόταν αἱ 
κοιλίαι σκληραὶ ἐ ἔωσιν" ἔμπυοί TE πολλοὶ γίνονται 
ἀπὸ πάσης προφάσιος. τούτου δὲ αὔτιόν ἐστι 
τοῦ σώματος ἡ ἔντασις καὶ ἡ σκληρότης τῆς 
κοιλίης. ἡ γὰρ ξηρότης ῥηγματίας ποιεῖ εἶναι 
καὶ τοῦ ὕδατος ἡ ψυχρότης. ἐδωδοὺς δὲ ἀνάγκη 

1 μεγάλης omitted by Greek MSS.: de magna metabula 



serious ; they are of short duration, unless a general 
epidemic take place after a violent change. When 
they are more than fifty years old, they are paralyzed 
by catarrhs supervening from the brain, when the 
sun suddenly strikes their head or they are chilled. 
These are their endemic diseases, but besides, they 
are liable to any epidemic disease that prevails 
through the change of the seasons. 

IV. But the following is the condition of cities 
with the opposite situation, facing the cold winds 
that blow from between the summer setting and 
the summer rising of the sun, being habitually 
exposed to these winds, but Sheltered from the 
hot winds and from the south. First, the waters 
of the region are generally hard and cold. The 
natives must be sinewy and spare, and in most cases 
their digestive organs are costive and hard in their 
lower parts, but more relaxed in the upper. They 
must be bilious rather than phlegmatic. Their 
heads are healthy and hard, but they have in most 
cases a tendency to internal lacerations. Their 
endemic diseases are as follow. Pleurisies are 
common, likewise those diseases which are accounted 
acute. It must be so, since their digestive organs 
are hard, and the slightest cause inevitably pro- 
duces in many patients abscesses, the result of a 
stiff body and hard digestive organs. For their 
dryness, combined with the coldness of the water, 
makes them liable to internal lacerations. Such 

2 aoa Peano: Coray: ὑπερβάλλωσι MSS. 
eT at Littré: γλυκαίνεται most MSS. : οὐ γλυκαίνεται 
Coray : καὶ ἁλυκὰ γίνεται Kiihlewein. 



τὰς τοιαύτας φύσιας εἶναι καὶ οὐ πολυπότας" οὐ 
γὰρ οἷόν τε ἅμα πολυβόρους τε εἶναι καὶ πολυ- 
moras ὀφθαλμίας τε γίνεσθαι μὲν διὰ χρόνου, 
γίνεσθαι δὲ σκληρὰς καὶ ἰσχυράς, καὶ εὐθέως 
ῥήγνυσθαι τὰ ὄμματα: αἱμορροίας δὲ ἐκ τῶν ῥινῶν 
τοῖσι νεωτέροισι τριήκοντα ἐτέων γίνεσθαι ἰσχυ- 
ρὰς τοῦ θέρεος" τά τε ἱερὰ νοσεύματα καλεύμενα, 
ὀλίγα μὲν ταῦτα, ἰσχυρὰ δέ. μακροβίους δὲ τοὺς 

, , Qn ’ lal / 
30 ἀνθρώπους τούτους μᾶλλον εἰκὸς εἶναι τῶν ἑτέρων" 



τά τε ἕλκεα οὐ φλεγματώδεα ἐγγίνεσθαι οὐδὲ 
ἀγριοῦσθαι: τά τε ἤθεα ἀγριώτερα ἢ ἡμερώτερα. 
τοῖσι μὲν ἀνδράσι ταῦτα τὰ νοσήματα ἐπιχώριά 
\ / 7 , , ᾽ 
ἐστι: καὶ χωρίς, ἤν τι πάγκοινον κατάσχῃ ἐκ 
μεταβολῆς τῶν ὡρέων: τῇσι δὲ γυναιξί πρῶτον 
μὲν στερίφαι 3 πολλαὶ γίνονται διὰ τὰ ὕδατα 
ἐόντα σκληρά τε καὶ ἀτέραμνα καὶ ψυχρά. αἱ 
γὰρ καθάρσιες οὐκ ἐπιγίνονται τῶν ἐπιμηνίων 
ἐπιτήδειαι, ἀλλὰ ὀλίγαι καὶ πονηραί. ἔπειτα 
τίκτουσι χαλεπῶς" ἐκτιτρώσκουσι δὲ οὐ σφόδρα. 
ὁκόταν δὲ τέκωσι, τὰ παιδία ἀδύνατοι τρέφειν 
εἰσί: τὸ γὰρ γάλα ἀποσβέννυται ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων 
τῆς σκληρότητος καὶ ἀτεραμνίης" φθίσιές τε γί- 
νονται συχναὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τοκετῶν. ὑπὸ γὰρ βίης 
ῥήγματα ἴσχουσι καὶ σπάσματα. τοῖς δὲ παιδίοι- 
σιν ὕδρωπες ἐγγίνονται ἐν τοῖσιν ὄρχεσιν, ἕως 
μικρὰ ἢ" ἔπειτα προϊούσης τῆς ἡλικίης ἀφανί- 
ἕονται: ἡβῶσί τε ὀψὲ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει. 

V. Περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων καὶ 
τῶν ψυχρῶν καὶ τῶν πολίων τούτων ὧδε ἔχει ὡς 
προείρηται. ὁκόσαι δὲ κέονται πρὸς τὰ πνεύματα 

1 So most MSS.: omitted by δ᾽ and Kiihlewein. It 
contradicts Chapter VII, ll. 20, 21. 



constitutions necessarily make men eat much and 
drink little; for one cannot be both a great eater 
and a great drinker. Inflammations of the eyes 
occur at last; they are hard and violent, and rapidly 
cause rupture of the eyes. Men under thirty 
suffer from violent bleedings at the nose in summer. 
Instances of the disease called “sacred” are rare 
but violent. These men are more likely to be 
long-lived than are others. Their sores become 
neither phlegmatic! nor malignant, but their char- 
acters incline to fierceness, not to mildness. For 
men these diseases are endemic, besides there are 
epidemic diseases which may prevail through the 
change of the seasons. As to the women, firstly 
many become barren through the waters being hard, 
indigestible and cold. Their menstrual discharges 
are not healthy, but are scanty and bad. Then 
childbirth is difficult, although abortion is rare. 
After bearing children they cannot rear them, for 
their milk is dried up through the hardness and 
indigestibility of the waters, while cases of phthisis 
are frequent after parturition, for the violence of 
it causes ruptures and strains. Children suffer from 
dropsies in the testicles while they are little, which 
disappear as they grow older. In sucha city puberty 
is late. 

V. The effects of hot winds and of cold winds 
on these cities are such as I have described; the 
following are the effects of winds on cities lying 

‘« Suppurating.” 

2 στερίφαι Coray: στεριφναὶ or atpipval MSS. : στιφραὶ 
Ermerins and Reinhold. 






Ta μεταξὺ TOV θερινῶν ἀνατολέων τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ 
τῶν χειμερινῶν καὶ ὁκόσαι τὸ ἐναντίον τούτων, 
ὧδε ἐ ἔχει περὶ αὐτέων: ὁκόσαι μὲν πρὸς τὰς ἀνα- 
τολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου κέονται, ταύτας εἰκὸς εἶναι 
ὑγιεινοτέρας. τῶν πρὸς τὰς ἄρκτους ἐστραμμένων 
καὶ τῶν πρὸς τὰ θερμά, ἢν καὶ στάδιον * τὸ 
μεταξὺ 7). πρῶτον * μὲν “γὰρ μετριώτερον ἔχει 
τὸ θερμὸν καὶ τὸ ψυχρόν' ἔπειτα τὰ ὕδατα, ὁ ὁκόσα 
πρὸς τὰς τοῦ ἡλίου ἀνατολάς ἐστι, ταῦτα λαμπρά 
τε εἶναι ἀνάγκη καὶ εὐώδεα καὶ μαλθακὰ καὶ 
ἐρατεινὰ ἐγγίνεσθαι ἐ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ πόλει: ὁ γὰρ 
ἥλιος Tt KwAVEL ἀνίσχων καὶ καταλάμπων. τὸ 
γὰρ ἑωθινὸν ἑκάστοτε αὐτὸς ὁ ἠὴρ ἐπέχει ὡς ἐπὶ 
τὸ πολύ. 3 τά τε εἴδεα τῶν ἀνθρώπων εὔχροά τε 
καὶ ἀνθηρά ἐ ἐστι μᾶλλον ἢ ἄλλῃ ἢν μή τις νοῦσος 
κωλύῃ. λαμπρόφωνοί τε οἱ ἄνθρωποι * ὀργήν 
ΤΕ καὶ σύνεσιν βελτίους εἰσὶ τῶν προσβορείων," 
ἧπερ καὶ τὰ ἄλλα τὰ ἐμφυόμενα ἀμείνω ἐστίν. 
ἔοικέ τε μάλιστα ἡ οὕτω κειμένη πόλις ἦρι κατὰ 
τὴν μετριότητα τοῦ θερμοῦ καὶ τοῦ ψυχροῦ" τά 
τε νοσεύματα ἐλάσσω μὲν γίνεται καὶ ἀσθενέ- 
στερα, ἔοικε δὲ τοῖς ἐν τῆσι πόλεσι γενομένοις 
νοσεύμασι τῇσι πρὸς τὰ θερμὰ πνεύματα το 
μένῃησιν. αἴ τε γυναῖκες αὐτόθι ἀρικύμονές ὃ εἰσι 
σφόδρα καὶ τίκτουσι ῥηϊδίως. 

VI. Περὶ μὲν τούτων ὧδε ἔχει. ὁκόσαι δὲ 
πρὸς τὰς δύσιας κεῖνται καὶ αὐτῆσίν ἐστι σκέπη 

1 So all MSS. and editors. I would insert μόνον. 

2 πρῶτον Coray: πρότερον MSS. 

3 The part within daggers is as given in most MSS. For 
κωλύει (which cannot govern ὕδατα as an object) Coray 
would read καλλύνει, and Ermerins and Reinhold bracket 



exposed to those between the summer and winter 
risings of the sun, and to those opposite to these. 
Those that lie towards the risings of the sun are 
likely to be healthier than those facing the north 
and those exposed to the hot winds, even though 
they be but a furlong apart. In the first place, the 
heat and the cold are more moderate. Then the 
waters that face the risings of the sun must be clear, 
sweet-smelling, soft and delightful, in such a city. 
For the sun, shining down upon them when it rises, 
purifies them. ‘The persons of the inhabitants are 
of better complexion and more blooming than else- 
where, unless some disease prevents this. They 
are clear-voiced, and with better temper and intelli- 
gence than those who are exposed to the north, 
just as all things growing there are better. A city 
so situated is just ‘like spring, because the heat and 
the cold are tempered; the diseases, while resemb- 
ling those which we said occur in cities facing the 
hot winds, are both fewer and less severe. The 
women there very readily conceive and have easy 

VI. Such are the conditions in these cities. Those 
that lie towards the settings of the sun, and are 

τὸ γὰρ ἑωθινὸν»... 2 2. πολύ. Perhaps καθαίρει (not unlike 
κωλύει in uncials) should be read for κωλύει, and the gloss 
read τὸ yap ἑωθινὸν ἑκάστοτε αὐτὰ (αὐτὸς 15 meaning less) 
ὁ ἠὴρ ἐπέχει ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ. Has κωλύει arisen from κωλύῃ 
in the next sentence? In his notes Coray suggests ὃ yap 
ἥλιος κωλύει (or κολούει) τὸν ἠέρα ἀνίσχων καὶ καταλάμπων᾽" τὸ 
γὰρ ἑωθινὸν αὐτόσε ἠὴρ κιτ.λ. But can αὐτόσε = αὐτόθι ἵ 

4 καὶ should perhaps be added after ἄνθρωποι. 

5 προσβορείων Kiihlewein: προσβορέων V JB: πρὸς βορέην 
most MSS. 

8 ἀρικύμονες Coray: ἐναρικύμονες V JB. 





TOV πνευμάτων τῶν ἀπὸ τῆς ἠοῦς πνεόντων τά 
τε θερμὰ πνεύματα παραρρεῖ καὶ τὰ ψυχρὰ ἀπὸ 
τῶν ἄρκτων, ἀνάγκη ταύτας τὰς πόλιας θέσιν 
κεῖσθαι νοσερωτάτην. πρῶτον μὲν γὰρ τὰ ὕδατα 
οὐ λαμπρά" αἴτιον δέ, ὅτι ὁ ἠὴρ τὸ ἑωθινὸν κατέχει 
ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ, ὅστις τῷ ὕδατι ἐ ἐγκαταμιγνύμενος 
τὸ λαμπρὸν ἀφανίζει" ὁ γὰρ ἥλιος πρὶν ἄνω 
ἀρθῆναι οὐκ ἐπιλάμπει. τοῦ δὲ θέρεος ἕωθεν μὲν 
αὖραι ψυχραὶ πνέουσι καὶ δρόσοι πίπτουσι" τὸ 
δὲ λοιπὸν ἥλιος ἐγκαταδύνων ὥστε μάλιστα διέψει 
τοὺς ἀνθρώπους, διὸ καὶ ἀχρόους τε εἰκὸς εἶναι 
καὶ ἀρρώστους, τῶν τε νοσευμάτων πάντων μετ- 
έχειν μέρος τῶν προειρημένων" οὐδὲν γὰρ αὐτοῖς 
ἀποκέκριται. βαρυφώνους τε εἰκὸς εἶναι καὶ 
βραγχώδεας διὰ τὸν ἠέρα, ὅτε ἀκάθαρτος ὡς ἐπὶ 
τὸ πολὺ αὐτόθι γίνεται καὶ νοσώδης" οὔτε γὰρ 
ὑπὸ τῶν βορείων ἐ ἐκκρίνεται σφόδρα" οὐ γὰρ προσ- 
έχουσι͵ τὰ πνεύματα". ἅ τε προσέχουσιν αὐτοῖσι 
καὶ πρόσκεινται ὑδατεινότατά ἐ ἐστιν" ἐπεὶ τοιαῦτα 
Ta ἀπὸϊ τῆς ἑσπέρης πνεύματα" ἔοικέν τε μετ- 
οπώρῳ μάλιστα ἡ θέσις ἡ τοιαύτη τῆς πόλιος κατὰ 
τὰς τῆς ἡμέρης μεταβολάς, ὅτι πολὺ τὸ μέσον 
γίνεται τοῦ τε ἑωθινοῦ καὶ τοῦ πρὸς τὴν δείλην. 
VII. Περὶ μὲν πνευμάτων, ἅ τέ ἐστιν ἐπιτήδεια 
καὶ ἀνεπιτήδεια, ὧδε ἔχει. περὶ δὲ τῶν λοιπῶν 5 
ὑδάτων βούλομαι διηγήσασθαι, ἅ ἅ τέ ἐστι νοσώδεα 
καὶ ἃ ὑγιεινότατα, καὶ ὁκόσα ἀφ᾽ ὕδατος κακὰ 
εἰκὸς γίνεσθαι καὶ ὅσα ἀγαθά. πλεῖστον γὰρ 

1 ἐπεὶ τοιαῦτα τὰ ἀπὸ Coray: ἐπεὶ τὰ ἐπὶ most MSS. 
2 χοιπῶν omitted by 7027 and Wilamowitz. 



sheltered from the east winds, while the hot winds 
and the cold north winds blow past them—these 
cities must have a most unhealthy situation. In the 
first place, the waters are not clear, the reason being 
that in the morning mist is generally prevalent, 
which dissolves in the water and destroys its clear- 
ness, as the sun does not shine upon it before it 
is high on the horizon, In the summer cold breezes 
blow in the morning and there are heavy dews; 
for the rest of the day the sun as it advances 
towards the west thoroughly scorches the inhabitants, 
so that they are likely to be pale and sickly, subject 
to all the diseases aforesaid, for none are peculiar 
to them.! They are likely to have deep, hoarse 
voices, because of the atmosphere, since it is usually 
impure and unhealthy in such places. For while 
it is not clarified much by the north winds, which 
are not prevalent there, the winds that do prevail 
insistently are very rainy, such being the nature of 
westerly winds. Such a situation for a city is pre- 
cisely like autumn in respect of the changes of the 
day, seeing that the difference between sunrise and 
afternoon is great. 

VII. So much for winds, healthy and unhealthy. 
I wish now to treat of waters, those that bring 
disease or very good health, and of the ill or good 
that is likely to arise from water. For the influence 

1 αὐτοῖς may be either a dative of advantage or one of 
disadvantage. There can thus be two meanings :— 
(1) ‘‘for none are isolated to their advantage,” ὁ. 6. they 
are exempt from none ; 

(2) ‘‘for none are isolated to their disadvantage,” 7. e. 
they have no disease peculiar to themselves. I 
have taken the latter meaning, with Littré, but a 

good case could be made out for the former. 




μέρος συμβάλλεται ἐς τὴν ὑγιείην. ὁκόσα μὲν 
οὖν ἐστιν ἑλώδεα καὶ στάσιμα καὶ λεμναῖα, ταῦτα 
ἀνάγκη τοῦ μὲν θέρεος. εἶναι θερμὰ καὶ παχέα καὶ 
ὀδμὴν ἔχοντα, ἅτε οὐκ ἀπόρρυτα ἐόντα" ἀλλὰ 
τοῦ τε ὀμβρίου͵ ὕδατος ἐπιφερομένου * αἰεὶ νέου 
τοῦ τε ἡλίου καίοντος ἀνάγκη ἄχροά τε εἶναι καὶ 
πονηρὰ καὶ χολώδεα, τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος παγετώδεά 
τε καὶ ψυχρὰ καὶ τεθολωμένα ὑπό πε χιόνος καὶ 
παγετῶν, ὥστε φλεγματωδέστατα εἶναι καὶ βραγ- 
χωδέστατα. τοῖσι δὲ πίνουσι σπλῆνας μὲν αἰεὶ 
μεγάλους εἶναι καὶ μεμυωμένους καὶ τὰς γαστέρας 
σκληράς τε καὶ λεπτὰς καὶ θερμάς, τοὺς δὲ ὥμους 
καὶ τὰς κληῖδας καὶ τὸ πρόσωπον καταλελε- 
πτύσθαι: ἐς γὰρ τὸν σπλῆνα αἱ σάρκες συντήκον- 
ται, διότι ἰσχνοί εἰσιν" ἐδωδούς τε εἶναι τοὺς 
τοιούτους καὶ διψηρούς" τ is τε κοιλίας ξηροτάτας 
Te Kal (Oeppotatas Kal τὰς ἄνω καὶ τὰς κάτω 
ἔχειν, ὥστε τῶν φαρμάκων ἰσχυροτέρων δεῖσθαι. 
τοῦτο μὲν τὸ νόσημα αὐτοῖσι σύντροφόν ἐστι 
καὶ θέρεος καὶ χειμῶνος. πρὸς δὲ τούτοισιν οἱ 
ὕδρωπες πλεῖστοί τε γίνονται καὶ θανατωδέστατοι. 
τοῦ γὰρ θέρεος δυσεντερίαι τε πολλαὶ ἐμπίπτουσι 
καὶ διάρροιαι καὶ πυρετοὶ τεταρταῖοι πολυχρό- 
νιοι. ταῦτα δὲ τὰ νοσεύματα μηκυνθέντα τὰς 
τοιαύτας φύσιας ἐς ὕδρωπας καθίστησι καὶ ἀπο- 
κτείνει. ταῦτα μὲν αὐτοῖσι τοῦ θέρεος γίνεται. 
τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος τοῖσι νεωτέροισι μὲν περιπνευ- 
μονίαι τε καὶ μανιώδεα νοσεύματα, τοῖσι δὲ 
πρεσβυτέροισι καῦσοι διὰ τὴν τῆς κοιλίης σκλη- 
ρότητα. τῆσι δὲ γυναιξὶν οἰδήματα ἐγγίνεται 
καὶ φλέγμα λευκόν, καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἴσχουσι μόλις 
καὶ τίκτουσι χαλεπῶς" μεγάλα τε τὰ ἔμβρνα καὶ 



of water upon health is very great. Such as are 
marshy, standing and stagnant must in summer be 
hot, thick and stinking, because there is no outflow ; 
and as fresh rain-water is always flowing in and the 
sun heats them, they must be of bad colour, un- 
healthy and bilious. In winter they must be frosty, 
cold and turbid through the snow and frosts, so as 
to be very conducive to phlegm and sore throats. 
Those who drink it have always large, stiff spleens, 
and hard, thin, hot stomachs, while their shoulders, 
collar-bones and faces are emaciated; the fact is 
that their flesh dissolves to feed the spleen, so that 
they are lean. With such a constitution they eat 
and drink heavily. Their digestive organs, upper 
and lower, are very dry and very hot, so that they 
need more powerful drugs. This malady is endemic 
both in summer and in winter. In addition the 
dropsies that occur are very numerous and very 
fatal. For in the summer there are epidemics of 
dysentery, diarrhoea and long quartan fever, which 
diseases when prolonged cause constitutions such as 
I have described to develop dropsies that result in 
death. These are their maladies in summer. In 
winter young people suffer from pneumonia and 
illnesses attended by delirium, the older, through 
the hardness of their digestive organs, from ardent 
fever. Among the women occur swellings and leuco- 
phlegmasia; they conceive hardly and are delivered 
with difficulty. The babies are big and swollen, and 

1 ἐπιφερομένου b: ἐπιτρεφυμένου most MSS. 






οἰδέοντα. ἔπειτα ἐν τῇσι τροφῇσι φθινώδεά τε 
καὶ πονηρὰ γίνεται" ἥ τε κάθαρσις τῆσι γυναιξὶν 
οὐκ ἐπιγίνεται χρηστὴ μετὰ τὸν τόκον. τοῖσι δὲ 
παιδίοισι κῆλαι ἐπεγίνονται μάλιστα καὶ τοῖσιν 
ἀνδράσι κίρσοι καὶ ἕλκεα ἐν τῆσι κνήμῃσιν, ὥστε 
τὰς τοιαύτας φύσιας οὐχ οἷόν τε μακροβίους εἶναι, 
ἀλλὰ προγηράσκειν τοῦ χρόνου τοῦ ἱκνευμένου. 
ἔτι δὲ αἱ γυναῖκες δοκέουσιν ἔ ἔχειν ἐν γαστρί, καὶ 
ὁκόταν ὁ τόκος 1; ἀφανίζεται τὸ πλήρωμα τῆς 
γαστρός. τοῦτο δὲ γίνεται, ὁκόταν ὑδρωπιήσωσιν 
αἱ ὑστέραι. τὰ μὲν τοιαῦτα ὕδατα νομίζω μοχ- 
θηρὰ εἶναι πρὸς ἅπαν χρῆμα: δεύτερα δὲ ὅσων 
εἶεν * αἱ πηγαὶ ἐκ πετρέων.---σκληρὰ γὰρ ἀνάγκη 
elvar—i ἐκ γῆς, ὅκου θερμὰ ὕδατά ἐ ἐστιν, ἢ σίδηρος 
γίνεται ἢ χαλκὸς ἢ ἄργυρος ἢ χρυσὸς ἢ θεῖον ἢ ἢ 
στυπτηρίη ἢ ἄσφαλτον ἢ νίτρον. ταῦτα γὰρ 
πάντα ὑπὸ βίης γίνονται τοῦ θερμοῦ. οὐ τοίνυν 
οἷόν τε ἐκ τοιαύτης γῆς ὕδατα ἀγαθὰ γίνεσθαι, 
ἀλλὰ σκληρὰ καὶ καυσώδεα διουρεῖσθαί τε ae 
λεπὰ καὶ πρὸς τὴν διαχώρησιν ἐναντία εἶναι. 
ἄριστα δὲ ὁκόσα ἐκ “μετεώρων χωρίων ῥεῖ καὶ 
λόφων γεηρῶν. αὐτά τε γάρ ἐστι γλυκέα καὶ 
λευκὰ καὶ τὸν οἶνον φέρειν ὀλίγον οἷά τέ ἐστιν. 
τοῦ δὲ χειμῶνος θερμὰ γίνεται, τοῦ δὲ θέρεος 
ψυχρά. οὕτω γὰρ ἂν εἴη ἐκ βαθυτάτων πηγέων. 
μάλιστα δὲ ἐπαινέω ὧν τὰ ῥεύματα πρὸς τὰς 
ἀνατολὰς τοῦ ἡλίου ἐρρώγασι καὶ μᾶλλον πρὸς 
τὰς θερινάς. ἀνάγκη γὰρ λαμπρότερα εἶναι καὶ 
εὐώδεα καὶ κοῦφα. ὁκόσα δέ ἐστιν ἁλυκὰ καὶ 
ἀτέραμνα καὶ σκληρά, ταῦτα μὲν πάντα πίνειν 
οὐκ ἀγαθά' εἰσὶ δ᾽ ἔνιαι φύσιες καὶ νοσεύματα, 
ἐς ἃ ἐπιτήδειά ἐστι τὰ τοιαῦτα ὕδατα πινόμενα, 


then, as they are nursed, they pvecome emaciated ! 
and miserable. The discharge after childbirth is 
bad. Children are very subject to hernia and men 
to enlarged veins and to ulcers on the legs, so that 
such constitutions cannot be long-lived but must 
grow prematurely old. Moreover, the women appear 
to be with child, yet, when the time of delivery 
comes, the fullness of the womb disappears, this 
being caused by dropsy in that organ. Such waters 
I hold to be absolutely bad. The next worst will be 
those whose springs are from rocks—for they must 
be hard—or from earth where there are hot waters, 
or iron is to be found, or copper, or silver, or gold, 
or sulphur, or alum, or bitumen, or 5044. For all 
these result from the violence of the heat. So from 
such earth good waters cannot come, but hard, heat- 
ing waters, difficult to pass and causing constipation. 
The best are those that flow from high places and 
earthy hills. By themselves they are sweet and clear, 
and the wine they can stand is but little. In winter 
they are warm, in summer cold. They would naturally 
be so, coming from very deep springs. I commend 
especially those whose flow breaks forth towards the 
rising—by preference the summer rising—of the 
sun. For they must be brighter, sweet-smelling 
and light; while all that are salt, harsh and hard 
are not good to drink, though there are some consti- 
tutions and some diseases which are benefited by 
drinking such waters, concerning which I will speak 

1 Or ‘‘ consumptive.” 

1 εἶεν so most MSS.: εἴην V: εἰσὶν Reinhold (unneces- 
sarily, for the ‘‘vague” opt. without ἂν is not rare in the 
Hippocratic writings). However, 7027 reads suit. 






περὶ ὧν φράσω αὐτίκα. ἔχει. δὲ περὶ τούτων ὧδε' 
ὁκόσων μὲν αἱ πηγαὶ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολὰς ἔχουσι, 
ταῦτα μὲν ἄριστα αὐτὰ ἑωυτῶν ἐστι᾿ δεύτερα δὲ 
τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν θερινῶν ἀνατολέων ἐστὶ τοῦ ἡλίου 
καὶ δυσίων, καὶ μᾶλλον τὰ πρὸς τὰς ἀνατολάς" 
τρίτα δὲ τὰ μεταξὺ τῶν δυσμέων τῶν θερινῶν 
καὶ τῶν χειμερινῶν" φαυλότατα δὲ τὰ πρὸς τὸν 
νότον καὶ τὰ μεταξὺ τῆς χειμερινῆς ἀνατολῆς 
καὶ δύσιος. καὶ ταῦτα τοῖσι μὲν νοτίοισι πάνυ 
πονηρά, τοῖσι δὲ βορείοισιν ἀμείνω. τούτοισι δὲ 
πρέπει ὧδε χρῆσθαι" ὅστις μὲν ὑγιαίνει τε καὶ 
ἔρρωται, μηδὲν διακρίνειν, ἀλλὰ πίνειν αἰεὶ τὸ 
παρεόν. ὅστις δὲ νούσου εἵνεκα βούλεται τὸ 
ἐπιτηδειότατον πίνειν, ὧδε ἂν ποιέων μάλιστα 
τυγχάνοι τῆς ὑγιείης: ὁκόσων μὲν αἱ κοιλίαι 
σκληραί εἰσι καὶ συγκαίειν ἀγαθαί, τούτοισι 
μὲν τὰ γλυκύτατα συμφέρει καὶ κουφότατα καὶ 
λαμπρότατα" ὁκόσων δὲ μαλθακαὶ αἱ νηδύες καὶ 
ὑγραί εἰσι καὶ φλεγματώδεες, τούτοισι δὲ τὰ 
σκληρότατα καὶ ἀτεραμνότατα καὶ τὰ ὑφαλυκά' 
οὕτω γὰρ ἂν ξηραίνοιντο μάλιστα. ὁκόσα γὰρ 
ὕδατά ἐστιν ἕψειν ἄριστα καὶ τακερώτατα, ταῦτα 
καὶ τὴν κοιλίην διαλύειν εἰκὸς μάλιστα καὶ δια- 
τήκειν ὁκόσα δέ ἐστιν ἀτέραμνα καὶ σκληρὰ καὶ 
ἥκιστα ἑψανά, ταῦτα δὲ συνίστησι μάλιστα τὰς 
κοιλίας καὶ ξηραίνει. ἀλλὰ γὰρ ψευσάμενοι * 

εἰσὶν οἱ ἄνθρωποι τῶν ἁλμυρῶν ὑδάτων πέρι δι᾿ 
ἀπειρίην, καὶ 6TL Ὁ νομίξεται διαχωρητικά" τὰ δὲ 
ἐναντιώτατά ἐστι πρὸς τὴν διαχώρησιν" ἀτέραμνα 
γὰρ καὶ ἀνέψανα, ὥστε καὶ τὴν κοιλίην ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν 

100 στύφεσθαι μᾶλλον ἢ τήκεσθαι. 



presently. Aspect affects spring waters thus. Those 
whose sources face the risings of the sun are the 
very best. Second in excellence come those between 
the summer risings and the summer settings, by 
preference in the direction of the risings. Third 
best are those between the summer and winter 
settings. The worst are those that face the south, 
and those between the winter rising and setting. 
These are very bad indeed when the winds are in the 
south, less bad when they are in the north. Spring 
waters should be used thus. A man in health and 
strength can drink any water that is at hand with- 
out distinction, but he who because of dis@ase wishes 
to drink the most suitable can best attain health in 
the following way. Those whose digestive organs are 
hard and easily heated will gain benefit from the 
sweetest, lightest and most sparkling waters. But 
those whose bellies are soft, moist, and phlegmatic, 
benefit from the hardest, most harsh and saltish 
waters, for these are the best to dry them up. For 
waters that are best for cooking and most solvent 
naturally loosen the digestive organs the most and 
relax them; but harsh waters, hard and very bad for 
cooking, contract most these organs and dry them 
up. In fact the public are mistaken about saline 
waters through inexperience, in that they are 
generally considered to be laxative. The truth is 
that they are just the reverse; they are harsh and 
bad for cooking, so that the digestive organs too 
are stiffened by them rather than loosened. 

1 ψευσάμενοι so V JB: ἐψευσμένοι Kiihlewein. 
2 καὶ ὅτι MSS. : Wilamowitz would delete ὅτι ; Coray would 
read κατότι for καὶ ὅτι. Perhaps καὶ should be deleted. 

VOL. I. F 89 





VIII. Kai περὶ μὲν τῶν πηγαίων ὑδάτων ὧδε 
ἔχει. περὶ δὲ τῶν ὀμβρίων καὶ ὁκόσα ἀπὸ χιόνος 
φράσω ὅκως ἔχει. τὰ μὲν οὖν ὄμβρια κουφότατα 
καὶ γλυκύτατά ἐστι καὶ λεπτότατα καὶ λαμπρό- 
τατα. τήν τε γὰρ ἀρχὴν ὁ ἥλιος ἀνάγει καὶ 
ἀναρπάζει τοῦ ὕδατος τό τε λεπτότατον καὶ 
κουφότατον. δῆλον δὲ οἱ ἅλες ποιέουσι. τὸ μὲν 
γὰρ ἁλμυρὸν λείπεται αὐτοῦ ὑπὸ πάχεος καὶ 
βάρεος καὶ γίνεται ἅλες, τὸ δὲ λεπτότατον ὁ ἥλιος 
ἀναρπάζει ὑπὸ κουφότητος" ἀνάγει δὲ τὸ τοιοῦτο 
οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων μοῦνον τῶν λιμναίων, ἀλλὰ 
καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς θαλάσσης καὶ ἐξ ἁπάντων ἐν ὁκόσοισι 
ὑγρόν τι ἔνεστιν. ἔνεστι δὲ ἐ ἐν παντὶ χρήματι. καὶ 
ἐξ αὐτῶν τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἄγει τὸ λεπτότατον τῆς 
ἰκμάδος καὶ κουφότατον. τεκμήριον δὲ μέγιστον" 
ὅταν 1 ἄνθρωπος ἐν ἡλίῳ βαδίξῃ ἢ καθίζῃη ἱμάτιον 
ἔχων, ὁκόσα μὲν τοῦ χρωτὸς ὁ ἥλιος ἐφορᾷ, οὐχ 
ἱδρῴη ἄν: ὁ γὰρ ἥλιος ἀναρπάζει. τὸ προφαι- 
νόμενον τοῦ ἱδρῶτος" ὁκόσα δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἱματίου 
ἐσκέπασται ἢ ὑπ᾽ ἄλλου Tov, ἱδροῖ. ἐξάγεται 
μὲν γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ βιάζεται, σῴξεται δὲ 
ὑπὸ τῆς σκέπης, ὥστε μὴ ἀφανίξεσθαι ὑπὸ τοῦ 
ἡλίου. ὁκόταν δὲ ἐς σκιὴν ἀφίκηται, ἅπαν τὸ 
σῶμα ὁμοίως ἰδίει"5 οὐ γὰρ ἔτι ὁ ἥλιος ἐπιλάμπει. 
διὰ ταῦτα δὲ καὶ σήπεται τῶν ὑδάτων τάχιστα 
ταῦτα καὶ ὀδμὴν i ἴσχει πονηρὴν τὸ ὄμβριον, ὅτι 
ἀπὸ πλείστων συνῆκται καὶ συμμέμικται, ὥστε 
σήπεσθαι τάχιστα. ἔτι δὲ πρὸς τούτοισιν ἐπειδ- 
av ἁρπασθῇ καὶ μετεωρισθῇ περιφερόμενον καὶ 
καταμεμιγμένον ἐς τὸν ἠέρα, τὸ μὲν θολερὸν 
αὐτοῦ καὶ νυκτοειδὲς ἐκκρίνεται καὶ ἐξίσταται 
καὶ γίνεται ἠὴρ καὶ ὀμίχλη, τὸ δὲ λαμπρότατον 8 



VIII. Such are the facts about spring waters. I 
will now proceed to speak of rain water and snow 
water. Rain waters are the lightest, sweetest, finest 
and clearest. ‘To begin with, the sun raises and draws 
up the finest and lightest part of water, as is proved 
by the formation of salt. The brine, owing to its 
coarseness and weight, is left behind and becomes 
salt ; the finest part, owing to its lightness, is drawn 
up by the sun. Not only from pools does the sun 
raise this part, but also from the sea and from 
whatever has moisture in it—and there is moisture 
in everything. Even from men it raises the finest 
and lightest part of their juices. The plainest 
evidence thereof is that when a man walks or sits 
in the sun wearing a cloak, the parts of his skin 
reached by the sun will not sweat, for it draws up 
each layer of sweat as it appears. But those parts 
sweat which are covered by his cloak or by any- 
thing else. For the sweat drawn forcibly out by the 
sun is prevented by the covering from disappearing 
through the sun’s power. But when the man has 
come into a shady place, his whole body sweats 
alike, as the sun no longer shines upon it. For this 
reason too rain-water grows foul quicker than any 
other, and has a bad smell; being a mixture gathered 
from very many sources it grows foul very quickly. 
Furthermore, when it has been carried away aloft, and 
has combined with the atmosphere as it circles round, 
the turbid, dark part of it separates out, changes 
and becomes mist and fog, while the clearest and 


1 Cobet would insert γὰρ after ὅταν. 

2 iste. Heringa, from Erotian, who gives ἰδίειν = ἱδροῦν : 
διίει most MSS. : duet Coray and Littré. 

3 Aaumpotaroy V Jhb: λεπτότατον many MSS. 






Kal κουφότατον αὐτοῦ λείπεται Kal γλυκαίνεται 
ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καιόμενόν τε καὶ ἑψόμενον. γίνεται 
δὲ καὶ τἄλλα πάντα TA} ἑψόμενα αἰεὶ γλυκύτερα. 
ἕως μὲν οὖν διεσ κεδασ μένον ἢ καὶ μήπω συνεστήκῃ, 
φέρεται μετέωρον. ὁκόταν δέ κου ἀθροισθῇ καὶ 
συστραφῇ ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ ὑπὸ ἀνέμων ἀλλήλοισιν 
ἐναντιωθέντων ἐξαίφνης, τότε καταρρήγνυται, 7 
ἂν τύχῃ πλεῖστον συστραφέν. τότε γὰρ ἐοικὸς 
τοῦτο μᾶλλον γίνεσθαι, ὁκόταν τὰ νέφεα ὑπὸ 
ἀνέμου στάσιν μὴ ἔχοντος " ὡρμημένα ἐόντα 8 καὶ 
χωρέοντα ἐξαίφνης ἀντικόψῃ πνεῦμα ἐναντίον 
καὶ ἕτερα νέφεα: ἐνταῦθα τὸ μὲν πρῶτον αὐτοῦ 
συστρέφεται, τὰ δὲ ὄπισθεν ἐπιφέρεταί τε καὶ οὕτω 
παχύνεται, καὶ μελαίνεται καὶ συστρέφεται ἐς τὸ 
αὐτὸ καὶ ὑπὸ βάρεος καταρρήγνυται καὶ ὄμβροι 
γίνονται. ταῦτα μέν ἐστιν ἄριστα κατὰ τὸ εἰκός. 
δεῖται δὲ ἀφέψεσθαι καὶ ἀποσήπεσθαι" * εἰ δὲ 
μή, ὀδμὴν ἵ ἰσχει πονηρὴν καὶ βράγχος καὶ βῆχες 
καὶ βαρυφωνίη τοῖς πίνουσι προσίσταται. 

Τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλων πονηρὰ 
πάντα. ὁκόταν γὰρ ἅπαξ παγῇ, οὐκ ἔτι ἐς τὴν 
ἀρχαίην φύσιν καθίσταται, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν αὐτοῦ 
λαμπρὸν καὶ κοῦφον καὶ γλυκὺ ἐκκρίνεται καὶ 
ἀφανίζεται, τὸ δὲ θολωδέστατον καὶ σταθμωδέ- 
στατον λείπεται. γνοίης δ᾽ ἂν ὧδε' εἰ yap βούλει, 
ὅταν ἢ χειμών," ἐς ἀγγεῖον μέτρῳ ἐγχέας, ὕδωρ 
θεῖναι ἐς τὴν αἰθρίην, ἵ ἵνα πήξεται μάλιστα, ἔπειτα 
τῇ ὑστεραίῃ ἐσενεγκὼν ἐς ἀλέην, ὅκου χαλάσει 

1 χά, Wilamowitz would delete this. 
Sata ἀνέμου στάσιν μὴ ἔχοντος van der Linden and Coray : 
μὴ ὑπὸ ἀνέμου στάσιν ἔχοντος MSS. and Littré: νέφεα ὑπὺ 
ἀνέμου σύστασιν ἔχοντα Kiihlewein. 



lightest part of it remains, and is sweetened as the 
heat of the sun produces coction, just as all other 
things always become sweeter through coction. 
Now as long as it is scattered and uncondensed, it 
travels about aloft, but as soon as it collects any- 
where and is compressed into one place owing to 
sudden, contrary winds, then it bursts wherever the 
most compression happens to take place. For this 
is more likely to occur when the clouds, set in 
motion and carried along by a wind that allows them 
no rest, are suddenly encountered by a contrary 
blast and by other clouds.! In such cases the front is 
compressed, the rear comes on and is thus thickened, 
darkened and compressed into one place, so that the 
weight bursts it and causes rain. Such waters are 
naturally the best. But they need to be boiled and 
purified? from foulness if they are not to have a bad 
smell,and give sore throat, coughs and hoarseness to 
those who drink them. 

Waters from snow and ice are all bad. For, once 
frozen, water never recovers its original nature, but 
the clear, light, sweet part is separated out and 
disappears, while the muddiest and heaviest part 
remains. The following experiment will prove it. 
Pour by measure, in winter, water into a vessel and 
set it in the open, where it will freeze best; then on 
the next day bring it under cover, where the ice will 

1 The reading of Kiihlewein means, ‘‘condensed, set in 
motion and carried along by a wind, are suddenly,” etc. 
2 Or, with the reading of Coray, ‘‘ filtered.” 

es eek inen aanenO Desens 2 ee ΕΞ: ΞΞ ΕἸΞευ Ξ ἘΞῚῈΞ 

3 ὀόντα of the MSS. should probably be deleted as an 
anticipation of the end of χωρέοντα. 

4 ἀποσήπεσθαι MSS. : ἀποσήθεσθαι Coray after Foes. 

δ ὅταν ἢ χειμὼν ἐς Coray: ὅταν of χειμῶνες V JB: ὅταν 
χειμὼν εἰς 






μάλιστα ὁ παγετός, ὁκόταν δὲ λυθῇ, ἀναμετρεῖν 
τὸ ὕδωρ, εὑρήσεις ἔλασσον συχνῷ. τοῦτο τεκ- 
μήριον, ὅτι ὑπὸ τῆς πήξιος ἀφανίζεται καὶ ἀναξη- 
ραίνεται τὸ κουφότατον καὶ λεπτότατον, οὐ τὸ 
βαρύτατον καὶ παχύτατον᾽ οὐ γὰρ ἂν δύναιτο. 
ταύτῃ οὖν νομίζω πονηρότατα ταῦτα τὰ ὕδατα 
εἶναι τὰ ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλου καὶ τὰ τού- 
e f \ Ψ fe 

τοισιν ἑπόμενα πρὸς ἅπαντα χρήματα. 

ΙΧ. Περὶ μὲν οὖν ὀμβρίων ὑδάτων καὶ τῶν 
ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλων οὕτως ἔχει. λιθιῶσι 
δὲ μάλιστα ἄνθρωποι! καὶ ὑπὸ νεφριτίδων καὶ 
oTpayyouptns ἁλίσκονται καὶ ἰσχιάδων, καὶ κῆλαι 
γίνονται, ὅκου ὕδατα πίνουσι παντοδαπώτατα 
καὶ ἀπὸ ποταμῶν μεγάλων, ἐς ods ποταμοὶ ἕτεροι 
ἐμβάλλουσι, καὶ ἀπὸ λίμνης, ἐς ἣν ῥεύματα πολλὰ 
καὶ παντοδαπὰ ἀφικνεῦνται, καὶ ὁκόσοι ὕδασιν 
ἐπακτοῖσι χρέονται διὰ μακροῦ ἀγομένοισι καὶ 
μὴ ἐκ βραχέος. οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε ἕτερον ἑτέρῳ 
ἐοικέναι ὕδωρ, ἀλλὰ τὰ μὲν γλυκέα εἶναι, τὰ δὲ 
ἁλυκά τε καὶ στυπτηριώδεα, τὰ δὲ ἀπὸ θερμῶν 
ῥεῖν. συμμισγόμενα δὲ ταῦτα ἐς τωὐτὸ ἀλλήλοισι 
στασιάζει καὶ κρατεῖ αἰεὶ τὸ ἰσχυρότατον. ἰσχύει 
δὲ οὐκ αἰεὶ τωὐτό, ἀλλὰ ἄλλοτε ἄλλο κατὰ τὰ 
πνεύματα: τῷ μὲν γὰρ βορέης τὴν ἰσχὺν παρ- 
έχεται, τῷ δὲ ὁ νότος, καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν πέρι WUTOS 
λόγος. ὑφίστασθαι οὖν τοῖσι τοιούτοισιν ἀνάγκη 
ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις ἰλὺν καὶ ψάμμον" καὶ ἀπὸ τούτων 
πινομένων τὰ νοσήματα γίνεται τὰ προειρημένα" 
ὅτι δὲ οὐχ ἅπασιν, ἑξῆς φράσω. 

Ὃκόσων μὲν ἥ τε κοιλίη εὔροός τε καὶ ὑγιηρή 
ἐστι καὶ ἡ κύστις μὴ πυρετώδης μηδὲ ὁ στόμαχος 
τῆς κύστιος συμπέφρακται λίην, οὗτοι μὲν διου- 


melt best; if, when it is dissolved, you measure it 
again you will find it much Ἐπ ΔΝ ΥΞ This shows 
that freezing dries up and causes to disappear the 
lightest and finest part, not the heaviest and coarsest, 
to do which it has no power. Inthis way, therefore, 
I am of opinion that such waters, derived from snow 
or ice, and waters similar to these, are the worst for 
all purposes. 

IX. Such are the properties of rain waters, and of 
those from snow and ice. Stone, kidney disease, 
strangury and sciatica are very apt to attack people, 
and ruptures occur, when they drink water of very 
many different kinds, or from large rivers, into which 
other rivers flow, or from a lake fed by many streams 
of various sorts, and whenever they use foreign waters 
coming from a great, not a short, distance. For one 
water cannot be like another; some are sweet, 
others are impregnated with salt and alum, others 
flow from hot springs. These when mixed up 
together disagree, and the strongest always prevails. 
But the strongest is not always ce same; sometimes 
it is one, sometimes another, according to the winds. 
One has its strength from a north wind, another 
from the south wind, and similarly with the others. 
Such waters then must leave a sediment of mud and 
sand in the vessels, and drinking them causes the 
diseases mentioned before. ‘That there are excep- 
tions I will proceed to set forth. 

Those whose bowels are loose and healthy, whose 
bladder is not feverish, and the mouth of whose 
bladder is not over narrow, pass water easily, and no 

1 ἄνθρωποι MSS.: ὥνθρωποι Kiihlewein. 







ρεῦσι ῥηϊδίως, καὶ ἐν τῇ κύστει οὐδὲν συστρέφεται. 
ὁκόσων δὲ ἂν ἡ κοιλίη πυρετώδης 7) ῇ, ἀνάγκη καὶ 
τὴν κύστιν τωὐτὸ πάσχειν. ὁκόταν γὰρ θερμανθῇ 
μᾶλλον τῆς φύσιος, ἐφλέγμηνεν αὐτῆς ὁ στό- 
μαχος. ὁκόταν δὲ ταῦτα πάθῃ, τὸ οὗρον οὐκ 
ἀφίησιν, ἀλλ’ ἐν ἑωυτῇ συνέψει καὶ συγκαίει. 
καὶ τὸ μὲν λεπτότατον αὐτοῦ ἀποκρίνεται καὶ τὸ 
καθαρώτατον διιεῖ καὶ ἐξουρεῖται, τὸ δὲ παχύ- 
τατον καὶ θολωδέστατον συστρέφεται καὶ συμπή- 
γνυται. καὶ τὸ μὲν πρῶτον μικρόν, ἔπειτα δὲ 
μέξον γίνεται. κυλινδεύμενον γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ οὔρου, 
ὅ τι ἂν σμηΐσ τῆι παχύ, συναρμόζει πρὸς ἑωυτό, 
καὶ οὕτως αὔξεταί τε καὶ πωροῦται" καὶ ὁκόταν 
οὐρῇ, πρὸς τὸν στόμαχον τῆς κύστιος προσπίπτει 
ὑπὸ τοῦ οὔρου βιαξόμενον. καὶ κωλύει οὐρεῖν καὶ 
ὀδύνην παρέχει ἰσχυρήν'" ὥστε τὰ αἰδοῖα τρίβουσι 
καὶ ἕλκουσι τὰ παιδία τὰ λιθιῶντα" δοκεῖ γὰρ 
αὐτοῖς τὸ αἴτιον ἐνταῦθα εἶναι τῆς οὐρήσιος. " 

τεκμήριον δέ, ὅτι οὕτως ἔχει" τὸ γὰρ οὖρον 
λαμπρότατον οὐρέουσιν οἱ λιθιῶντες, ὅτι τὸ 
παχύτατον καὶ θολωδέστατον αὐτοῦ μένει καὶ 
συστρέφεται. τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα οὕτω λιθιᾷ' 
γίνεται δὲ παισὶν καὶ ἀπὸ τοῦ γάλακτος, ἢν μὴ 
ὑγιηρὸν ἢ, ἀλλὰ θερμόν τε λίην καὶ χολῶδες. 
τὴν γὰρ κοιλίην διαθερμαίνει καὶ τὴν κύστιν, 
ὥστε τὸ οὖρον συγκαιόμενον ταῦτα πάσχειν. καί 
φημι ἄμεινον εἶναι τοῖς παιδίοισι τὸν οἶνον ὡς 
ὑδαρέστατον διδόναι: ἧσσον γὰρ τὰς φλέβας 
συγκαίει καὶ συναναίνει. τοῖσι δὲ θήλεσι λίθοι 
οὐ γίνονται. ὁμοίως: ὁ γὰρ οὐρητὴρ βραχύς ἐστιν 
ὁ τῆς κύστιος καὶ εὐρύς, ὥστε βιάζεσθαι τὸ οὖρον 
ῥηϊδίως. οὔτε γὰρ τῇ χειρὶ τρίβει τὸ αἰδοῖον 


solid matter forms in their bladder. But feverishness 
of the bowels must be accompanied by feverish- 
ness of the bladder. For when it is abnormally 
heated its mouth is inflamed. In this condition it 
does not expel the urine, but concocts and heats it 
within itself. The finest part is separated off, and 
the clearest passes out as urine, while the thickest 
and muddiest part forms solid matter, which, though 
at first small, grows in course of time. For as it rolls 
about in the urine it coalesces with whatever solid 
matter forms, and so it grows and hardens. When 
the patient makes water, it is forced by the urine to 
fall against the mouth of the bladder, and staying 
the flow of the urine causes violent pain. So that 
boys that suffer from stone rub and pull at their 
privy parts, under the impression that there lies the 
cause of their making water.) That my account is 
correct is shown by the fact that sufferers from stone 
emit urine that is very clear, as the thickest and 
muddiest part of it remains and solidifies. This in 
most cases is the cause of stone. Children get stone 
also from the milk, if it be unhealthy, too hot and 
bilious. For it heats the bowels and the bladder, 
so that the urine is heated and affected as I have 
described. And my opinion is that we should give 
to young children only very diluted wine, which 
heats and parches the veins less. Females suffer 
less from stone. For their urethra is short and 
broad, so that the urine is easily expelled. Nor do 
they rub the privy parts as do males, nor handle the 

1 Coray’s emendation would mean, ‘‘the cause of the 
stoppage,” an attractive alteration. 

1 καὶ added by Wilamowitz. 
2 Coray would insert οὐκ before οὐρήσιος. 






ὥσπερ, τὸ ἄρσεν, οὔτε ἅπτεται τοῦ οὐρητῆρος" ἐς 
γὰρ τὰ αἰδοῖα ξυντέτρηνται, οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες οὐκ 
εὐθὺ τέτρηνται, καὶ διότι οἱ οὐρητῆρες οὐκ εὐρεῖς: 
καὶ πίνουσι πλεῖον ἢ οἱ παῖδες. 

X. Περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων ὧδε ἔχει ἢ ὅτε τούτων 
ἐγγύτατα. περὶ δὲ τῶν ὡρέων ὧδε ἄν τις ἐνθυμεύ- 
μενος διαγινώσκοι, ὁκοῖόν τι μέλλει ἔσεσθαι τὸ 
ἔτος, εἴτε νοσερὸν εἴτε ὑγιηρόν" ἢν μὲν γὰρ κατὰ 
λόγον γένηται τὰ σημεῖα ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄστροισι 
δύνουσί τε καὶ ἐπιτέλλουσιν, ἔν τε τῷ μετοπώρῳ 
ὕδατα γένηται, καὶ ὁ χειμὼν μέτριος καὶ μήτε 
λίην εὔδιος μήτε ὑπερβάλλων τὸν καιρὸν τῷ 
ψύχει, ἔν τε τῷ ἦρι. ὕδατα γένηται ὡραῖα καὶ ἐν 
τῷ θέρει, οὕτω τὸ ἔτος ὑγιεινότατον εἰκὸς εἶναι. 
ἢν δὲ ὁ μὲν χειμὼν αὐχμηρὸς καὶ βόρειος γένηται, 
τὸ δὲ 7p ἔπομβρον καὶ νότιον, ἀνάγκη τὸ θέρος 
πυρετῶδες γίνεσθαι͵ καὶ ὀφθαλμίας καὶ δυσεν- 
τερίας ἐμποιεῖν. ὁκόταν yap TO πνῖγος ἐπιγένηται 
ἐξαίφνης τῆς τε γῆς ὑγρῆς ἐούσης ὑπὸ τῶν ὄμβρων 
τῶν ἐαρινῶν καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ νότου, ἀνάγκη διπλόον 
τὸ καῦμα εἶναι, ἀπό τε τῆς γῆς διαβρόχου ἐούσης 

θερμῆς καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ ἡλίου καίοντος, τῶν τε 
κοιλιῶν μὴ συνεστηκυιῶν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. μήτε 
τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου ἀνεξηρασμένου.--οὐ γὰρ οἷόν τε 
τοῦ ἦρος τοιούτου ἐόντος μὴ οὐ πλαδᾶν τὸ σῶμα 
καὶ τὴν σάρκα--' ὥστε τοὺς πυρετοὺς ἐπιπίπτειν 
ὀξυτάτους ἅπασιν, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖσι φλεγματίῃσι. 
καὶ δυσεντερίας εἰκός ἐστι γίνεσθαι καὶ τῆσι 
γυναιξὶ καὶ τοῖς εἴδεσι τοῖς ὑγροτάτοισι. καὶ ἢν 
μὲν ἐπὶ κυνὸς ἐπιτολῇ ὕδωρ ἐπιγένηται καὶ χειμὼν 
καὶ οἱ ἐτησίαι πνεύσωσιν, ἐλπὶς παύσασθαι καὶ 
τὸ μετόπωρον ὑγιηρὸν γενέσθαι" ἢν δὲ μή, κίν- 


urethra. For it opens directly into the privy parts, 
which is not so with males, nor is their urethra wide. 
And they drink more than boys do, 

X. This, or something very like this, is the truth 
concerning these matters. As to the seasons, a 
consideration of the following points will make it 
possible to decide whether the year will prove 
unhealthy or healthy. If the signs prove normal 
when the stars set and rise; if there be rains in 
autumn, if the winter be moderate, neither too mild 
nor unseasonably cold, and if the rains be seasonable 
in spring and in summer, the year is likely to be 
very healthy. If, on the other hand, the winter 
prove dry and northerly, the spring rainy and 
southerly, the summer cannot fail to be fever- 
laden, causing ophthalmia and dysenteries. For 
whenever the great heat comes on suddenly while 
the earth is soaked by reason of the spring rains 
and the south wind, the heat cannot fail to be 
doubled, coming from the hot, sodden earth and 
the burning sun; men’s bowels not being braced 
nor their brain dried—for when spring is such 
the body and its flesh must necessarily be flabby— 
the fevers that attack are of the acutest type in 
all cases, especially among the phlegmatic. Dysen- 
teries are also likely to come upon women and 
the most humid constitutions. If at the rising 
of the Dog Star stormy rain occurs and the 
Etesian winds blow, there is hope that the dis- 
tempers will cease and that the autumn will be 
healthy. Otherwise there is danger lest deaths 






Suvos θανάτους τε γενέσθαι τοῖσι παιδίοισι Kal 
τῆσι γυναιξίν, τοῖσι δὲ πρεσβύτῃσιν ἥκιστα, τούς 
τε “περιγενομένους ἐς τεταρταίους ἀποτελευτᾶν 
καὶ ἐκ τῶν τεταρταίων ἐς ὕδρωπας. ἢν δ᾽ ὁ μὲν 
ειμὼν νότιος γένηται, καὶ ἔπομβρος καὶ εὔδιος, 
τὸ δὲ ἣρ βόρειόν τε καὶ αὐχμηρὸν καὶ χειμέριον, 
πρῶτον μὲν τὰς γυναῖκας, ὁκόσαι ἂν τύχωσιν ἐν 
γαστρὶ ἔχουσαι καὶ ὁ τόκος αὐτῇσιν ἢ πρὸς τὸ 
ἦρ. ἐκτιτρώσκεσθαι: ὁκόσαι δ᾽ ἂν καὶ τέκωσιν, 
ἀκρατέα τὰ παιδία τίκτειν καὶ νοσώδεα, ὥστε ἢ 
αὐτίκα ἀπόλλυσθαι, ἢ ζῶσι λεπτά τε ἐόντα καὶ 
ἀσθενέα καὶ ee ταῦτα μὲν τῇσι γυναιξί: 
τοῖσι δὲ λοιποῖσι δυσεντερίας καὶ ὀφθαλμίας 
ξηρὰς καὶ ἐνίοισι καταρρόους ἀπὸ τῆς κεφαλῆς 
ἐπὶ τὸν πνεύμονα. τοῖσι μὲν οὖν φλεγματίῃσι 
τὰς δυσεντερίας εἰκὸς γίνεσθαι καὶ τῆσι γυναιξὶ 
φλέγματος ἐπικαταρρυέντος ἀπὸ τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου 
διὰ τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς φύσιος" τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσιν 
ὀφθαλμίας ξηρὰς διὰ τὴν θερμότητα καὶ ξηρότητα 
τῆς σαρκός" τοῖσι δὲ πρεσβύτῃσι καταρρόους διὰ 
τὴν ἀραιότητα καὶ τὴν ἔκτηξιν τῶν φλεβῶν, 
ὥστε ἐξαίφνης τοὺς μὲν ἀπόλλυσθαι, τοὺς δὲ 
παραπλήκτους γίνεσθαι τὰ δεξιὰ ἢ ἢ τὰ ἀριστερά. 
ὁκόταν yap τοῦ χειμῶνος ἐόντος νοτίου καὶ θερμοῦ 
τοῦ σώματος μὴ συνιστῆται ὁ ἐγκέφαλος μηδὲ 
i φλέβες, τοῦ ἦρος ἐπιγενομένου βορείου καὶ 
Foe μὴ μοῦ καὶ ψυχροῦ ὁ ἐγκέφαλος, ὁπηνίκα 
αὐτὸν ἔδει ἅμα Kal} τῷ ἦρι διαλύεσθαι καὶ καθαί- 
ρεσθαι ὑπό τε κορύζης καὶ βράγχων, τηνικαῦτα 
πήγνυταί τε καὶ συνίσταται, ὥστε ἐξαίφνης τοῦ 
θέρεος ἐπιγενομένου καὶ τοῦ καύματος καὶ τῆς 

60 μεταβολῆς ἐπιγινομένης ταῦτα τὰ νοσεύματα 



occur among the women and children, and least 
of all among the old men; and lest those that get 
better lapse into quartans, and from quartans into 
dropsies. But if the winter be southerly, rainy and 
mild, and the spring be northerly, dry and wintry, 
in the first place women with child whose delivery 
is due by spring suffer abortion; and if they do 
bring forth, their children are weak and sickly, 
so that either they die at once, or live puny, weak 
and sickly. Such is the fate of the women. The 
others have dysenteries and dry ophthalmia, and 
in some cases catarrhs descend from the head to 
the lungs. Phlegmatics are liable to dysenteries, 
and women also, phlegm running down from the 
brain because of the humidity of their constitution. 
The bilious have dry ophthalmia because of the 
warm dryness of their flesh. Old men have catarrhs 
because of their flabbiness and the wasting of their 
veins, so that some die suddenly, while others 
become paralyzed on the right side or the left. For 
whenever, owing to the winter being southerly 
and the body warm, neither brain nor veins are 
hardened, a northerly, dry, cold spring supervening, 
the brain, just at the time when it ought to have been 
relaxed along with spring and purged by cold in the 
head and hoarseness, congeals and hardens, so that 
the heat of summer having suddenly supervened and 
the change supervening, these diseases befall. Such 

' καὶ added by Coray. 





ἐπιπίπτειν. καὶ ὁκόσαι μὲν TOV πολίων κέονταί 
τε καλῶς τοῦ ἡλίου καὶ τῶν πνευμάτων ὕδασί τε 
χρέονται ἀγαθοῖσιν, αὗται μὲν ἧσσον αἰσθάνονται 
τῶν τοιούτων μεταβολέων" ὁκόσαι δὲ ὕδασί τε 
ἑλείοισι χρέονται καὶ λιμνώδεσι κέονταί τε μὴ 
καλῶς τῶν πνευμάτων καὶ τοῦ ἡλίου, αὗται δὲ 
μᾶλλον. κὴν μὲν τὸ θέρος αὐχμηρὸν γένηται, 
θᾶσσον παύονται αἱ νοῦσοι" ἢν δὲ ἔπομβρον, 
πολυχρόνιοι γίνονται" καὶ φαγεδαίνας κίνδυνος 
ἐγγίνεσθαι ἀπὸ πάσης προφάσιος, ἢν ἕλκος ἐγ- 
γένηται. καὶ λειεντερίαι καὶ ὕδρωπες τελευτῶσι 
τοῖσι νοσεύμασιν ἐπιγίνονται" οὐ γὰρ ἀποξηραί- 
νονται αἱ κοιλίαι ῥηϊδίως. ἢν δὲ τὸ θέρος ἔπομ- 
βρον “γένηται καὶ νότιον. καὶ τὸ μετόπωρον, Tov } 
χειμῶνα ἀνάγκη νοσερὸν εἶναι καὶ τοῖς prey- 
patina καὶ τοῖς γεραιτέροισι, τεσσαράκοντα 
ἐτέων καύσους γίνεσθαι εἰκός, τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσι 
πλευρίτιδας καὶ περιπνευμονίας. ἢν δὲ τὸ θέρος 
αὐχμηρὸν γένηται καὶ βόρειον, τὸ δὲ μετόπωρον 
ἔπομβρον καὶ νότιον, κεφαλαλγίας ἐ ἐς τὸν χειμῶνα 
καὶ σφακέλους τοῦ ἐγκεφάλου εἰκὸς γίνεσθαι, 
καὶ προσέτι Bpayxous Kal κορύξας καὶ βῆχας, 
ἐνίοισι δὲ καὶ φθίσιας. ἢν δὲ βόρειόν τε 7 καὶ 
ἄνυδρον καὶ μήτε ὑπὸ κύνα ἔπομβρον μήτε ἐπὶ 
τῷ ἀρκτούρῳ, τοῖσι μὲν φλεγματίῃσι φύσει 
συμφέρει μάλιστα καὶ τοῖς ὑγροῖς τὰς φύσιας 
καὶ τῇσι γυναιξί" τοῖσι δὲ χολώδεσι τοῦτο 
πολεμιώτατον γίνεται. λίην γὰρ ἀναξηραίνονται 
καὶ ὀφθαλμίαι αὐτοῖσιν ἐπιγίνονται Enpat, Kal 
πυρετοὶ ὀξέες καὶ πολυχρόνιοι, ἐνίοισι δὲ καὶ 
μελαγχολίαι. τῆς γὰρ χολῆς τὸ μὲν ὑγρότατον 
καὶ ὑδαρέστατον ἀναξηραίνεται καὶ ἀναλίσκεται, 


cities as are well situated with regard to sun and 
winds, and use good waters, are less affected by such 
changes ; but if they use marshy or standing waters, 
and are not well situated with regard to winds and 
sun, they are more affected. If the summer prove 
dry, the diseases cease more quickly ; if it be rainy, 
they are protracted. Sores are apt to fester from the 
slightest cause. Lienteries and dropsies supervene 
on the conclusion of the diseases, as the bowels do 
not readily dry up. If the summer and the autumn 
be rainy and southerly, the winter must be un- 
healthy ; phlegmatics and men over forty are likely 
to suffer from ardent fevers, bilious people from 
pleurisy and pneumonia. If the summer prove dry 
and northerly, and the autumn rainy and southerly, 
it is likely that in winter headaches occur and 
mortifications of the brain,! and in addition hoarseness, 
colds in the head, coughs, and in some cases con- 
sumption as well. But if the weather be northerly 
and dry, with no rain either during the Dog Star or 
at Arcturus, it is very beneficial to those who have 
a phlegmatic or humid constitution, and to women, 
but it is very harmful to the bilious. For these dry 
up overmuch, and are attacked by dry ophthalmia 
and by acute, protracted fevers, in some cases too 
by melancholies. For the most humid and watery 
part of the bile is dried up and is spent, while the 

1 See Littré V. 581 foll. 

1 σὸν added by Wilamowitz. 




Ν \ 7 \ 7 / \ 
τὸ δὲ παχύτατον καὶ δριμύτατον λείπεται Kai 
nr δ Ν ᾽ rn 
τοῦ αἵματος κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον" ad’ ὧν ταῦτα 
τὰ νοσεύματα αὐτοῖσι γίνεται. τοῖσι δὲ φλεγ- 
ματίῃσι πάντα ταῦτα ἀρωγά. ἐστιν. ἀποξηραίνον- 
ται γὰρ καὶ ἐς τὸν χειμῶνα ἀφικνέονται οὐ 


πλαδῶντες, ἀλλὰ ἀναξηραινόμενοι. 

ΧΙ. Κατὰ ταῦτά τις ἐννοεύμενος καὶ σκοπεύ- 

, ἡ \ a a 
μενος προειδείη ἂν τὰ πλεῖστα τῶν μελλόντων 
” > \ a / / \ 
ἔσεσθαι ἀπὸ τῶν ᾿“μεταβολέων. φυλάσσεσθαι δὲ 
χρὴ μάλιστα τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν ὡρέων τὰς 
μεγίστας καὶ “μήτε φάρμακον διδόναι ἑ ἑκόντα μήτε 
καίειν ὅ τι ἐς κοιλίην μήτε τάμνειν, πρὶν παρ- 
έλθωσιν ἡμέραι δέκα ἢ καὶ πλείονες" μέγισται 
δέ εἰσιν aide αἱ τέσσαρες καὶ ἐπικινδυνόταται" 
ἡλίου τροπαὶ ἀμφότεραι καὶ μᾶλλον αἱ θεριναὶ 
καὶ αἱ ἰσημερίαι νομιξόμεναι εἶναι ἀμφότεραι, 
μᾶλλον δὲ αἱ μετοπωριναί: δεῖ δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄστρων 
τὰς ἐπιτολὰς “φυλάσσεσθαι καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ 
κυνός, ἔπειτα ἀρκτούρου, καὶ ἔτι πληϊάδων δύσιν. 
τά τε γὰρ νοσεύματα μάλιστα ἐν ταύτῃσι τῆσιν 
\ / 
ἡμέρῃσιν κρίνεται. Kal τὰ μὲν ἀποφθίνει, τὰ δὲ 
λήγει, τὰ δὲ ἄλλα πάντα μεθίσταται ἐς ἕτερον 
εἶδος καὶ ἑτέρην κατάστασιν. 
= ε 4 

XII. Περὶ μὲν τούτων οὕτως ἔχει. βούλομαι 
\ \ fol 3 , \ fe) > 4 fal 
δὲ περὶ τῆς ᾿Ασίης καὶ τῆς Βυὐὐρώπης δεῖξαι 
ς , / » ΄ > \ th \ \ 
ὁκόσον διαφέρουσιν ἀλλήλων ἐς TA πάντα καὶ περὶ 
τῶν ἐθνέων τῆς μορφῆς, ὅτι διαλλάσσει καὶ μη- 
δὲν ἔοικεν ἀλλήλοισιν. περὶ μὲν οὖν ἁπάντων 

3 n / 

πολὺς ἂν εἴη λόγος, περὶ δὲ τῶν μεγίστων Kal 
πλεῖστον διαφερόντων ἐρέω ὥς μοι δοκεῖ ἔχειν. τὴν 
J / lal / \ “ > , 
Ασίην πλεῖστον διαφέρειν φημὶ τῆς Εὐρώπης 



thickest and most acrid part is left, and similarly 
with the blood. Consequently these diseases come 
upon them. But all these conditions are helpful to 
the phlegmatic, for they dry up and reach winter 
dried up and not flabby. 

XI. By studying and observing after this fashion 
one may foresee most of the consequences of the 
changes. One should be especially on one’s guard 
against the most violent changes of the seasons, and 
unless compelled one should neither purge, nor 
apply cautery or knife to the bowels, before at least 
ten days are past. ‘The following are the four most 
violent changes and the most dangerous :—both 
solstices, especially the summer solstice, both the 
equinoxes, so reckoned, especially the autumnal. 
One must also guard against the risings of the stars, 
especially of the Dog Star, then of Arcturus, and also 
of the setting of the Pleiades. For it is especially 
at these times that diseases come to a crisis. Some 
prove fatal, some come to an end, all others change 
to another form and another constitution. 

XII. So much for the changes of the seasons, 
Now I intend to compare Asia! and Europe, and 
to show how they differ in every respect, and how 
the nations of the one differ entirely in physique 
from those of the other. It would take too long to 
describe them all, so I will set forth my views about 
the most important and the greatest differences. 1 
hold that Asia differs very widely from Europe in the 

1 That is, Asia Minor. 
1 αἵδε αἱ τέσσαρες Kiithlewein: ai τέσσαρες JB: οἱ δέκα : 

αἵδε καὶ ἐπικινδυνόταται Coray and Littré, perhaps rightly. 



ἐς τὰς φύσιας τῶν συμπάντων τῶν τε ἐκ τῆς 

10 γῆς φυομένων καὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων. πολὺ γὰρ 




καλλίονα καὶ μέξονα πάντα γίνεται ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίῃ, 
ἥ τε χώρη τῆς “χώρης ἡμερωτέρη καὶ τὰ ἤθεα 
τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἠπιώτερα καὶ εὐοργητότερα. τὸ 
δὲ αἴτιον τούτων ἡ κρῆσις τῶν ὡρέων, ὅτι τοῦ 
ἡλίου ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἀνατολέων κεῖται πρὸς τὴν 
ἠῶ τοῦ τε ψυχροῦ πορρωτέρω. τὴν δὲ αὔξησιν 
καὶ ἡμερότητα παρέχει πλεῖστον ἁπάντων, ὁκό- 
ταν μηδὲν 7 ἐπικρατέον βιαίως, ἀλλὰ παντὸς ἰσο- 
μοιρίη δυναστεύῃ. ἔχει δὲ κατὰ τὴν ᾿Ασίην οὐ παν- 
ταχῇ ὁμοίως, ἀλλ᾽ ὅση μὲν τῆς χώρης ἐν μέσῳ κεῖ- 
ται τοῦ θερμοῦ καὶ τοῦ ψυχροῦ, αὕτη μὲν εὐκαρ- 
ποτάτη ἐστὶ καὶ εὐδενδροτάτη καὶ ,εὐδιεστάτη 
καὶ ὕδασι καλλίστοισι κέχρηται τοῖσί τε -οὐρανί- 
οἱσι καὶ τοῖς ἐκ τῆς γῆς. οὔτε γὰρ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
θερμοῦ ἐκκέκαυται λίην οὔτε ὑπὸ αὐχμῶν καὶ 
ἀνυδρίης ἀναξηραίνεται, οὔτε ὑπὸ ψύχεος βε- 
βιασμένη οὔτε νοτία τε καὶ διάβροχός ἐστιν ὑπό 
τε ὄμβρων πολλῶν καὶ χιόνος" τά τε ὡραῖα 
αὐτόθι πολλὰ εἰκὸς γίνεσθαι, ὁκόσα τε ἀπὸ 
σπερμάτων καὶ ὁκόσα αὐτὴ ἡ γῆ ἀναδιδοῖ φυτά, 
ὧν τοῖς καρποῖσι χρέονται ἄνθρωποι, ἡμεροῦντες 
ἐξ ἀγρίων καὶ ἐς ἐπιτήδειον μεταφυτεύοντες" τά 
τε ἐντρεφόμενα κτήνεα εὐθηνεῖν εἰκός, καὶ μά- 
λιστα τίκτειν τε πυκνότατα καὶ ἐκτρέφειν κάλ- 
λιστα' τούς τε ἀνθρώπους εὐτραφέας εἶναι καὶ 
τὰ εἴδεα καλλίστους καὶ μεγέθει μεγίστους καὶ 
ἥκιστα διαφόρους ἐς τά τε εἴδεα αὐτῶν καὶ τὰ 
peyebea: εἰκός τε τὴν χώρην ταύτην τοῦ ἦρος 
ἐγγύτατα εἶναι κατὰ τὴν φύσιν καὶ τὴν μετρι- 
ότητα τῶν ὡρέων. τὸ δὲ ἀνδρεῖον καὶ τὸ ταλαί- 


nature of all its inhabitants and of all its vegetation. 
For everything in Asia grows to far greater beauty 
and size; the one region is less wild than the other, 
the character of the inhabitants is milder and more 
gentle. The cause of this is the temperate climate, 
because it lies towards the east midway between 
the risings! of the sun, and farther away than is 
Europe from the cold, Growth and freedom from 
wildness are most fostered when nothing is forcibly 
predominant, but equality in every respect: prevails. 
Asia, however, is not everywhere uniform; the 
region, however, situated midway between the heat 
and the cold is very fruitful, very wooded and very 
mild; it has splendid water, whether from rain or 
from springs. While it is not burnt up with the 
heat nor dried up by drought and want of water, it is 
not oppressed with cold, nor yet damp and wet with 
excessive rains and snow. Here the harvests are 
likely to be plentiful, both those from seed and those 
which the earth bestows of her own accord, the 
fruit of which men use, turning wild to cultivated 
and transplanting them to a suitable soil. The 
cattle too reared there are likely to flourish, and 
especially to bring forth the sturdiest young and 
rear them to be very fine creatures.2~ The men 
will be well nourished, of very fine physique and 
very tall, differing from one another but little either 
in physique or stature. This region, both in char- 
acter and in the mildness of its seasons, might fairly 
be said to bear a close resemblance to spring 

1 That is, the winter rising and the summer rising. 
2 Or, if πυκνότατα and κάλλιστα be adverbs, ‘‘they are very 
prolific and the best of mothers.” 






πωρονΐ καὶ τὸ ἔμπονον Kal τὸ θυμοειδὲς οὐκ ἂν 
δύναιτο ἐν τοιαύτῃ φύσει ἐγγίνεσθαι οὔτε 3 ὁμο- 
φύλου οὔτε Σ ἀλλοφύλου, ἀλλὰ τὴν ἡδονὴν ἀνάγκη 
KpaTew...... διότι πολύμορφα γίνεται τὰ ἐν 
τοῖς θηρίοις. 

XIII. Περὶ μὲν οὖν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Λιβύων 
οὕτως ἔχειν μοι δοκεῖ. “περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν δεξιῇ τοῦ 
ἡλίου τῶν ἀνατολέων τῶν θερινῶν 3 μέχρι Μαιώ- 
TLOOS λίμνης.---οὗτος γὰρ ὅρος τῆς ᾿ὐρώπης καὶ 
τῆς ᾿Ασίης---ὧδε ἔχει περὶ αὐτῶν" τὰ δὲ ἔθνεα 
ταῦτα ταύτῃ ἢ διάφορα αὐτὰ ἑωυτῶν μᾶλλόν ἐστι 
τῶν προδιηγημένων διὰ τὰς μεταβολὰς τῶν 
ὡρέων καὶ τῆς χώρης τὴν φύσιν. ἔχει δὲ καὶ 
κατὰ τὴν γῆν ὁμοίως ἅπερ καὶ κατὰ τοὺς ἄλλους 
ἀνθρώπους. ὅκου γὰρ αἱ ὧραι μεγίστας μετα- 
βολὰς ποιέονται καὶ πυκνοτάτας, ἐκεῖ καὶ ἡ 
χώρη ἀγριωτάτη καὶ ἀνωμαλωτάτη ἐστί, καὶ 
εὑρήσεις ὄρεα τε πλεῖστα καὶ δάσεα καὶ πεδία 
καὶ λειμῶνας ἐόντας. ὅκου δὲ αἱ ὧραι μὴ μέγα 
ἀλλάσσουσιν, ἐκείνοις ἡ χώρη ὁμαλωτάτη ἐστίν. 
οὕτω δὲ ἔχει καὶ περὶ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, εἴ τις 
βούλεται ἐνθυμεῖσθαι. εἰσὶ γὰρ φύσιες αἱ μὲν 
ὄρεσιν ἐοικυῖαι δενδρώδεσί τε καὶ ἐφύδροισιν, αἱ 
δὲ λεπτοῖσί τε καὶ ἀνύδροις, αἱ δὲ λειμακεστέροις 
τε καὶ ἑλώδεσι, ai δὲ πεδίῳ τε καὶ ψιλῇ καὶ 
ξηρῇ γῇ. αἱ γὰρ ὧραι αἱ μεταλλάσσουσαι τῆς 
μορφῆς τὴν φύσινδ εἰσὶ διάφοροι. ἢν δὲ 

1 ταλαίπωρον Littré: ἀταλαίπωρον MSS. 

5 οὔτε... . . οὔτε Littré from Galen’s quotation: μήτε 
spite μήτε MSS. 

3 τῶν θερινῶν Coray: τῶν χειμερινῶν most MSS.: omitted 

by BB. 

+ ΤΌ is probable that either ταῦτα or ταύτῃ should be deleted. 


Courage, endurance, industry and high spirit could 
not arise in such conditions either among the 
natives or among immigrants,! but pleasure must 
be supreme . . .? wherefore in the beasts they are 
of many shapes, 

XIII. Such in my opinion is the condition of the 
Egyptians and Libyans. As to the dwellers on the 
right of the summer risings of the sun up to Lake 
Maeotis, which is the boundary between Europe 
and Asia, their condition is as follows. These 
nations are less homogeneous than those I have 
described, because of the changes of the seasons 
and the character of the region. The land is 
affected by them exactly as human beings in 
general are affected. For where the seasons ex- 
perience the most violent and the most frequent 
changes,’ the land too is very wild and very uneven; 
you will find there many wooded mountains, plains 
and meadows. But where the seasons do not alter 
much, the land is very even. So it is too with the 
inhabitants, if you will examine the matter. Some 
physiques resemble wooded, well-watered mountains, 
others light, dry land, others marshy meadows, 
others a plain of bare, parched earth. For the 
seasons which modify a physical frame differ; if the 

1 The writer is thinking of Asiatic natives and the Greek 
colonists on the coast of Asia Minor. 

* There isa gap in the text here dealing with the Egyptians 
and Libyans. 

2 Or, more idiomatically, ‘the variations of climate are 
most violent and most frequent.” The four changes at the 
end of the four seasons were only the most important of 
many μεταβολαί. See Chapter XI, and pp. 68, 69. 

® There is probably a gap in the text after φύσιν. 



διάφοροι ἔωσι μέγα! σφέων αὐτέων, διαφοραὶ 
24 καὶ πλείονες γίνονται τοῖς εἴδεσι. 
XIV. Καὶ ὁκόσα μὲν ὀλίγον διαφέρει τῶν 
ἐθνέων παραλείψω, ὁκόσα δὲ μεγάλα ἢ φύσει 
ἢ νόμῳ, ἐρέω περὶ αὐτῶν ὡς ἔχει. καὶ πρῶτον 
περὶ τῶν Μακροκεφάλων. τούτων γὰρ οὐκ ἔστιν 
ἄλλο ἔθνος ὁμοίας τὰς κεφαλὰς ἔχον οὐδέν᾽ τὴν 
μὲν γὰρ ἀρχὴν ὁ νόμος αἰτιώτατος ἐγένετο τοῦ 
μήκεος τῆς κεφαλῆς, νῦν δὲ καὶ ἡ φύσις συμ- 
βάλλεται τῷ νόμῳ. τοὺς γὰρ μακροτάτην ἔχον- 
τας τὴν κεφαλὴν γενναιοτάτους ἡγέονται. ἔχει 
10 δὲ περὶ νόμου ὧδε: τὸ παιδίον ὁκόταν γένηται 
τάχιστα, τὴν κεφαλὴν αὐτοῦ ἔτι ἁπαλὴν ἐοῦσαν 
μαλθακοῦ ἐόντος ἀναπλάσσουσι τῇσι χερσὶ καὶ 
ἀναγκάζουσιν ἐς τὸ μῆκος αὔξεσθαι δεσμά τε 
προσφέροντες καὶ τεχνήματα ἐπιτήδεια, ὑφ᾽ ὧν 
τὸ μὲν σφαιροειδὲς τῆς κεφαλῆς κακοῦται, τὸ 
δὲ μῆκος αὔξεται. οὕτως τὴν ἀρχὴν ὁ νόμος 
κατειργάσατο, ὥστε ὑπὸ βίης τοιαύτην τὴν φύσιν 
γενέσθαι" τοῦ δὲ χρόνου προϊόντος ἐν φύσει ἐγέ- 
νετο, ὥστε τὸν νόμον μηκέτι ἀναγκάζειν. ὁ γὰρ 
20 γόνος πανταχόθεν ἔρχεται τοῦ σώματος, ἀπὸ ae 
τῶν ὑγιηρῶν ὑγιηρὸς ἀπό τε τῶν νοσερῶν νοσερός. 
εἰ οὖν γίνονται ἔκ τε φαλακρῶν φαλακροὶ καὶ 
ἐκ γλαυκῶν γλαυκοὶ καὶ ἐκ διεστραμμένων στρε- 
βλοὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλῆθος, καὶ περὶ τῆς ἄλλης 
μορφῆς ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος, τί κωλύει καὶ ἐκ μακρο- 
κεφάλου μακροκέφαλον γίνεσθαι; ; νῦν δὲ ὁμοίως 
οὐκέτι γίνονται ὡς πρότερον" ὁ γὰρ νόμος οὐκέτι 
28 ἰσχύει διὰ τὴν ὁμιλίην τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 

1 μέγα Coray: μετὰ MSS. 



differences be great, the more too are the differences 
in the shapes. 

XIV. The races that differ but little from one 
another I will omit, and describe the condition only 
of those which differ greatly, whether it be through 
nature or through custom. I will begin with the 
Longheads.!. There is no other race at all with 
heads like theirs. Originally custom was chiefly re- 
sponsible for the length of the head, but now custom 
is reinforced by nature. Those that have the 
longest heads they consider the noblest, and their 
custom is as follows. As soon as a child is born 
they remodel its head with their hands, while it 
is still soft and the body tender, and force it to 
increase in length by applying bandages and suit- 
able appliances, which spoil the roundness of the 
head and increase its length. Custom originally so 
acted that through force such a nature came into 
being; but as time went on the process became 
natural, so that custom no longer exercised com- 
pulsion. For the seed comes from all parts of the 
body, healthy seed from healthy parts, diseased seed 
from diseased parts. If, therefore, bald parents have 
for the most part bald children, grey-eyed parents 
grey-eyed children, squinting parents squinting 
children, and so on with other physical peculiarities, 
what prevents a long-headed parent having a long- 
headed child?2 At the present time long-headedness 
is less common than it was, for owing to intercourse 
with other men the custom is less prevalent. 

1 Practically nothing more is told us about this race by 
our other authorities, Pliny, Harpocration and Suidas. But 
see Littré 1V., xi. and xii. 

2 Modern biologists hold that acquired characteristics are 
not inherited. 






XV. ἱερὴ μὲν οὖν τούτων οὕτως ἔχειν μοι 
δοκεῖ. περὶ δὲ τῶν ἐν Pacer ἡ χώρη ἐκείνη 
ἑλώδης ἐστὶ καὶ θερμὴ καὶ ὑδατεινὴ καὶ δασεῖα, 
ὄμβροι τε αὐτόθι γίνονται πᾶσαν ὥρην πολλοί 
τε καὶ ἰσχυροί: ἥ τε δίαιτα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἐν 
τοῖς: ἕλεσίν ἐστιν, τά τε οἰκήματα ξύλινα καὶ 
καλάμινα ἐν τοῖς ὕδασι μεμηχανημένα" ὀλίγῃ 
τε χρέονται" βαδίσει κατὰ τὴν πόλιν καὶ τὸ 
ἐμπόριον, ἀλλὰ μονοξύλοις διαπλέουσιν ἄνω καὶ 
κάτω" διώρυγες γὰρ πολλαί εἰσι. τὰ δὲ ὕδατα 
θερμὰ καὶ OTE tA πίνουσιν ὑπό τε τοῦ ἡλίου 
σηπόμενα καὶ ὑπὸ τῶν ὄμβρων ἐπαυξόμενα. 
αὐτός τε ὁ Φᾶσις στασιμώτατος πάντων τῶν 
ποταμῶν καὶ ῥέων ἠπιώτατα. οἵ τε καρποὶ oi * 
γινόμενοι αὐτόθι πάντες ἀναλδέες εἰσὶ καὶ τε- 
θηλυσμένοι καὶ ἀτελέες ὑπὸ πολυπληθείης τοῦ 
ὕδατος" διὸ καὶ οὐ πεπαίνονται. ἠήρ τε πολὺς 
κατέχει τὴν χώρην ἀπὸ τῶν ὑδάτων. διὰ ταύτας 
δὴ τὰς προφάσιας τὰ εἴδεα ᾿ἀπηλλαγμένα τῶν 
λοιπῶν ἀνθρώπων ἔχουσιν οἱ Φασιηνοί: Td TE 
yap μεγέθεα μεγάλοι, Ta πάχεα δ᾽ ὑπερπάχητες, 
ἄρθρον τε κατάδηλον οὐδὲν οὐδὲ prey τήν τε 
χροιὴν ὠχρὴν ἔχουσιν ὥσπερ ὑπὸ ἰκτέρου ἐχό- 
μενοι" φθέγγονταί τε βαρύτατον ἀνθρώπων, τῷ 
ἠέρι χρεώμενοι οὐ λαμπρῷ, ἀλλὰ νοτώδει * καὶ 
θολερῷ: πρός τε τὸ ταλαιπωρεῖν τὸ σῶμα ἀργό- 
τεροι πεφύκασιν. αἵ τε ὧραι οὐ πολὺ μεταλλάσ- 
σουσιν οὔτε πρὸς τὸ ΠΡ OyOS οὔτε πρὸς τὸ ψῦχος. 
τά τε πνεύματα τὰ πολλὰ νότια πλὴν αὔρης 
μιῆς ἐπιχωρίης. αὕτη δὲ πνεῖ ἐνίοτε βίαιος καὶ 
χαλεπὴ καὶ θερμή: καὶ κέγχρονα ὀνομάζουσι 



XV. These are my opinions about the Longheads. 
Now let me turn to the dwellers onthe Phasis. ‘Their 
land is marshy, hot, wet, and wooded ; copious violent 
rains fall there during every season. The inhabitants 
live in the marshes, and their dwellings are of wood 
and reeds, built in the water. They make little use 
of walking in the city and the harbour, but sail 
up and down in dug-outs made from a single log, 
for canals are numerous. The waters which they 
drink are hot and stagnant, putrefied by the sun 
and swollen by the rains. The Phasis itself is the 
most stagnant and most sluggish of all rivers. The 
fruits that grow in this country are all stunted, 
flabby and imperfect, owing to the excess of water, 
and for this reason they do not ripen. Much fog 
from the waters envelops the land. For these causes, 
therefore, the physique of the Phasians is different 
from that of other folk. ‘They are tall in stature, 
and of a gross habit of body, while neither joint nor 
vein is visible. Their complexion is yellowish, as 
though they suffered from jaundice. Of all men 
they have the deepest voice, because the air they 
breathe is not clear, but moist and turbid. They are 
by nature disinclined for physical fatigue. There 
are but slight changes of the seasons, either in 
respect of heat or of cold. The winds are mostly 
moist, except one breeze peculiar to the country, 
called cenchron, which sometimes blows strong, violent 

Before Badice: Coray inserts τῇ, probably rightly. 
of added by Coray. 

νοτώδει καὶ θολερῷ Ὁ : χνοώδει τε καὶ διερῷ V. 

τὰ added by Coray. 

. WD De 






TOUTO TO πνεῦμα. ὁ δὲ βορέης οὐ σφόδρα ἀφ- 
LKVELTaL’ ὁκόταν δὲ πνέῃ, ἀσθενὴς καὶ βληχρός. 
XVI. Kai περὶ μὲν τῆς φύσιος τῆς διαφορῆς καὶ 
τῆς μορφῆς τῶν ἐν τῇ Actin καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ οὕτως 
ἔχει. περὶ δὲ τῆς ἀϑυμίης τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τῆς 
ἀνανδρείης, ὅ ὅτι ἀπολεμώτεροί, εἰσι τῶν ᾿ Εὐρωπαίων 
οἱ ᾿Ασιηνοὶ καὶ ἡμερώτεροι τὰ ἤθεα αἱ ὧραι αἴτιαι 
μάλιστα, οὐ μεγάλας τὰς μεταβολὰς ποιεύμεναι 
οὔτε ἐπὶ τὸ θερμὸν οὔτε ἐπὶ τὸ ψυχρόν, ἀλλὰ 
παραπλησίως." οὐ γὰρ γίνονται ἐκπλήξιες τῆς 
γνώμης οὔτε μετάστασις ἰσχυρὴ τοῦ σώματος, 
ἀφ᾽ ὅτων εἰκὸς τὴν ὀργὴν ἀγριοῦσθαί τε καὶ τοῦ 
ἀγνώμονος καὶ θυμοειδέος “μετέχειν μᾶλλον ἢ ἐν 
τῷ αὐτῷ αἰεὶ ἐόντα. αἱ γὰρ μεταβολαί εἰσι τῶν 
πάντων αἱ ἐπεγείρουσαι τὴν γνώμην τῶν ἀνθ- 
ρώπων καὶ οὐκ ἐῶσαι ἀτρεμίζξειν. διὰ ταύτας 
ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ τὰς προφάσιας ἄναλκες εἶναι τὸ γένος 
τὸ ᾿Ασιηνὸν καὶ προσέτι διὰ τοὺς νόμους. τῆς 
γὰρ ᾿Δσίης τὰ πολλὰ βασιλεύεται. ὅκου δὲ μὴ 
αὐτοὶ ἑωυτῶν εἰσι καρτεροὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι μηδὲ 
αὐτόνομοι, ἀλλὰ δεσπόξζονται, οὐ περὶ τούτου 
αὐτοῖσιν ὁ λόγος ἐστίν, ὅκως τὰ πολέμια ἀσκή- 
σωσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ὅκως μὴ δόξωσι μάχιμοι εἶναι. Ol 
γὰρ κίνδυνοι οὐχ ὁμοῖοί εἰσι. τοὺς μὲν γὰρ στρα- 
τεύεσθαι εἰκὸς καὶ ταλαιπωρεῖν καὶ ἀποθνήσκειν 
ἐξ ἀνάγκης ὑπὲρ τῶν δεσποτέων ἀπό τε παιδίων 
καὶ γυναικὸς ἐόντας καὶ τῶν λοιπῶν φίλων. καὶ 
ὁκόσα μὲν ἂν “χρηστὰ καὶ ἀνδρεῖα ἐ ἐργάσωνται, οἱ 
δεσπόται ἀπ᾽ αὐτῶν αὔξονταί τε καὶ ἐκφύονται, 
τοὺς δὲ κινδύνους καὶ θανάτους αὐτοὶ καρποῦνται. 
ETL δὲ πρὸς τούτοισι τῶν τοιούτων ἀνθρώπων 



and hot. The north wind rarely blows, and when 
it does it is weak and gentle. 

XVI. So much for the difference, in nature and 
in shape, between the inhabitants of Asia and the 
inhabitants of Europe. With regard to the lack of 
spirit and of courage among the inhabitants, the 
chief reason why Asiatics are less warlike and more 
gentle in character than Europeans is the uniformity 
of the seasons, which show no violent changes either 
towards heat or towards cold, but are equable. For 
there occur no mental shocks nor violent physical 
change, which are more likely to steel the temper 
and impart to it a fierce passion than is a monotonous 
sameness. For it is changes of all things that rouse 
the temper of man and prevent its stagnation. For 
these reasons, I think, Asiatics are feeble. Their 
institutions are a contributory cause, the greater 
part of Asia being governed by kings. Now where 
men are not their own masters and independent, 
but are ruled by despots, they are not keen on 
military efficiency but on not appearing warlike. 
For the risks they run are not similar. Subjects 
are likely to be forced to undergo military service, 
fatigue and death, in order to benefit their masters, 
and to be parted from their wives, their children 
and their friends. All their worthy, brave deeds 
merely serve to aggrandize and raise up their lords, 
while the harvest they themselves reap is danger 
and death. Moreover, the land of men like these 

1 παραπλησίως Galen and Littré: παραπλήσιαι MSS. 







Ε] / > an θ Ν a Ὁ Υ ’ 1 Ν 
ἀνάγκη ἐρημοῦσθαι τὴν γῆν ὑπο τε πολεμίων “ καὶ 

ἀργίης, ὥστε καὶ εἴ τις φύσει πέφυκεν ἀνδρεῖος καὶ 
εὔψυχος, ἀποτρέπεσθαι τὴν γνώμην ὑπὸ" τῶν 
νόμων. μέγα δὲ τεκμήριον τούτων: ὁκόσοι γὰρ 
ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίῃ Ἕλληνες ἢ βάρβαροι μὴ δεσπόζον- 
ται, GAN αὐτόνομοί εἰσι καὶ ἑωυτοῖσι ταλαυπω- 
ρεῦσιν, οὗτοι μαχιμώτατοί εἰσι πάντων" τοὺς 
γὰρ κινδύνους ἑωυτῶν πέρι κινδυνεύουσι, καὶ τῆς 
ἀνδρείης αὐτοὶ τὰ ἄθλα φέρονται καὶ τῆς δειλίης 
τὴν ζημίην ὡσαύτως. εὑρήσεις δὲ καὶ τοὺς 
᾿Ασιηνοὺς διαφέροντας αὐτοὺς ἑωυτῶν, τοὺς μὲν 
βελτίονας, τοὺς δὲ φαυλοτέρους ἐόντας. τούτων 
δὲ αἱ μεταβολαὶ αἴτιαι τῶν ὡρέων, ὥσπερ μοι 
εἴρηται ἐν τοῖς προτέροισι. 

XVII. Καὶ περὶ μὲν τῶν ἐν τῇ ᾿Ασίῃ οὕτως 
ἔχει. ἐν δὲ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ἔστιν ἔθνος Σκυθικόν, ὃ 
περὶ τὴν λίμνην οἰκεῖ τὴν Μαιῶτιν διαφέρον τῶν 
ἐθνέων τῶν ἄλλων. Σαυρομάται καλεῦνται. τού- 
των αἱ γυναῖκες ἱππάζονταί τε καὶ τοξεύουσι καὶ 
ἀκοντίζουσιν ἀπὸ τῶν ἵππων καὶ μάχονται τοῖς 
πολεμίοις, ἕως ἂν παρθένοι ἔωσιν. οὐκ ἀποπαρ- 
θενεύονται δέ, μέχρι ἂν τῶν πολεμίων τρεῖς 
ἀποκτείνωσι, καὶ οὐ πρότερον συνοικέουσιν ἤπερ 
τὰ ἱερὰ θύσωσιν τὰ ἔννομα. ἣ δ᾽ ἂν ἄνδρα ἑωυτῇ 
ἄρηται, παύεται ἱππαζομένη, ἕως ἂν μὴ ἀνάγκη 
καταλάβῃ παγκοίνου στρατείης. τὸν δεξιὸν δὲ 
μαζὸν οὐκ ἔχουσι. παιδίοις γὰρ ἐοῦσιν ἔτι νηπίοις 
αἱ μητέρες χαλκίον τετεχνημένον ἐπ᾽ αὐτῷ τούτῳ 

1 ἐρημοῦσθαι τὴν γῆν ὑπό τε πολεμίων most MSS.: ἡμεροῦσθαι 
τὴν ὀργὴν Zwinger; Iberg would also read ἀπολεμιῶν from 
the ἀπολεμίων of V JB. 


AIRS WATERS PLACES, χνι.--χνιι. 

must be desert, owing to their enemies and to their 
laziness,! so that even if a naturally brave and 
spirited man is born his temper is changed by their 
institutions. Whereof I can give a Ἐπ proof. 
All the inhabitants of Asia, Sghether Greek or 
non-Greek, who are not ruled by despots, but are 
independent, toiling for their own advantage, are 
the most warlike of all men. For it is for their 
own sakes that they run their risks, and in their 
own persons do they receive the prizes of their 
valour as likewise the penalty of their cowardice. 
You will find that Asiatics also differ from one 
another, some being superior, others inferior. ‘The 
reason for this, as I have said above, is the changes 
of the seasons. 

XVII. Such is the condition of the inhabitants 
of Asia. And in Europe is a Scythian race, dwell- 
ing round Lake Maeotis, which differs from the other 
races. Their name is Sauromatae. Their women, 
so long as they are virgins, ride, shoot, throw the 
javelin while mounted, and fight with their enemies. 
They do not lay aside their virginity until they have 
killed three of their enemies, and they do not marry 
before they have performed the traditional sacred 
rites. A woman who takes to herself a husband no 
longer rides, unless she is compelled to do so by 
a general expedition. They have no right breast ; 
for while they are yet babies their mothers make 

1 Or, reading ἡμεροῦσθαι τὴν ὀργὴν ὑπό τε ἀπολεμίων K.T-A., 
‘the temper of men like these must be gentle, because they 
are unwarlike and inactive.” 






διάπυρον ποιέουσαι πρὸς τὸν μαζὸν τιθέασι τὸν 
δεξιὸν καὶ ἐπικαίεται, ὥστε τὴν αὔξησιν φθείρε- 
σθαι, ἐς δὲ τὸν δεξιὸν ὦμον καὶ βραχίονα πᾶσαν 
τὴν ἰσχὺν καὶ τὸ πλῆθος ἐκδιδόναι. 

XVILI. Περὶ δὲ τῶν λοιπῶν Σκυθέων τῆς 
μορφῆς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ αὐτοῖσιν ἐοίκασι καὶ οὐδαμῶς 
ἄλλοις, WUTOS λόγος καὶ περὶ τῶν Αἰγυπτίων, 
πλὴν ὅτι οἱ μὲν ὑπὸ τοῦ θερμοῦ εἰσι βεβιασμένοι, 
οἱ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῦ ψυχροῦ. ἡ δὲ Σκυθέων ἐρημίη 
καλευμένη πεδιάς ἐστι καὶ λειμακώδης καὶ ψιλὴ 5 
καὶ ἔνυδρος μετρίως. ποταμοὶ γάρ εἰσι μεγάλοι, 
οἱ τ aus τὸ ὕδωρ ἐκ τῶν πεδίων. ἐνταῦθα 
καὶ οἱ Σκύθαι διαιτεῦνται, Νομάδες δὲ καλεῦνται, 
ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν οἰκήματα, ἀλλ᾽ ἐν ἁμάξῃσιν οἰκεῦσιν. 
αἱ δὲ ἅμαξαί εἰσιν αἱ μὲν ἐλάχισται τετράκυκλοι, 

; δὲ ἑξάκυκλοι: αὗται δὲ πίλοις περιπεφραγ- 
μέναι: εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ τετεχνασμέναι ὥσπερ οἰκήματα 
τὰ μὲν διπλᾶ, τὰ δὲ τριπλᾶ. ταῦτα δὲ καὶ 
στεγνὰ πρὸς ὕδωρ καὶ πρὸς χιόνα καὶ πρὸς τὰ 
πνεύματα. τὰς δὲ ἁμάξας ἕλκουσι ζεύγεα τὰς 
μὲν δύο, τὰς δὲ τρία βοῶν κέρως ἄτερ. οὐ γὰρ 
ἔχουσι κέρατα ὑπὸ τοῦ ψύχεος. ἐν ταύτῃσι μὲν 
οὖν τῇσιν ἁμάξῃσιν ai? γυναῖκες διαιτεῦνται. 
αὐτοὶ δ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ἵππων ὀχεῦνται οἱ ἄνδρες. ἕπονται 
δὲ αὐτοῖς καὶ τὰ πρόβατα τὰ ἐόντα καὶ αἱ βόες 
καὶ οἱ ἵπποι. μένουσι δ᾽ ἐν τῷ αὐτῷ τοσοῦτον 
χρόνον, ὅσον ἂν ἀποχρῇ αὐτοῖσι τοῖς κτήνεσιν ὁ 
χόρτος" ὁκόταν δὲ μηκέτι, ἐς ἑτέρην χώρην 
ἔρχονται. αὐτοὶ δ᾽ ἐσθίουσι κρέα ἑφθὰ καὶ 

Ε οὐδαμῶς MSS.: οὐδαμοῖς Wilamowitz. 
2 ψιλὴ most MSS.: ὑψηλὴ V JB. 
3 ai added by Coray. 



red-hot a bronze instrument constructed for this 
very purpose and apply it to the right breast and 
cauterise it, so that its growth is arrested, and all 
its strength and bulk are diverted to the right 
shoulder and right arm. 

XVIII. As to the physique of the other Scythians, 
in that they are like one another and not at all like 
others, the same remark applies to them as to the 
Egyptians, only the latter are distressed by the heat, 
the former by the cold.!_ What is called the Scythian 
desert is level grassland, without trees,? and fairl 
well-watered. For there are large rivers which drain 
the water from the plains. There too live the 
Seythians who are called Nomads because they have 
no houses but live in wagons. The smallest have 
four wheels, others six wheels. They are covered 
over with felt and are constructed, like houses, 
sometimes in two compartments and sometimes in 
three, which are proof against rain, snow and wind. 
The wagons are drawn by two or by three yoke of 
hornless oxen. They have no horns because of the 
cold. Now in these wagons live the women, while 
the men ride alone on horseback, followed by the 
sheep they have, their cattle and their horses. They 
remain in the same place just as long as there is 
sufficient fodder for their animals; when it gives 
out they migrate. They themselves eat boiled 

1 Both people are of peculiar physique, and the cause of 
the peculiarity is in the one case extreme heat, and in the 
other extreme cold. 

2 Or, reading ὑψηλή, “ἃ plateau.” 

ὁ τὰ added by Coray. 


/ ΄ “ \ « / , 
TTLVOVOL γάλα ὙΠ ΤΟ: καὶ ὑππακὴν τρωγοῦσιε" 

27 τοῦτο ὃ ἐστὶ τυρὸς ἵππων. 


9.0. πὴ “μὲν ἐς τὴν δίαιταν αὐτῶν οὕτως ἔχει 
καὶ τοὺς νόμους" περὶ δὲ τῶν ὡρέων καὶ τῆς 
μορφῆς, ὅτι πολὺ ἀπήλλακται, τῶν λοιπῶν ἀν- 
θρώπων τὸ Σκυθικὸν γένος καὶ ἔοικεν αὐτὸ ἑωυτῷ 
ὥσπερ τὸ Αἰγύπτιον καὶ ἥκιστα πολύγονόν ἐστι, 
καὶ ἡ χώρη ἐλάχιστα θηρία τρέφει κατὰ μέγεθος 
καὶ πλῆθος. κεῖται γὰρ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῇσι τῆσιν 
ἄρκτοις καὶ τοῖς ὄρεσι τοῖς Ῥιπαίοισιν, ὅθεν ὁ 
βορέης πνεῖ. ὅ τε ἥλιος τελευτῶν ἐγγύτατα 
γίνεται, ὁκόταν ἐπὶ τὰς θερινὰς ἔλθῃ περιόδους, 
καὶ τότε ὀλίγον χρόνον θερμαίνει καὶ οὐ σφόδρα. 
τὰ δὲ πνεύματα τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν θερμῶν πνέοντα οὐκ 
ἀφικνεῖται, ἢν μὴ ὀλιγάκις καὶ ἀσθενέα, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἀπὸ τῶν ἄρκτων αἰεὶ πνέουσι πνεύματα ψυχρὰ 
ἀπό τε χιόνος καὶ κρυστάλλου καὶ ὑδάτων πολ- 
λῶν. οὐδέποτε δὲ τὰ ὄρεα ἐκλείπει: ἀπὸ τούτων 
δὲ δυσοίκητά ἐστιν. Mp τε κατέχει πολὺς τῆς 
ἡμέρης τὰ πεδία, καὶ ἐν τούτοισι " διαιτεῦνται" 
ὥστε τὸν μὲν χειμῶνα αἰεὶ εἶναι, τὸ δὲ θέρος 
ὀλίγας ἡμέρας καὶ ταύτας μὴ λίην. μετέωρα 
γὰρ τὰ πεδία καὶ ψιλὰ καὶ οὐκ ἐστεφάνωνται 
ὄρεσιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἀνάντεα ἀπὸ 3 τῶν ἄρκτων" αὐτόθι 
καὶ τὰ θηρία. οὐ γίνεται μεγάλα, ἀλλ᾽ οἷά τέ 
ἐστιν ὑπὸ γῆν σκεπάζεσθαι. ὁ γὰρ χειμὼν 
κωλύει καὶ τῆς γῆς ἡ ψιλότης, ὅτι οὐκ ἔστιν 
ἀλέη οὐδὲ σκέπη. αἱ δὲ μεταβολαὶ τῶν ὡρέων 

1 οὐκ added by Littré from the Latin manuscript 7027. 

2 τούτοισι Reinhold : : αὐτέοισι Littré from 7027 (illis). 

3 ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἀνάντεα ἀπὸ Kiihlewein: ἀλλ᾽ ἀνάντη ὑπὸ most 
MSS.: ἀλλ᾽ ἢ ἂν τῇ ἀπὸ JB: ἀλλ᾽ ἡ αὐτὴ ἀπὸ V. 


meats and drink mares’ milk. ‘They have a sweet- 
meat called hippace, which is a cheese from the milk 
of mares (hippot). 

XIX. So much for their mode of living and their 
customs. As to their seasons and their physique, 
the Scythians are very different from all other men, 
and, like the Egyptians, are homogeneous; they are 
the reverse of prolific, and Scythia breeds the smallest 
and the fewest wild animals. For it lies right close 
to the north and the Rhipaean mountains, from 
which blows the north wind. The sun comes 
nearest to them only at the end of its course, 
when it reaches the summer solstice, and then it 
warms them but slightly and for a short time. The 
winds blowing from hot regions do not reach them, 
save rarely, and with little force; but from the 
north there are constantly blowing winds that are 
chilled by snow, ice, and many waters,! which, never 
leaving the mountains, render them uninhabitable. 
A thick fog envelops by day the plains upon which 
they live, so that winter is perennial, while summer, 
which is but feeble, lasts only a few days. For the 
plains are high and bare, and are not encircled 
with mountains, though they slope from the north. 
The wild animals too that are found there are not large, 
but such as can find shelter under ground. They 
are stunted owing to the severe climate and the 
bareness of the land, where there is neither warmth 2 
nor shelter. And the changes of the seasons are 

1 Or, ‘‘ heavy rains.” 

2 Strangely enough, both Littré and Adams translate as 
though they took ἀλέη to be the Epic word meaning ‘‘ means 
of escape.” 

4 δὲ Wilamowitz: γὰρ MSS. 
VOL, 1. ς 121 




οὔκ εἰσι μεγάλαι οὐδὲ ἰσχυραί, ἀλλ᾽ ὁμοῖαι καὶ 
ὀλίγον μεταλλάσσουσαι" διότι καὶ τὰ εἴδεα 
ὁμοῖοι ἢ αὐτοὶ ἑωυτοῖς εἰσι σίτῳ τε χρεώμενοι 
αἰεὶ ὁμοίῳ ἐσθῆτί τε τῇ αὐτῇ καὶ θέρεος καὶ 
χειμῶνος, τόν τε ἠέρα ὑδατεινὸν ἕλκοντες καὶ 
παχύν, τά τε ὕδατα πίνοντες. ἀπὸ χιόνος καὶ 
παγετῶν, τοῦ τε ταλαιπώρου ἀπεόντες. οὐ γὰρ 
οἷόν τε τὸσῶμα ταλαιπωρεῖσθαι οὐδὲ τὴν ψυχήν, 
ὅκου μεταβολαὶ μὴ γίνονται ἰσχυραί. διὰ ταύτας 
τὰς ἀνάγκας τὰ εἴδεα αὐτῶν παχέα ἐστὶ καὶ 
σαρκώδεα καὶ ἄναρθρα καὶ ὑγρὰ καὶ ἄτονα, αἵ 
τε κοιλίαι ὑγρόταται πασέων KOLALOV αἱ κάτω. 
οὐ “γὰρ οἷόν τε νηδὺν ἀναξηραίνεσθαι ἐν τοιαύτῃ 
χώρῃ καὶ φύσει καὶ ὥρης καταστάσει, ἀλλὰ διὰ 
πιμελήν τε καὶ ψιλὴν τὴν σάρκα τά tret? εἴδεα 
ἔοικεν ἀλλήλοισι τά τε ἄρσενα τοῖς ἄρσεσι καὶ 
τὰ θήλεα τοῖς θήλεσι. τῶν γὰρ ὡρέων παραπλη- 
σίων ἐουσέων φθοραὶ οὐκ ἐγγίνονται οὐδὲ κα- 
κώσιες ἐν τῇ τοῦ ,γόνου συμπήξει, ἢν μή τινος 
ἀνάγκης βιαίου τύχῃ ἢ νούσου. 

XX. Μέγα δὲ τεκμήριον ἐς τὴν ὑγρότητα ΠΤ 
έξομαι. Σκυθέων γὰρ τοὺς πολλούς, ἅπαντας * 
ὅσοι Νομάδες, εὑρήσεις κεκαυμένους τούς τε 
ὥμους καὶ τοὺς βραχίονας καὶ τοὺς καρποὺς τῶν 
χειρῶν καὶ τὰ στήθεα καὶ Tas ἰσχία καὶ τὴν 
ὀσφῦν δι᾿ ἄλλ᾽ οὐδὲν ἢ διὰ “τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς 
φύσιος καὶ τὴν μαλακίην. οὐ γὰρ δύνανται οὔτε 
τοῖς τόξοις συντείνειν οὔτε τῷ ἀκοντίῳ ἐμπίπτειν 
τῷ ὦμῳ ὑπὸ ὑγρότητος καὶ ἀτονίης. ὁκόταν δὲ 
καυθέωσιν. ἀναξηραίνεται ἐκ τῶν ἄρθρων τὸ TOAD 

τ ὁμοῖοι αὐτοὶ Coray : ὅμοια αὐτὰ MSS. 


neither great nor violent, the seasons being uniform 
and altering but little. Wherefore the men also are 
like one another in physique, since summer and 
winter they always use similar food and the same 
clothing, breathing a moist, thick atmosphere, drink- 
ing water from ice and snow, and abstaining from 
fatigue. For neither bodily nor mental endurance 
is possible where the changes are not violent. For 
these causes their physiques are gross, fleshy, showing 
no joints, moist and flabby, and the lower bowels 
are as moist as bowels can be. For the belly cannot 
possibly dry up ina land like this, with such a nature 
and such a climate, but because of their fat and the 
smoothness of their flesh their physiques are similar, 
men’s to men’s and women’s to women’s. For as 
the seasons are alike there takes place no corruption 
or deterioration in the coagulation of the seed,! 
except through the blow of some violent cause or of 
some disease. 

XX. I will give clear testimony to their moistness. 
The majority of the Scythians, all that are Nomads, 
you will find have their shoulders cauterized, as well 
as their arms, wrists, breast, hips and loins, simply 
because of the moistness and softness of their con- 
stitution. For owing to their moistness and flabbiness 
they have not the strength either to draw a bow or 
to throw a javelin from the shoulder. But when 
they have been cauterized the excess of moisture 

1 As a modern physiologist might put it, ‘‘ abnormal 
variations in the formation of the embryo.” 

2 re Wilamowitz would delete. 
3 ἅπαντας most MSS.: μάλιστα JB. 
4 καὶ τὰ added by Coray. 






TOU ὑγροῦ, καὶ ἐντονώτερα μάλλον γίνεται καὶ 
τροφιμώτερα καὶ ἠρθρωμένα τὰ σώματα μᾶλλον. 
ῥοϊκὰ δὲ γίνεται, καὶ πλατέα, πρῶτον μὲν ὅτι οὐ 
σπαργανοῦνται ὥσπερ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ οὐδὲ νομίζουσι! 
διὰ τὴν ἱππασίην, ὅκως ἂν εὔεδροι ἔωσιν" ἔπειτα 
δὲ διὰ τὴν ἕδρην' τά τε γὰρ ἄρσενα, ἕως ἂν οὐχ 
οἷά τε ἐφ᾽ ἵππου ὀχεῖσθαι, τὸ πολὺ τοῦ χρόνου 
κάθηνται ἐν τῇ ἁμάξῃ καὶ βραχὺ τῇ βαδίσει 
χρέονται διὰ τὰς μεταναστάσιας καὶ ,περιελάσιας" 
τὰ δὲ θήλεα θαυμαστὸν οἷον ῥοϊκά ἑστι τε καὶ 
βραδέα 3 τὰ εἴδεα. πυρρὸν δὲ τὸ γένος ἐστὶ τὸ 
Σκυθικὸν διὰ τὸ ψῦχος, οὐκ ἐπιγινομένου ὀξέος 
τοῦ ἡλίου. ὑπὸ δὲ τοῦ ψύχεος ἡ λευκότης ἐπι- 
καίεται καὶ γίνεται πυρρή. 

XXI. Πολύγονον δὲ οὐχ οἷόν τε εἶναι φύσιν 
τοιαύτην. οὔτε γὰρ τῷ ἀνδρὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμίη τῆς 
μείξιος γίνεται πολλὴ διὰ τὴν ὑγρότητα τῆς 
φύσιος καὶ τῆς κοιλίης τὴν μαλθακότητά τε καὶ 
τὴν ψυχρότητα, ἀφ᾽ ὅτων ἥκιστα εἰκὸς ἄνδρα 
οἷόν τε λαγνεύειν" καὶ ἔτι ὑπὸ τῶν ἵππων αἰεὶ 
κοπτόμενοι ἀσθενέες γίνονται ἐς τὴν μείξιν. τοῖσι 
μὲν ἀνδράσιν αὗται αἱ προφάσιες γίνονται, τῇσι 
δὲ γυναιξὶν ἡ ἥ τε πιότης τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ ὑγρότης" 
οὐ γὰρ δύνανται ἔ ἔτι συναρπάξειν αἱ μῆτραι τὸν 
γόνον" οὔτε γὰρ ἐπιμήνιος κάθαρσις αὐτῇσι γί- 
νεται ὡς χρεών ἐστιν, ἀλλ᾽ ὀλίγον καὶ διὰ χρόνου, 
τό τε στόμα τῶν μητρέων ὑπὸ πιμελῆς συγκλεί- 
ETAL καὶ οὐχ ὑποδέχεται τὸν γόνον" αὐταί τε 
ἀταλαίπωροι καὶ πίεραι καὶ αἱ κοιλίαι ψυχραὶ 

1 Ts there a gap in the text after νομίζουσι ὃ οὐδὲ νομίζουσι 

adds nothing to οὐ σπαργανοῦνται, and requires an infinitive 
or some phrase to complete the sense. I once conjectured 



dries up from their joints. and their bodies become 
more braced, more nourished and better articulated. 
Their bodies grow relaxed and squat, firstly because, 
unlike the Egyptians, they do not use swaddling 
clothes, of which they have not the habit,! for the 
sake of their riding, that they may sit a horse well; 
secondly, through their sedentary lives. For the 
boys, until they can ride, sit the greater part of the 
time in the wagon, and because of the migrations 
and wanderings ‘rarely walk on foot; while the girls 
are wonder fully flabby and torpid in physique. The 
Scythians are a ruddy race because of the cold, not 
through any fierceness in the sun’s heat. It is the 
cold that burns their white skin and turns it ruddy. 
XXI. A constitution of this kind prevents fertility. 
The men have no great desire for intercourse because 
of the moistness of their constitution and the softness 
and chill of their abdomen, which are the greatest 
checks on venery. Moreover, the constant jolting 
on their horses unfits them for intercourse. Such 
are the causes of barrenness in the men; in the 
women they are the fatness and moistness of their 
flesh, which are such that the womb cannot absorb 
the seed. For neither is their monthly purging as 
it should be, but scanty and late, while the mouth 
of the womb is closed by fat and does not admit the 
seed. They are personally fat and lazy, and their 

1 This isa literal translation of the text, but see the footnote 
on the opposite page. 

ὥσπερ οὐδ᾽ ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ νομίζουσι, and I find that Coray too has 
suggested this emendation, on the ground that it is unlikely 
that the Egyptians used swaddling clothes. 

2 Boadéa JB Ὁ: βλαδέα Coray. 






καὶ μαλθακαί. ὑπὸϊ τούτων τῶν ἀναγκέων οὐ 
πολύγονόν ἐστι τὸ γένος τὸ Σκυθικόν. μέγα δὲ 
τεκμήριον αἱ οἰκέτιδες ποιέουσιν" οὐ γὰρ φθάνουσι 
παρὰ ἄνδρα ἀφικνεύμεναι. καὶ ἐν γαστρὶ ἴσχουσιν 
διὰ τὴν ταλαιπωρίην καὶ ἰσχνότητα τῆς σαρκός. 
XXII. Ἔτι τε πρὸς τούτοισιν εὐνουχίαι γί- 
vovtat οἱ" πλεῖστοι ἐν Σκύθῃσι καὶ γυναικεῖα 
ἐργάζονται καὶ ὡς αἱ γυναῖκες διαιτεῦνται 3 
διαλέγονταί τε ὁμοίως" καλεῦνταί τε οἱ τοιοῦτοι 
᾿Αναριεῖς. οἱ μὲν οὖν ἐπιχώριοι τὴν αἰτίην 
προστιθέασι θεῷ καὶ σέβονται τούτους τοὺς 
ἀνθρώπους καὶ προσκυνέουσι, δεδοικότες περὶ 
ἑωυτῶν ἕκαστοι. ἐμοὶ δὲ καὶ αὐτῷ δοκεῖ ταῦτα 
τὰ πάθεα θεῖα εἶναι καὶ τἄλλα πάντα καὶ οὐδὲν 
ἕτερον ἑτέρου θειότερον οὐδὲ ἀνθρωπινώτερον, 
ἀλλὰ πάντα ὁμοῖα καὶ πάντα θεῖα. ἕκαστον δὲ 
αὐτῶν ἔχει φύσιν τὴν ἑωυτοῦ καὶ οὐδὲν ἄνευ 
φύσιος γίνεται. καὶ τοῦτο τὸ πάθος ὥς μοι δο- 
κεῖ γίνεσθαι φράσω" ὑπὸ τῆς ἱππασίης αὐτοὺς 
κέδματα λαμβάνει, ἅτε αἰεὶ κρεμαμένων ἀπὸ 
τῶν ἵππων τοῖς ποσίν: ἔπειτα ἀποχωλοῦνται καὶ 
ἑλκοῦνται τὰ ἰσχία, of ἂν σφόδρα νοσήσωσιν. 
ἰῶνται δὲ σφᾶς αὐτοὺς τρόπῳ τοιῷδε. ὁκόταν γὰρ 
ἄρχηται ἡ νοῦσος, ὄπισθεν τοῦ ὠτὸς ἑκατέρου 
φλέβα τάμνουσιν. ὁκόταν δὲ ἀπορρυῇ τὸ αἷμα, 
ὕπνος ὑπολαμβάνει ὑπὸ ἀσθενείης καὶ καθεύ- 
δουσιν. ἔπειτα ἀνεγείρονται, οἱ μέν τινες ὑγιέες 
ἐόντες, οἱ δ᾽ οὔ. ἐμοὶ μὲν οὖν δοκεῖ ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ 
ἰήσει διαφθείρεσθαι ὁ γόνος. εἰσὶ γὰρ παρὰ τὰ 

1 Before ὑπὸ the MSS. have καί, which Wilamowitz 



abdomen is cold and soft. These are the causes 
which make the Scythian race unfertile. A clear 
proof is afforded by their slave-girls. These, because 
of their activity and leanness of body, no sooner go 
to a man than they are with child. 

XXII. Moreover, the great majority among the 
Scythians become impotent, do women’s work, live 
like women and converse accordingly. Such men 
they call Anaries. Now the natives put the blame 
onto Heaven,and respect and worship these creatures, 
each fearing for himself. I too think that these 
diseases are divine, and so are all others, no one 
being more divine or more human than any other ; 
all are alike, and all divine. Each of them has a 
nature of its own, and none arises without its natural 
cause. How, in my opinion, this disease arises I will 
explain. The habit of riding causes swellings at the 
joints,! because they are always astride their horses ; 
in severe cases follow lameness and sores on the 
hips. They cure themselves in the following way. 
At the beginning of the disease they cut the vein 
behind each ear. When the blood has ceased to 
flow faintness comes over them and they sleep. 
Afterwards they get up, some cured and some not. 
Now, in my opinion, by this treatment the seed is 
destroyed. For by the side of the ear are veins, to 

1 For this difficult word see Littré V. 320 and VIII. xxxix 

2 Should not of be deleted? It is unlikely that “the 
majority” were impotent, but ‘‘ very many” might be. 

3 διαιτεῦνται added by Gomperz. 

4 ᾿Αναριεῖς Gomperz (cf. Herodotus I. 105): ἀνδριεῖς V: 
ἀνανδριεῖς JB: ἀναρδρεῆς b, 





ὦτα φλέβες, ἃς ἐάν τις ἐπιτάμῃ, ἄγονοι, γίνονται 
οἱ ἐπιτμηθέντες. ταύτας τοίνυν μοι δοκέουσι τὰς 
φλέβας ἐπιτάμνειν. οἱ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐπειδὰν 
ἀφίκωνται παρὰ γυναῖκας καὶ μὴ οἷοί τ᾽ ἔωσι 
χρῆσθαί σφισιν, τὸ πρῶτον οὐκ ἐνθυμεῦνται, 
ἀλλ’ ἡσυχίην ἔχουσι. ὁκόταν δὲ δὶς καὶ τρὶς 
καὶ πλεονώκις αὐτοῖσι πειρωμένοισι μηδὲν ἀλ- 
λοιότερον ἀποβαίνῃ, νομίσαντές τι ἡμαρτηκέναι 
τῷ θεῷ, ὃν ἐπαιτιῶνται, ἐνδύονται στολὴν γυ- 
ναικείην καταγνόντες ἑωυτῶν ἀνανδρείην. γυ- 
ναικίζουσί τε καὶ ἐργάζονται μετὰ τῶν γυναικῶν 
ἃ καὶ ἐκεῖναι. 

Τοῦτο δὲ πάσχουσι Σκυθέων οἱ πλούσιοι, 1 οὐχ 
οἱ κάκιστοι ἀλλ᾽ οἱ εὐγενέστατοι καὶ ἰσχὺν. πλεί- 
στην κεκτημένοι, διὰ τὴν ἱππασίην, οἱ δὲ πένητες 
ἧσσον: οὐ γὰρ ἱππάξονται. καίτοι ἐχρῆν, ἐπεὶ 
θειότερον τοῦτο τὸ νόσευμα τῶν λοιπῶν ἐστιν, οὐ 
τοῖς γενναιοτάτοις τῶν Σκυθέων καὶ τοῖς πλου- 
σιωτάτοις προσπίπτειν μούνοις, ἀλλὰ τοῖς ἅπασιν 
ὁμοίως, καὶ μᾶλλον τοῖσιν ὀλίγα κεκτημένοισιν, 
εἰ δὴ τιμώμενοι 3 χαίρουσιν οἱ θεοὶ καί θαυμα- 
ζόμενοι ὑπ᾽ ἀνθρώπων καὶ ἀντὶ τούτων χάριτας 
ἀποδιδόασιν. εἰκὸς γὰρ τοὺς μὲν πλουσίους θύειν 
πολλὰ τοῖς θεοῖς καὶ ἀνατιθέναι ἀναθήματα ἐ ἐόντων 
χρημάτων πολλῶν καὶ τιμᾶν, τοὺς δὲ πένητας 
ἧσσον διὰ τὸ μὴ ἔχειν, ἔπειτα καὶ ἐπιμεμφομένους 
ὅτι οὐ διδόασι χρήματα αὐτοῖσιν, ὥστε τῶν τοιού- 
των ἁμαρτιῶν τὰς ζημίας τοὺς ὀλίγα κεκτημένους 
φέρειν μᾶλλον ἢ τοὺς πλουσίους. ἀλλὰ γάρ, 
ὥσπερ καὶ πρότερον ἔλεξα, θεῖα μὲν καὶ ταῦτά 
ἐστιν ὁμοίως τοῖς ἄλλοις" γίνεται δὲ κατὰ φύσιν 
ἕκαστα. καὶ ἡ τοιαύτη νοῦσος ἀπὸ τοιαύτης 



cut which causes impotence, and I believe that these 
are the veins which they cut. After this treatment, 
when the Scythians approach a woman but cannot 
have intercourse, at first they take no notice and 
think no more about it. But when two, three or 
even more attempts are attended with no better 
success, thinking that they have sinned against 
Heaven they attribute thereto the cause, and put 
on women’s clothes, holding that they have lost their 
manhood. So they play the woman, and with the 
women do the same work as women do. 

This affliction affects the rich Scythians because of 
their riding, not the lower classes but the upper, 
who possess the most strength; the poor, who do 
not ride, suffer less. But, if we suppose this disease 
to be more divine than any other, it ought to have 
attacked, not the highest and richest classes only of 
the Scythians, but all classes equally—or rather the 
poor especially, if indeed the gods are pleased to 
receive from men respect and worship, and repay 
these with favours. For naturally the rich, having 
great wealth, make many sacrifices to the gods, and 
offer many votive offerings, and honour them, all of 
which things the poor, owing to their poverty, are 
less able to do; besides, they blame the gods for not 
giving them wealth, so that the penalties for such sins 
are likely to be paid by the poor rather than by the 
rich. But the truth is, as I said above, these affec- 
tions are neither more nor less divine than any others, 
and all and each are natural. Such a disease arises 

1 οἱ πλούσιοι, Cobet (Mnemosyne IX. 70) would delete these 
2 εἰ δὴ τιμώμενοι Coray: οὐ τιμωμένοισιν ἤδη εἰ MSS. 






προφάσιος τοῖς Σκύθῃσι γίνεται οἵην εἴρηκα. ἔχει 
δὲ καὶ κατὰ τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀνθρώπους ὁμοίως. 
ὅκου γὰρ ἱππάξονται μάλιστα καὶ πυκνότατα, 
ἐκεῖ πλεῖστοι ὑπὸ κεδμάτων καὶ ἰσχιάδων καὶ 
ποδαγριῶν ἁλίσκονται καὶ λαγνεύειν κάκιστοί 
εἰσι. ταῦτα δὲ τοῖσι Σκύθῃσι πρόσεστι, καὶ 
εὐνουχοειδέστατοί εἰσιν ἀνθρώπων διὰ ταύτας 
ΕΠ τὰς προφάσιας καὶ ὅτι ἀναξυρίδας ἔχουσιν 
αἰεὶ καί εἰσιν ἐπὶ τῶν ἵππων τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ 
χρόνου, ὥστε μήτε χειρὶ ἅπτεσθαι τοῦ αἰδοίου, 
ὑπό τε τοῦ ψύχεος καὶ τοῦ κόπου ἐπελήθεσθαι 
τοῦ ἱμέρου καὶ τῆς μείξιος, καὶ μηδὲν παρακινεῖν 
πρότερον ἢ ἀνανδρωθῆναι." 

XXIII. Περὶ μὲν οὖν τῶν Σκυθέων οὕτως ἔχει 
τοῦ γένεος. τὸ δὲ λοιπὸν γένος τὸ ἐν τῇ τὐρώπῃ 
διάφορον αὐτὸ ἑωυτῷ ἐστι καὶ κατὰ τὸ μέγεθος 
καὶ κατὰ τὰς μορφὰς διὰ τὰς μεταλλαγὰς τῶν 
ὡρέων, ὅτι μεγάλαι ᾿γίνονται, καὶ πυκναί, καὶ 
θάλπεά τε ἰσχυρὰ καὶ χειμῶνες καρτεροὶ καὶ 
ὄμβροι πολλοὶ καὶ αὗτις αὐχμοὶ πολυχρόνιοι καὶ 
πνεύματα, Ἐξ ὧν μεταβολαὶ πολλαὶ καὶ παντο- 
δαπαί. ἀπὸ τούτων εἰκὸς αἰσθάνεσθαι ὃ καὶ τὴν 
γένεσιν ἐν τῇ συμπήξει τοῦ γόνου ἄλλοτε ἄλλην 
καὶ μὴ τῷ αὐτῷ τὴν αὐτὴν γίνεσθαι ἔν τε τῷ θέρει 
καὶ τῷ χειμῶνι μηδὲ ἐν ἐπομβρίῃ καὶ αὐχμῷ. 
διότι τὰ εἴδεα διηλλάχθαι νομίξω τῶν ὐρωπαίων 
μᾶλλον ἢ τῶν ᾿Ασιηνῶν καὶ τὰ μεγέθεα διαφορώ- 
τατα αὐτὰ ἑωυτοῖς εἶναι κατὰ πόλιν ἑκάστην. αἱ 
γὰρ φθοραὶ πλείονες ἐγγίνονται τοῦ γόνου ἐν τῇ 
συμπήξει ἐν τῇσι μεταλλαγῇσι τῶν ὡρέων πυκνῆ- 

1 τε added by Wilamowitz. 


among the Scythians for such a reason as I have 
stated, and other men too are equally liable to it, for 
ἘΠΕ ΤᾺΣ men ride very much and very frequently, 

there the majority are attacked by swellings at the 
joints, sciatica and gout, and are sexually very weak. 
These complaints come upon the Scythians, and they 
are the most impotent of men, for the reasons I have 
given, and also because they always wear trousers 
and spend most of their time on their horses, so that 
they do not handle the parts, but owing to ΠΤ 
fatigue forget about sexual passion, “losing their 
virility before any impulse is felt. 

XXIII. Such is the condition of the Scythians. 
The other people of Europe differ from one another 
both in stature and in shape, because of the changes 
of the seasons, which are violent and frequent, 
while there are severe heat waves, severe winters, 
copious rains and then long droughts, and winds, 
causing many changes of various kinds. Wherefore 
1015 natural to realize that generation too varies 
in the coagulation of the seed, 1 and is not the same 
for the same seed in summer as in winter nor in 
rain asin drought. It is for this reason, I think, that 
the physique of Europeans varies more than that of 
Asiatics, and that their stature differs very widely in 
each city. For there arise more corruptions in the 
coagulation of the seed when the changes of the sea- 

1 7. ¢. ‘‘in the formation of the foetus.” 

2 Coray, withat least one MS., would read ἀνδρωθῆναι, that 
is, ‘‘ attempt no sexual act before they recover their virility.” 

3 αἰσθάνεσθαι Kiithlewein would delete, as interpolated from 
Chapter X: συνίστασθαι Wilamowitz. 

4 ἄλλοτε added (with καὶ preceding) by Coray. 






σιν éovonow ἢ ἐν τῆσι παραπλησίησι καὶ 
ὁμοίῃησι. περί τε τῶν ἠθέων ὁ αὐτὸς λόγος" TO 
τε ἄγριον καὶ τὸ ἄμεικτον καὶ τὸ θυμοειδὲς ἐν 
τῇ τοιαύτῃ φύσει ἐγγίνεται. αἱ γὰρ ἐκπλήξιες 
πυκναὶ γινόμεναι τῆς γνώμης τὴν a ἀγριότητα ἐντιθέ- 
aot, τὸ δὲ ἢ ἥμερόν τε καὶ ἤπιον ἀμαυροῦσι. διὸ 
καὶ εὐψυχοτέρους νομίξω τοὺς τὴν ᾿υὐρώπην 
οἰκέοντας εἶναι ἢ τοὺς τὴν ᾿Ασίην. ἐν μὲν γὰρ 
τῷ αἰεὶ παραπλησίῳ αἱ ῥᾳθυμίαι ἔνεισιν, ἐν δὲ 
τῷ μεταβαλλομένῳ αἱ ταλαιπωρίαι τῷ σώματι 
καὶ τῇ ψυχῆ. καὶ ἀπὸ μὲν ἡσυχίης καὶ ῥᾳθυ- 
μίης ip δειλίη αὔξεται, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς ταλαιπωρίης 
καὶ τῶν πόνων αἱ ἀνδρεῖαι. διὰ τοῦτό εἰσι 
μαχιμώτεροι, οἱ τὴν Εὐρώπην οἰκέοντες καὶ διὰ 
τοὺς νόμους, ὅτι οὐ βασιλεύονται ὥσπερ οἱ ᾿Ασιη- 
vol. ὅκου γὰρ βασιλεύονται, ἐκεῖ ἀνάγκη δειλο- 
τάτους εἶναι. εἴρηται δέ μοι. καὶ πρότερον. αἱ 
γὰρ ψυχαὶ δεδούχωντάι καὶ οὐ βούλονται παρα- 
κινδυνεύειν ἑκόντες εἰκῇ ὑπὲρ ἀλλοτρίης δυνάμιος. 
ὅσοι δὲ αὐτόνομοι---ὑπὲρ ἑωυτῶν γὰρ τοὺς κιν- 
δύνους αἱρεῦνται καὶ οὐκ ἄλλων -προθυμεῦνται 
ἑκόντες καὶ ἐς τὸ δεινὸν ἔρχονται. τὰ γὰρ ἀριστεῖα 
τῆς νίκης αὐτοὶ φέρονται. οὕτως οἱ νόμοι οὐχ 
ἥκιστα τὴν εὐψυχίην ἐργάξονται. 

XXIV. To “μὲν οὖν ὅλον καὶ τὸ ἅπαν οὕτως 
ἔχει περί τε τῆς Εὐρώπης καὶ τῆς ᾿Ασίης. ἔνεισι 
δὲ καὶ ἐν τῇ Εὐρώπῃ φῦλα διάφορα ἕτερα ἑτέροισι 
καὶ τὰ μεγέθεα καὶ Tas μορφὰς καὶ τὰς ἀνδρείας. 
τὰ δὲ διαλλάσσοντα ταὐτά ἐστιν, ἃ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν 
πρότερον εἴρηται. ἔτι δὲ σαφέστερον φράσω. 
ὁκόσοι μὲν χώρην ὀρεινήν τε οἰκέουσι καὶ τρηχεῖαν 
καὶ ὑψηλὴν καὶ ἔνυδρον, καὶ αἱ μεταβολαὶ αὐτοῖσι 


sons are frequent than when they are similar or alike. 
The same reasoning applies also to character. In 
such a climate arise wildness, unsociability and spirit. 
For the frequent shocks to the mind impart wild- 
ness, destroying tameness and gentleness. For this 
reason, I think, Europeans are also more courageous 
than Asiatics.‘” For uniformity engenders slackness, 
while variation fosters endurance in both body and 
soul; rest and slackness are food for cowardice, 
endurance and exertion for bravery. Wherefore 
Europeans are more warlike, and also because of 
their institutions, not being under kings as are 
Asiatics. For, as I said above, where there are 
kings, there must be the greatest cowards. For 
men’s souls are enslaved, and refuse to run risks 
readily and recklessly to increase the power of 
somebody else. But independent people, taking 
risks on their own behalf and not on behalf of 
others, are willing and eager to go into danger, for 
they themselves enjoy the prize of victory. So 
institutions contribute a great deal to the formation 
of courageousness. 

XXIV. Such, in outline and in general, is the 
character of Europe and of Asia. In Europe too 
there are tribes differing one from another in stature, 
in shape and in courage. The differences are due to 
the same causes as I mentioned above, which I will 
now describe more clearly. Inhabitants of a region 
which is mountainous, rugged, high, and watered, 

1 ταὐτά Coray: ταῦτά $3: ταῦτ᾽ V. 





γίνονται τῶν ὡρέων μέγα διάφοροι, ἐνταῦθα εἰκὸς 
εἴδεα μεγάλα εἶναι καὶ πρὸς τὸ ταλαίπωρον καὶ 
τὸ ἀνδρεῖον εὖ πεφυκότα, καὶ τό τε ἄγριον καὶ τὸ 
θηριῶδες αἱ τοιαῦται φύσιες οὐχ ἥκιστα. ἔχουσιν. 
ὁκόσοι δὲ κοῖλα χωρία, καὶ λειμακώδεα καὶ πνιγηρὰ 
καὶ τῶν θερμῶν πνευμάτων πλέον μέρος μετέχουσιν 
ἢ τῶν ψυχρῶν ὕδασί τε χρέονται θερμοῖσιν, οὗτοι 
δὲ μεγάλοι μὲν οὐκ ἂν εἴησαν οὐδὲ κανονίαι, ἐς 
εὖρος δὲ πεφυκότες καὶ σαρκώδεες καὶ μελανό- 
τρίχες, καὶ αὐτοὶ μέλανες μᾶλλον ἢ λευκότεροι, 
φλεγματίαι δὲ ἧσσον ἢ χολώδεες" τὸ δὲ ἀνδρεῖον 
καὶ τὸ ταλαίπωρον ἐν τῇ ψυχῇ φύσει μὲν οὐκ ἂν 
ὁμοίως ἐνείη, νόμος δὲ προσγενόμενος ἀπεργάξοιτ᾽ 
ἄν. καὶ εἰ μὲν ποταμοὶ ἐνείησαν ἐν τῇ χώρῃ, 
οἵτινες ἐκ τῆς χώρης ἐξοχετεύουσι τό τε στάσιμον 
καὶ τὸ ὄμβριον, οὗτοι ἂν ὑγιηροί τε εἴησαν καὶ 
λαμπροί. εἰ μέντοι ποταμοὶ μὲν μὴ εἴησαν, τὰ 
δὲ ὕδατα λιμναῖά * τε καὶ στάσιμα πίνοιεν καὶ 
ἑλώδεα, ἀνάγκη τὰ τοιαῦτα εἴδεα προγαστρότερα 
καὶ σπληνώδεα εἶναι. ὁκόσοι δὲ ὑψηλήν τε οἰκέ- 
ουσι χώρην καὶ λείην καὶ ἀνεμώδεα καὶ ἔνυδρον, 
εἶεν ἂν εἴδεα μεγάλοι καὶ ἑωυτοῖσι παραπλήσιοι" 
ἀνανδρότεραι δὲ καὶ ᾿ἡμερώτεραι. at γνῶμαι. 
ὁκόσοι δὲ λεπτά τε καὶ ἄνυδρα καὶ ψιλά, τῇσι 
μεταβολῇσι τῶν ὡρέων οὐκ εὔκρητα, ἐν ταύτῃ τῇ 
χώρῃ τὰ εἴδεα εἰκὸς σκληρά τε εἰναι καὶ ἔντονα 
καὶ EavOorepa ἢ μελάντερα καὶ τὰ ἤθεα καὶ τὰς 
ὀργὰς αὐθάδεάς τε καὶ ἰδιογνώμονας. ὅκου γὰρ 
αἱ μεταβολαί εἰσι πυκνόταται τῶν ὡρέων καὶ 
πλεῖστον διάφοροι αὐταὶ ἑωυτῇσιν, ἐκεῖ καὶ τὰ 
εἴδεα καὶ τὰ ἤθεα καὶ τὰς φύσιας εὑρήσεις 
πλεῖστον διαφερούσας. 



where the changes of the seasons exhibit sharp 
contrasts, are likely to be of big physique, with a 
nature well adapted for endurance and courage, and 
such possess not a little wildness and ferocity. The 
inhabitants of hollow regions, that are meadowy, 
stifling, with more hot than cool winds, and where 
the water used is hot, will be neither tall nor well- 
made, but inclined to be broad, fleshy, and dark- 
haired ; they themselves are dark rather than fair, less 
subject to phlegm than to bile. Similar bravery and 
endurance are not by nature part of their character, 
but the imposition of lawcan produce them artificially. 
Should there be rivers in the land, which drain off 
from the ground the stagnant water and the rain 
water, these ! will be healthy and bright. Butifthere 
be no rivers, and the water that the people drink be 
marshy, stagnant, and fenny, the physique of the 
people must show protruding bellies and enlarged 
spleens. Such as dwell in a high land that is level, 
windy, and watered, will be tall in physique and 
similar to one another, but rather unmanly and 
tame in character. As to those that dwell on thin, 
dry, and bare soil, and where the changes of the 
seasons exhibit sharp contrasts, it is likely that in 
such country the people will be hard in physique 
and well-braced, fair rather than dark, stubborn and 
independent in character and in temper. For where 
the changes of the seasons are most frequent and most 
sharply contrasted, there you will find the greatest 
diversity in physique, in character, and in constitution. 

1 The people or the rivers? Probably the former, in which 
case ‘‘ bright” will mean ‘‘ of bright (clear) complexion.” 

1 λιμναῖα f§: κρηναῖα all other MSS. 





Μέγισται μὲν οὖν εἰσιν αὗται τῆς φύσιος ai 
διαλλαγαί, ἔπειτα δὲ καὶ ἡ χώρη, ἐν ἣ ἄν τις 
τρέφηται καὶ τὰ ὕδατα. εὑρήσεις γὰρ ἐπὶ τὸ 
πλῆθος τῆς χώρης τῇ φύσει ἀκολουθέοντα καὶ τὰ 
εἴδεα τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τοὺς τρόπους. ὅκου 
μὲν γὰρ ἡ γῆ πίειρα καὶ ἡ μαλθακὴ καὶ ἔνυδρος, καὶ 
τὰ ὕδατα κάρτα μετέωρα, ὥστε θερμὰ εἶναι τοῦ 
θέρεος καὶ τοῦ χειμῶνος ψυχρά, καὶ τῶν ὡρέων 
καλῶς κεῖται, ἐνταῦθα καὶ οἱ ἄνθρωποι σαρκώδεές 
εἰσι καὶ ἄναρθροι καὶ ὑγροὶ καὶ ἀταλαίπωροι καὶ 
τὴν ψυχὴν κακοὶ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολύ. τό τε ῥάθυμον 
καὶ τὸ ὑπνηρὸν ἔνεστιν ἐν αὐτοῖς ἰδεῖν" ἔς τε τὰς 
τέχνας παχέες καὶ οὐ λεπτοὶ οὐδ᾽ ὀξέες. ὅκου δ᾽ 
ἐστὶν ἡ χώρη ψιλή τε καὶ ἄνυδρος 1 καὶ τρηχεῖα 
καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ χειμῶνος πιεζομένη καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ 
ἡλίου κεκαυμένη, ἐνταῦθα δὲ σκληρούς τε καὶ 
ἰσχνοὺς καὶ διηρθρωμένους καὶ ἐντόνους καὶ 
δασέας ἴδοις.3 τό τε ἐργατικὸν ἐνεὸν 3 ἐν τῇ φύσει 
τῇ τοιαύτῃ καὶ τὸ ἄγρυπνον, τά τε ἤθεα καὶ τὰς 
ὀργὰς αὐθάδεας καὶ ἰδιογνώμονας, τοῦ τε ἀγρίου 
μᾶλλον μετέχοντας ἢ τοῦ ἡμέρου, ἔς τε τὰς τέχνας 
ὀξυτέρους τε καὶ συνετωτέρους καὶ τὰ πολέμια 
ἀμείνους εὑρήσεις" καὶ τἄλλα τὰ ἐν τῇ γῇ φυόμενα 
πάντα ἀκόλουθα ἐόντα τῇ γῇ. αἱ μὲν ἐναντιώταται 
φύσιές τε καὶ ἰδέαι ἔχουσιν οὕτως. ἀπὸ δὲ 
τούτων τεκμαιρόμενος τὰ λοιπὰ ἐνθυμεῖσθαι, καὶ 

οὐχ ἁμαρτήσῃ. 



These are the most important factors that create 
differences in men’s constitutions ; next come the land 
in which a man is reared, and the water. For in 
general you will find assimilated to the nature of the 
land both the physique and the characteristics of the 
inhabitants. For where the land is rich, soft, and 
well-watered, and the water is very near the surface, 
so as to be hot in summer and cold in winter, and if 
the situation be favourable as regards the seasons, 
there the inhabitants are fleshy, ill-articulated, 
moist, lazy, and generally cowardly Th character. 
Slackness and sleepiness can be observed in them, 
and as far as the arts are concerned they are thick- 
witted, and neither subtle nor sharp. But where 
the land is bare, waterless, rough, oppressed by 
winter’s storms and burnt by the sun, there you will 
see men who are hard, lean, well-articulated, well- 
braced, and hairy; such natures wiil be found 
energetic, vigilant, stubborn and independent in 
character and in temper, wild rather than tame, ot 
more than average sharpness and intelligence in 
the arts, and in war of more than average courage. 
The things also that grow in the earth all assimilate 
themselves to the earth. Such are the most sharply 
contrasted natures and physiques. Take these ob- 
servations as a standard when drawing all other 
conclusions, and you will*make no mistake. 

1 ἄνυδρος Ermerins from inaquosa of 7027 : ἀνώχυρος MSS. 
2 ἴδοις Ὁ, omitted by most MSS.: ἴδοις ἂν Coray. 
3 Before évedy all MSS, except JB add ὀξύ. 


Peal ΤῈ tO 
φρο ted voip ries 
ce. an 

43 eee ῦχν 




Tuesk two books manifestly form one work, and 
that the most remarkable product of Greek science. 

Pretensions to literary form it has none, yet no 
Greek writer, with the possible exception of Thucy- 
dides, has used language with better effect. Often 
ungrammatical, sometimes a series of disconnected 
words, the narrative is always to the point, and 
always conveys the impression that the writer’s sole 
object is to express observed facts in the fittest and 
shortest way. 

The composition shows violent dislocations. There 
come first two “ constitutions,’ ! then two short 
paragraphs on the duty of the physician and on 
certain symptoms respectively, then another con- 
stitution, then a few paragraphs on fevers, then 
fourteen clinical histories. The third book begins 
with twelve more histories, which are followed by 
a fourth constitution, at the end of which is another 
disconnected paragraph, and the book closes with 
sixteen histories. 

Dislocations due to the ancient methods of copying 
manuscripts are common enough in classical authors, 
but startling changes like the above are not such as 

1 “Constitution” is the traditional translation of kard- 
στασις, climatic conditions of such a marked type as to give 
a distinguishing character to a period of time. The word is 
also used of diseases, and so on, to denote a fixed type pre- 
valent at any particular time. 



can be ascribed to the vagaries or the carelessness ot 
scribes. Combined with the broken grammar they 
seem to point to the work having never been prepared 
for publication. The writer probably jotted down 
his remarks as a series of notes in an order which 
happened to suggest itself, and never went on to 
edit them. Several of the shorter “ interpolations” 
would have been in a modern book footnotes or 

This theory is supported by the fact that a 
very great number of the histories have no con- 
nection at all with the constitutions. The first 
three constitutions refer to Thasos; the place of 
the fourth is unnamed. The medical cases belong 
to Thasos, Larisa, Abdera, Cyzicus, and Meliboea, 
while many others have no locality attached to 
them. The nature, too, of the diseases bears no 
great likeness to those of the constitutions. They 
are all “acute,” somé exhibit abnormal symptoms 
and some are ordinary cases of remittent malaria. 
They illustrate Prognostic far better than they do 
the constitutions. ‘“ What do symptoms portend?” 
is the subject of Prognostic, and the clinical histories 
give the data from which many of its generalizations 
may well have been framed. On the whole, it is 
probable that Epidemics was never published by its 

The subject matter of the Epidemics, including the 
five books universally attributed to authors other 
than Hippocrates, namely, II and IV, V, VI, VII, 
present several interesting problems. For the 
present I will confine myself to I and III. 

What are the diseases described in the Epidemics? 
This question has interested physicians for centuries, 



and each medical reader will enjoy the task of 
diagnosing them for himself. Several cases are 
difficult, but the section on Hippocratic diseases in 
the General Introduction should enable even a lay- 
man to identify many. Perhaps the most fascinating 
problem is whether the constitution in Book III 
refers to the plague year of Thucydides If. 

Another interesting point is the cleniéle of the 
writer and the scenes of his practice.1 The latter 
have already been referred to; the names of the 
patients, and their position in life, are worth a 
moment's consideration.2 None of the clinical 
histories has a date, but most give the name and 
address of the sick person, Occasionally the name 
is given without the address, or the address is given 
without the name. In a few instances at the end 
of Book III the town is named but neither the 
patient nor his address is specified. In two cases 
(I, case 12, and III, case 4, of second series) name, 
address and locality are all omitted. The patients 
are sometimes householders, sometimes members of 
their families, sometimes slaves. Several seem to 
have been lodgers.* 

The variety in the descriptions of patients seems 
to show that the writer attached no importance to 
them, but simply wrote in his note-book enough to 

1 Tt is worth noticing that Greek physicians, like the 
Sophists, often passed from city to city, staying a longer or 
shorter period according to the demand for their services. 
It was for such mepianeeral that dirs Waters Places was 
written, to enable them to know what diseases were likely 
to occur in a city they had never visited before. 

2 See Littré, VIII. vii-xxix, where Meineke is considered. 

3 See on these points Littré, X. pp. xxix—xxxii, where 
Rossignol’s views are given and criticised. There seem to 
have been large boarding-houses in some places. 



enable him to identify a patient for himself. In 
fact he rarely appears to be writing for a public; 
in the clinical histories especially one feels that the 
only object is private information. 

If the clinical histories are rough notes of this 
character it becomes plain why they vary in fulness 
of detail. The plan generally adopted is to give a 
daily bulletin, or at least to notice the critical days, 
but if the patient was not visited every day and 
the attendants did not report anything striking, 
gaps would occur such as we actually do find. An 
editor writing for a public would either have made 
these gaps less obvious or else have explained them. 

But the most striking feature of this work is its 
devotion to truth. The constitutions are strictly 
limited to descriptions of the weather which pre- 
ceded or accompanied certain epidemics ; the clinical 
histories are confined to the march of diseases to a 
favourable or a fatal issue. Nothing irrelevant is 
mentioned ; everything relevant is included. 

Of the forty-two cases, twenty-five end in death, 
very nearly 60 per cent. The writer's aim is not to 
show how to cure—treatment is very rarely mentioned 
—hbut to discover the sequences of symptoms, to set 
down the successes and failures of Nature in her 
efforts to expel the disease. The physician is acting, 
not qua physician but qua scientist; he has laid aside 
the part of healer to be for a time a spectator looking 
down on the arena, exercising that θεωρία which a 
Greek held to be the highest human activity. 

MSS. anv Epitions 
The chief MSS. for Epidemics I. are A and V, 
and for Epidemics III., V and D, supplemented for 



both books by the ihteresting commentaries οἵ 

Editions were common in the sixteenth, seven- 
teenth, and eighteenth centuries,! but none are of 
outstanding merit. There is an English translation 
of no merit by Samuel Farr (London, 1780), and the 
books are included in Adams’ first volume, 

1 See Littré, IT. 593-596. 


3) ἐς ᾽ 

1. The word ὀξύς, ‘‘ acute, sharp,” is applied to fever, 
and to such diseases (pleurisy, pneumonia, remittent 
malaria, etc., Regimen in Acute Diseases, Νὴ aS are accom- 
panied by high fever. The Hippocratic doctrines of crisis, 
coction, etc., apply chiefly to acute diseases, but not to 
them only, as the common cold (Ancient Medicine, xviii) 
shows coction. 

2. The preposition. rapa, meaning ‘‘at the house of,” seems 
to be used indifferently with acc., gen., or dat. There are 
probably differences, but I cannot detect them. 




/ , 

I. Ἔν Θάσῳ φθινοπώρου περὶ ἰσημερίην καὶ 
ὑπὸ πληϊάδα ὕδατα πολλά, συνεχέα μαλθακῶς, ἐν 
νοτίοις. χειμὼν νότιος, σμικρὰ βόρεια, αὐχμοί: 
τὸ σύνολον ἔς γε χειμῶνα οἷον ἔαρ γίνεται. ἔαρ 
δὲ νότιον Ψψυχεινόν, σμικρὰ ὕσματα. θέρος ὡς 
ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ ἐπινέφελον. ἀνυδρίαι. ἐτησίαι 
ὀλίγα, σμικρά, διεσπασμένως ἔπνευσαν. 

Γενομένης δὲ τῆς ἀγωγῆς ὅλης ἐπὶ τὰ νότια καὶ 
μετ᾽ αὐχμῶν, πρωὶ μὲν τοῦ ἦρος ἐκ τῆς ἘΠ ὙΠ ΕΣ 
καταστάσιος ὑπεναντίης καὶ βορείου γενομένης * 
ὀλίγοις ἐγίνοντο καῦσοι καὶ τούτοισι πάνυ εὐστα- 
θέες, καὶ ὀλίγοις ἡμορράγει. οὐδ᾽ ἀπέθνῃσκον ἐκ 
τούτων. ἐπάρματα δὲ παρὰ τὰ ὦτα πολλοῖσιν 
ἑτερόρροπα καὶ ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων, τοῖσι πλείστοισιν 
ἀπύροισιν ὀρθοστάδην: ἔστι δὲ of καὶ σμικρὰ 
ἐπεθερμαίνοντο. κατέσβη πᾶσιν ἀσινέως οὐδ᾽ 
ἐξεπύησεν οὐδενὶ ἁ ὥσπερ τὰ ἐξ ἄλλων προφασίων. 
ἣν δὲ ὁ τρόπος αὐτῶν χαῦνα, μεγάλα, κεχυμένα, 
οὐ μετὰ φλεγμονῆς, ἀνώδυνα' πᾶσιν ἀσήμως 

1 T believe that the words ἐκ. . . γενομένης should be 

transposed and placed after αὐχμῶν. ‘‘ The whole year was 
southerly, after a period which was the opposite.” 

1 ὑπὸ in expressions denoting time seems in Hippocrates to 
mean ‘‘about” or ‘‘during.” The period is roughly from 
September 21 to November 8, 




I. In Thasos during autumn, about the time of 
the equinox to near the setting of the Pleiades,! 
there were many rains, gently continuous, with 
southerly winds. Winter southerly,? north winds 
light, droughts; on the whole, the winter was 
like a spring. Spring southerly ‘and chilly ; slight 
showers. Summer in general cloudy. No rain. 
Etesian winds few, light and irregular. 

The whole weather proved southerly, with droughts, 
but early in the spring, as the previous constitution 
had proved the opposite and northerly, a few patients 
suffered from ardent fevers, and these very mild, 
causing hemorrhage in few cases and no deaths. 
Many had swellings beside one ear, or both ears, in 
most cases unattended with fever,*so that confinement 
to bed was unnecessary. In some cases there was 
slight heat, but in all the swellings subsided without 
causing harm; in no case was there suppuration 
such as attends swellings of other origin. This was 
the character of them :—flabby, big, spreading, with 
neither infammation nor pain; in every case they 

2 That is, the winds were generally from the south, and 
such north winds as blew were light. 

3 Or, punctuating after ὦτα and πλείστοισιν, ‘There were 
swellings beside the ears, in many cases on one side, but in 
most on both,” The epidemic was obviously mumps. 






ἠφανίσθη. ἐγίνετο δὲ ταῦτα μειρακίοισι, νέοισιν, 
ἀκμάζουσι, καὶ τούτων τοῖσι περὶ παλαίστρην καὶ 
γυμνάσια πλείστοισι" γυναιξὶ δὲ ὀλίγῃσιν ἐγίνετο. 
πολλοῖσι δὲ βῆχες ξηραὶ βήσσουσι καὶ οὐδὲν 
ἀνάγουσιν" “φωναὶ βραγχώδεες. οὐ μετὰ πολύ, 
τοῖσι δὲ καὶ μετὰ χρόνον, φλεγμοναὶ μετ᾽ ὀδύνης 
ἐς ὄρχιν ἑτερόρροποι, τοῖσι δὲ ἐς ἀμφοτέρους. 
πυρετοὶ τοῖσι μέν, τοῖσι δ᾽ οὔ. ἐπιπόνως ταῦτα 
τοῖσι πλείστοισι. τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα ὅσα κατ᾽ ἰητρεῖον 
ἀνόσως διῆγον. 

II. Πρωὶ δὲ τοῦ θέρεος ἀρξάμενοι διὰ θέρεος 
καὶ κατὰ χειμῶνα πολλοὶ τῶν ἤδη πολὺν χρόνον 
ὑποφερομένων φθινώδεες κατεκλίνησαν, ἐπεὶ καὶ 
τοῖς ἐνδοιαστῶς ἔχουσι πολλοῖσιν ἐβεβαίωσε 
τότε. ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσιν ἤρξατο πρῶτον τότε, οἷσιν 
ἔρρεπεν ἡ φύσις ἐπὶ τὸ φθινῶδες. ἀπέθανον 
δὲ πολλοὶ καὶ πλεῖστοι τούτων, καὶ τῶν κατα- 
κλινέντων οὐκ οἶδα εἴ TLS OVO εἰ μέτριον χρόνον 
περιεγένετο. ἀπέθνῃσκον. δὲ ὀξυτέρως ἢ ὡς 
εἴθισται διάγειν τὰ τοιαῦτα: ὡς τά γε ἄλλα 
καὶ μακρότερα καὶ ἐν πυρετοῖσιν ἐόντα εὐφόρως 
ἤνεγκαν καὶ οὐκ ἀπέθνῃσκον, περὶ ὧν γεγράψεται. 
μοῦνον γὰρ καὶ μέγιστον τῶν γενομένων νοση- 
μάτων τοὺς πολλοὺς τὸ φθινῶδες ἔκτεινεν. 

Ην δὲ τοῖς πλείστοισιν αὐτῶν τὰ παθήματα 
τοιάδε" φρικώδεες πυρετοί, συνεχέες, ὀξέες, τὸ 
μὲν ὅλον οὐ διαλείποντες" ὁ δὲ τρόπος ἡμιτρι- 
Talos: μίαν κουφότεροι, τῇ ἑτέρῃ παροξυνόμενοι, 
καὶ τὸ ὅλον ἐπὶ τὸ ὀξύτερον ἐπιδιδόντες. ἱδρῶτες 

1 That is, with no symptoms indicative of a crisis. 
2 That is, nobody was ill enough to make a visit to the 
physician’s surgery (intpeiov) necessary. 


EPIDEMICS I, τ.--π. 

disappeared without a sign.1 The sufferers were 
youths, young men, and men in their prime, usually 
those who frequented the wrestling school and 
gymnasia. Few women were attacked. Many had 
dry coughs which brought up nothing when they 
coughed, but their voices were hoarse. Soon after, 
though in some cases after some time, painful 
inflammations occurred either in one testicle or in 
both, sometimes accompanied with fever, in other 
cases not. Usually they caused much suffering. [ἢ 
other respects the people had no ailments requiring 
medical assistance.” 

II. Beginning early in the summer, throughout 
the summer and in winter many of those who had 
been ailing a long time took to their beds in a state 
of consumption, while many also who had hitherto 
been doubtful sufferers at this time showed undoubted 
symptoms. Some showed the symptoms now for 
the first time; these were those whose constitution 
inclined to be consumptive. Many, in fact most of 
these, died ; of those who took to their beds I do not 
know one who survived even for a short time. Death 
came more promptly than is usual in consumption, 
and yet the other complaints, which will be described 
presently, though longer and attended with fever, 
were easily supported and did not prove fatal. For 
consumption was the worst of the diseases that 
occurred, and alone was responsible for the great 

In the majority of cases the symptoms were these. 
Fever with shivering, continuous, acute, not com- 
pletely intermitting, but of the semitertian type; 
remitting during one day they were exacerbated on 
the next, becoming on the whole more acute, Sweats 






hats τον ΄.- 
αἰεί, ov δι’ ὅλου: ψύξις ἀκρέων πολλὴ καὶ μόγις 
ἀναθερμαινόμενα. κοιλίαι ταραχώδεες χολώδεσιν, 
, [4 2 “ \ 
ὀλίγοις, ἀκρήτοισι, λεπτοῖσι, δακνώδεσι' πυκνὰ 
΄ 3 \ , 
ἀνίσταντο. οὖρα ἢ λεπτὰ καὶ ἄχρω καὶ ἄπεπτα 
AY , x N 4 
καὶ ὀλίγα ἢ πάχος ἔχοντα καὶ σμικρὴν ὑπόστασιν, 
r / ’ “ 
οὐ καλῶς καθιστάμενα, ἀλλ᾽ ὠμῇ τινι καὶ ἀκαίρῳ 
ὑποστάσει. ἔβησσον δὲ σμικρά, πυκνά, πέπονα, 
5: ΄ 5. ὅν. - \ , 
κατ᾽ ὀλίγα μόγις ἀνάγοντες. οἷσι δὲ τὰ βιαιότατα 
/ 3 ᾽ 5 > / ΑΝ vv > \ 
συμπίπτοι, OVO ἐς ὀλίγον πεπασμὸν ἤει, ἀλλὰ 
\ ΄ ΄ 
διετέλεον ὠμὰ πτύοντες. φάρυγγες δὲ τοῖσι 
/ / 5 5 fal XN \ / 
πλείστοισι τούτων ἐξ ἀρχῆς καὶ διὰ τέλεος 
5 / 3 με \ tee ς ΄ 
ἐπώδυνοι" εἶχον ἔρευθος μετὰ φλεγμονῆς" ῥεύ- 
/ " 
ματα σμικρά, λεπτά, δριμέα: ταχὺ τηκόμενοι 
rf / / 
καὶ κακούμενοι, ἀπόσιτοι πάντων γευμάτων διὰ 
\ ΄ 
τέλεος, ἄδιψοι: καὶ παράληροι πολλοὶ περὶ θάνα- 
\ ,ὔ nr 
Tov. περὶ μὲν τὰ φθινώδεα ταῦτα. 
\ \ 7] 
III. Κατὰ δὲ θέρος ἤδη καὶ φθινόπωρον πυρετοὶ 
7 ’ὔ \ 
πολλοὶ συνεχέες οὐ βιαίως, μακρὰ δὲ νοσέουσιν 
ΘΝ \ Ne pe I / Saas < 
οὐδὲ περὶ TA ἄλλα δυσφόρως διάγουσιν ἐγένοντο 
i Ν a ie ΄ 
κοιλίαι τε yap! τοῖσι πλείστοισι πάνυ εὐφόρως 
\ 2Q\ YA ΄ , = ΄ 
καὶ οὐδὲν ἄξιον λόγου προσέβλαπτον. οὗὖρά τε 
nr / XN 
τοῖσι πλείστοισιν εὔχρω μὲν καὶ καθαρά, λεπτὰ 
wv / x ΄ [ἢ 
δὲ καὶ μετὰ χρόνον περὶ κρίσιν πεπαινόμενα. 
, ᾽ ΄, ΣῸΝ \ , ͵ 
βηχώδεες οὐ λίην. οὐδὲ τὰ βησσόμενα δυσκόλως" 
PND] 5 4 5 \ \ ’ ΄ 5 / 
οὐδ᾽ ἀπόσιτοι, ἀλλὰ καὶ διδόναι πάνυ ἐνεδέχετο. 
\ \ ee e ih 9 > \ / ΄ 
τὸ μὲν ὅλον ὑπενόσεον," οὐ τὸν φθινώδεα τρόπον 
1 γὰρ most MSS.: ταραχώδεες V. 

2 After ὑπενόσεον the MSS. have of φθίνοντες, which 
Kihlewein deletes. 


EPIDEMICS 1, 1πι.--πὶ. 

were continual, but not all over the body. Severe 
chill in the extremities, which with difficulty 
recovered their warmth. Bowels disordered, with 
bilious, scanty, unmixed, thin, smarting stools, 
causing the patient to get up often. Urine either 
thin, colourless,! unconcocted and scanty, or thick 
and with a slight deposit, not settling favourably, 
but with a crude and unfavourable deposit. The 
patients frequently coughed up small, concocted 
sputa, brought up little by little aah difficulty. 
Those exhibiting the symptoms in their most 
violent form showed no concoction at all, but 
continued spitting crude sputa. In the majority 
of these cases the throat was throughout painful 
from the beginning, being red and inflamed. Fluxes 
slight, thin, pungent. Patients quickly wasted away 
and grew worse, being throughout averse to all food 
and experiencing no thirst. Delirium in many cases 
as death approached. Such were the symptoms of 
the consumption. 

IlI. But when summer came, and during autumn 
occurred many continuous but not violent fevers, which 
attacked persons who were long ailing without 
suffering distress in any other particular manner ; for 
the bowels were in most cases quite easy, and hurt 
to no appreciable extent. Urine in most cases of 
good colour and clear, but thin, and after a time near 
the crisis it grew concocted. Coughing was slight, 
and caused no distress. No lack of appetite ; in fact 
it was quite possible even to give food. In general 
the patients did not sicken, as did the consumptives, 

1 Throughout Epidemics ἄχρως may mean, not merely 
** without colour,” but ‘‘of bad colour.” It certainly has this 
meaning in dirs Waters Places, VII, 1. ii. See p. 85. 






πυρετοῖσι φρικώδεσι, σμικρὰ ὑφεδροῦντες, ἄλλοτε 
ἀλλοίως παροξυνόμενοι πεπλανημένως. ἔκρινε 
τούτων οἷσι τὰ βραχύτατα γίνοιτο περὶ εἰκοστήν, 
τοῖσι δὲ πλείστοισι περὶ τεσσαρακοστήν, πολλοῖσι 
δὲ περὶ τὰς ὀγδοήκοντα. ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσιν οὐδ᾽ οὕτως, 
ἀλλὰ πεπλανημένως καὶ ἀκρίτως ἐξέλιπον" τού- 
των δὲ τοῖσι πλείστοισιν οὐ πολὺν διαλυπόντες 
χρόνον ὑπέστρεψαν οἱ πυρετοὶ πάλιν, ἐκ δὲ τῶν 
ὑποστροφέων ἐν THAW αὐτῇσι περιόδοισιν ἐκρί- 
νοντο᾽ πολλοῖσι δὲ αὐτῶν ἀνήγαγον, ὥστε καὶ 
ὑπὸ χειμῶνα νοσεῖν. 

Ἔκ πάντων δὲ τῶν ὑπογεγραμμένων ἐν τῇ 
καταστάσει ταύτῃ μούνοισι τοῖσι φθινώδεσι 
θανατώδεα συνέπεσεν: ἐπεὶ τοῖσί γε ἄλλοισι 
πᾶσιν evpopws, καὶ θανατώδεες ἐν τοῖσιν ἄλλοισι 
πυρετοῖσιν οὐκ ἐγένοντο. 

κατάστασις δευτέρη 

IV Ἔν Θάσῳ πρωὶ τοῦ φθινοπώρου χειμῶνες 
οὐ κατὰ καιρόν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐξαίφνης ἐν βορείοισι καὶ 
votiotat πολλοῖς ὑγροὶ καὶ προεκρηγνύμενοι. 
ταῦτα δὴ ἐγένετο τοιαῦτα μέχρι πληϊάδος δύσιος 
καὶ ὑπὸ πληϊάδα. χειμὼν δὲ βόρειος: ὕδατα 
πολλά, λάβρα, μεγάλα, χιόνες" μειξαίθρια τὰ 
πλεῖστα. ταῦτα δὲ ἐγένετο μὲν πάντα, οὐ λίην 
δὲ ἀκαίρως τὰ τῶν ψυχέων. ἤδη δὲ μεθ᾽ ἡλίου 
τροπὰς χειμερινὰς καὶ ἡνίκα ξέφυρος πνεῖν 
ἄρχεται, ὀπισθοχειμῶνες μεγάλοι, βόρεια πολλά, 
χιὼν καὶ ὕδατα πολλὰ συνεχέως, οὐρανὸς λαι- 

1 After πεπλανημένως the MSS. have τὸ μὲν ὅλον οὐκ ἐκλεί- 

ποντες, παροξυνόμενοι δὲ τριταιοφυέα τρόπον, Which Kthlewein 
thinks an interpolation from Chapter VII. 


EPIDEMICS I, πι.-ἰν. 

with shivering fevers, but with slight sweats, the 
paroxysms being variable and irregular.t_ The earliest 
crisis was about the twentieth day; in most cases 
the crisis was about the fortieth day, though in 
many it was about the eightieth. In some cases 
the illness did not end in this way, but in an 
irregular manner without a crisis. In the majority 
of these cases the fevers relapsed after ἃ brief 
interval, and after the relapse a crisis occurred at 
the end of the same periods as before. The disease 
in many of these instances was so protracted that 
it even lasted during the winter. 

Out of all those described in this constitution 
only the consumptives showed a high mortality-rate ; 
for all the other patients bore up well, and the 
other fevers did not prove fatal. 


IV. In Thasos early in autumn occurred un- 
seasonable wintry storms, suddenly with many north 
and south winds bursting out into rains. These con- 
ditions continued until the setting of the Pleiades and 
during their season. Winter was northerly; many 
violent and abundant rains; snows; generally there 
were fine intervals. With all this, however, the cold 
weather was not exceptionally unseasonable. But 
immediately after the winter solstice, when the west 
wind usually begins to blow, there was a return of 
severe wintry weather, much north wind, snow and 

1 The words omitted by Kiihlewein mean ‘‘not inter- 
mitting altogether, but with exacerbations after the manner 
of tertians.” 

VOL. ἢ Ἷ 153 






λαπώδης καὶ ἐπινέφελος. ταῦτα δὲ συνέτεινε 
καὶ οὐκ ἀνίει μέχρι ἰσημερίης. ἔαρ δὲ ψυχρόν, 
a / 
βόρειον, ὑδατῶδες, ἐπινέφελον. θέρος ov λίην 
lal / 
καυματῶδες ἐγένετο' ἐτησίαι συνεχέες ἔπνευσαν. 
ταχὺ δὲ περὶ ἀρκτοῦρον ἐν βορείοισι πολλὰ 
πάλιν ὕδατα. 
Υ. Γενομένου δὲ τοῦ ἔτεος ὅλου ὑγροῦ καὶ 
cal Ν lal lal 
ψυχροῦ καὶ βορείου κατὰ χειμῶνα μὲν ὑγιηρῶς 
εἶχον τὰ πλεῖστα, πρωὶ δὲ τοῦ pos πολλοί τινες 
καὶ οἱ πλεῖστοι διῆγον ἐπινόσως. ἤρξαντο μὲν 
5 \ an ’ ΄, « / 5) , 
οὖν τὸ πρῶτον ὀφθαλμίαι ῥοώδεες, ὀδυνώδεες, 
\ / 
ὑγραὶ ἀπέπτως: σμικρὰ λημία δυσκόλως πολ- 
λοῖσιν ἐκρηγνύμενα: τοῖσι πλείστοισιν ὑπέ- 
J I 2 Ν \ \ , 
στρεφον: ἀπέλιπον ove πρὸς τὸ φθινόπωρον. 
κατὰ δὲ θέρος καὶ φθινόπωρον δυσεντεριώδεες καὶ 
τεινεσμοὶ καὶ λειεντεριώδεες. καὶ διάρροιαι 
χολώδεες, πολλοῖσι λεπτοῖσιν, ὠμοῖσι καὶ δακνώ- 
δεσιν, ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσι καὶ ὑδατώδεες. πολλοῖσι δὲ 
καὶ περίρροιαι μετὰ πόνου χολώδεες, ὑδατώδεες, 
/ / , 
ξυσματώδεες, πυώδεες, στραγγουριώδεες: οὐ 
νεφριτικά, ἀλλὰ τούτοισιν ἀντ ἄλλων ἄλλα. 
3 ΄ , / 
ἔμετος φλεγματώδεες, χολώδεες καὶ σιτίων 
ἀπέπτων ἀναγωγαί. ἱδρῶτες" πᾶσι πάντοθεν 
\ / ee HL \ - “- 
πολὺς πλάδος. ἐγίνετο δὲ ταῦτα πολλοῖσιν 
2 / b ΄ ca \ ’, \ 
ὀρθοστάδην ἀπύροισι, πολλοῖσι δὲ TUPETOL, περὶ 
ὧν γεγράψεται. ἐν οἷσι δὲ ὑπεφαίνετο πάντα τὰ 
€ / \ / , BA \ 
ὑπογεγραμμένα, μετὰ πόνου φθινώδεες. ἤδη δὲ 
, lal / 
φθινοπώρου Kal ὑπὸ χειμῶνα πυρετοὶ TUVEXEES— 
an ΄ 7 
καί τισιν αὐτῶν ὀλίγοισι καυσώδεες---ἡμερινοῖ, 
an lal / 
νυκτερινοί, ἡμιτριταῖοι, τριταῖοι ἀκριβέες, TETAP- 
-“ \ cal 
ταῖοι, πλάνητες. ἕκαστοι δὲ τῶν ὑπογεγραμ- 
fal lal 7 
μένων πυρετῶν πολλοῖσιν ἐγίνοντο. 



copious rains continuously, sky stormy and clouded. 
These conditions lasted on, and did not remit before 
the equinox. Spring cold, northerly, wet, cloudy. 
Summer did not turn out excessively hot, the Etesian 
winds blowing continuously. But soon after, near 
the rising of Arcturus, there was much rain again, 
with northerly winds, 

V. The whole year having been wet, cold and 
northerly, in the winter the public health in most 
respects was good, but in early spring many, in fact 
most, suffered illnesses. Now there began at first 
inflammations of the eyes, marked by rheum, 
pain, and unconcocted discharges. Small gummy 
sores, in many cases causing distress when they 
broke out; the great majority relapsed, and ceased 
late on the approach of autumn. In summer and 
autumn dysenteric diseases, tenesmus and lientery ; 
bilious diarrhoea, with copious, thin, crude, smart- 
ing stools; in some cases it was also watery. 
In many cases there were also painful, bilious de- 
fluxions, watery, full of thin particles, purulent 
and causing strangury. No kidney trouble, but 
their various symptoms succeeded in various orders. 
Vomitings of phlegm, bile, and undigested food. 
Sues in all cases much moisture over all the 
body. These complaints in many cases were un- 
attended with fever, and the sufferers were not con- 
fined to bed; but in many others there was fever, 
as I am going to describe. Those who showed all 
the symptoms mentioned above were consumptives 
who suffered pain. When autumn came, and during 
winter, continuous fevers—in some few cases ardent 
—day fevers, night fevers, semitertians, exact 
tertians, quartans, irregular fevers. Each of the 
fevers mentioned found many victims. 






εἰ τὺ ν . a > , , 2 
VI. Οἱ μὲν οὖν καῦσοι EXaXLoTOLCL τε ἐγένοντο 
a id eo: 
καὶ ἥκιστα TOV καμνόντων οὗτοι ἐπόνησαν. οὔτε 
\ « / > \ / \ ἈΠ Ν /, 
γὰρ ἡμορράγει, εἰ μὴ πάνυ σμικρὰ καὶ ὀλίγοισιν, 
», « , / ” / >) > , 
οὔτε οἱ Tapadnpol. Ta τε ἄλλα πάντ᾽ εὐφορως. 
΄ lal 
ἔκρινε τούτοισι πάνυ εὐτάκτως, τοῖσι πλείστοισι 
A / « / 
σὺν τῇσι διαλειπούσῃσιν ἐν ἑπτακαίδεκα ἡμέρῃσιν 
γῸΝ Σ ͵ 207 3 ΄ , 950 Χ 
οὐδὲ ἀποθανόντα οὐδένα οἶδα τότε καύσῳ οὐδὲ 
\ / / - \ rn 
φρενιτικὰ τότε γενόμενα. οἱ δὲ τριταῖοι πλείους 
“- / \ 4 
μὲν TOV καύσων Kal ἐπιπονώτεροι: εὐτάκτως δὲ 
/ an » \ Qn , / 
τούτοισι πᾶσιν ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης λήψιος τέσσαρας 
͵ > ε \ δὲ l » ΥΩ 
περιόδους: ἐν ἑπτὰ δὲ τελέως ἔκριναν οὐδ 
e / ’ \ / fe \ rf 
ὑπέστρεψαν οὐδενὶ τούτων. οἱ δὲ τεταρταῖοι 
r A 5 5 fo ’ / , 
πολλοῖσι μὲν ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἐν τάξει τεταρταίου 
ὕ Ν e@ > ’ ’ὔ 
ἤρξαντο, ἔστι δὲ οἷς οὐκ ὀλίγοισιν ἐξ ἄλλων 
“- \ / ’ / a 
πυρετῶν Kal νοσημάτων ἀποστάσει τεταρταῖοι 
\ Nj \ ” 
ἐγένοντο' μακρὰ δὲ Kal ὡς εἴθισται τούτοισι 
/ / , > 
Kal ἔτι μακρότερα συνέπιπτεν. ἀμφημερινοὶ δὲ 
\ Ν \ / a \ \ 
Kal νυκτερινοὶ καὶ πλάνητες πολλοῖσι πολλοι καὶ 
/ > ᾿ 
πολὺν χρόνον παρέμενον ὀρθοστάδην τε καὶ 
΄ lal he 7 
κατακειμένοισι. τοῖσι πλείστοισι τούτων ὑπὸ 
“ J n ic \ , 
πληϊάδα Kal μέχρι χειμῶνος οἱ πυρετοὶ παρεί- 
\ a a / 
ποντο. σπασμοὶ δὲ πολλοῖσι, μᾶλλον δὲ παιδίοις, 
fol \ / \ \ lal 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς καὶ ὑπεπύρεσσον, καὶ ἐπὶ πυρετοῖσιν 
, \ lal , 
ἐγίνοντο oTacpmol’ χρόνια μὲν τοῖσι πλείστοισι 
/ \ a Nees) nr 
τούτων, ἀβλαβέα δέ, εἰ μὴ τοῖσι Kal ἐκ τῶν ἄλλων 
πάντων ὀλεθρίως ἔχουσιν. 
e \ \ / \ ἈΝ «. \ b \ 
VII. Οἱ δὲ δὴ cuvexées μὲν TO ὅλον Kai οὐδὲν 
/ x a , 
ἐκλείποντες, παροξυνόμενοι δὲ πᾶσι τριταιοφυέα 

EPIDEMICS I, vi.-vu. 

VI. Now the ardent fevers attacked the fewest 
persons, and these were less distressed than any 
of the other sick. There was no bleeding from the 
nose, except very slight discharges in a few cases, 
and no delirium. All the other symptoms were 
slight. The crises of these diseases were quite 
regular, generally in seventeen days, counting the 
days of intermission, and I know of no ardent fever 
proving fatal at this time, nor of any phrenitis. 
The tertians were more numerous than the ardent 
fevers and more painful. But all these had four 
regular periods from the first onset, had complete 
crises in seven, and in no case relapsed. But the 
quartans, while in many instances they began at first 
with quartan periodicity, yet in not a few they became 
quartan by an abscession from other fevers or ill- 
nesses.! ‘They were protracted, as quartans usually 
are, or even more protracted than usual. Many 
fell victims to quotidians, night fevers, or irregular 
fevers, and were ill for a long time, either in bed 
or walking about. In most of these cases the fevers 
continued during the season of the Pleiades or even 
until winter, In many patients, especially children, 
there were convulsions and slight feverishness from 
the beginning ; sometimes, too, convulsions super- 
vened upon fevers. Mostly these illnesses were 
protracted, but not dangerous, except for those who 
from all other causes were predisposed to die. 

VII. But those fevers which were altogether con- 
tinuous and never intermitted at all, but in all cases 

1 There are often mixed infections in malaria. If the 
quartan be one of these, being the longest it outlasts the 
others. So the disease appears to have turned into a 






, , ε , \ , , 
τρόπον, μίαν ὑποκουφίζοντες καὶ μίαν παροξυνό- 
/ nr 
μενοι, πάντων βιαιότατοι τῶν τότε γενομένων Kal 
/ ἣν 4 
μακρότατοι καὶ μετὰ πόνων μεγίστων γενόμενοι" 
4 > , \ > 7 > / a, \ 
πρηέως ἀρχόμενοι, τὸ δ᾽ ὅλον ἐπιδιδόντες αἰεὶ Kal 
παροξυνόμενοι Kal ἀνάγοντες ἐπὶ TO κάκιον' 
\ / \ ‘ / > 
σμικρὰ diaxoudifovtes καὶ ταχὺ πάλιν ἐξ 
/ / 
ἐπισχέσιος βιαιοτέρως παροξυνόμενοι, ἐν κρισί- 
\ \ cal 
μοις ὡς ἐπὶ TO πολὺ κακούμενοι. ῥίγεα δὲ πᾶσι 
μὲν ἀτάκτως καὶ πεπλανημένως ἐγίνετο, ἐλάχιστα 
N MN “ , Ε 3 > N Le) ” 
δὲ καὶ ἥκιστα τούτοισιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
fal / ὃ rn / ΄ \ 
πυρετῶν μέζω. ἱδρῶτες πολλοί, τούτοισι δὲ 
4 7 > 
ἐλάχιστοι, κουφίζοντες οὐδέν, ἀλλ᾽ ὑπεναντίον 
/ 7 
βλάβας φερόντες. ψύξις δὲ πολλὴ τούτοισιν 
ἀκρέων καὶ μόγις ἀναθερμαινόμενα. ἄγρυπνοι τὸ 
σύνολον καὶ μάλιστα οὗτοι καὶ πάλιν κωματώδεες. 
κοιλίαι δὲ πᾶσι μὲν ταραχώδεες καὶ κακαί, πολὺ 
Ἂ \ Ξ , 
δὲ τούτοισι κάκισται. οὗρα δὲ τοῖσι πλείστοισι 
Ν 5 Ν f 
τούτων ἢ λεπτὰ καὶ ὠμὰ καὶ ἄχρω Kal μετὰ 
\ , / 
χρόνον σμικρὰ πεπαινόμενα κρισίμως ἢ πάχος 
\ ” \ \ Ἂχ > \ ΄ 5 ’ 
μὲν ἔχοντα, θολερὰ δὲ καὶ οὐδὲν καθιστάμενα, οὐδ 
ὑφιστάμενα, ἢ σμικρὰ καὶ κακὰ καὶ ὠμὰ τὰ 
ὑφιστάμενα: κάκιστα δὲ ταῦτα πάντων. βῆχες 
δὲ παρείποντο μὲν τοῖς πυρετοῖσι, γράψαι δὲ οὐκ 
J ’ / \ 
ἔχω βλάβην οὐδ᾽ ὠφελείην γενομένην διὰ βηχὸς 
Te , \ 5 \ / \ / 
VIII. Χρόνια μὲν οὖν καὶ δυσχερέα καὶ πάνυ 
ἀτάκτως καὶ πεπλανημένως καὶ ἀκρίτως τὰ 
an / , “ 
πλεῖστα τούτων διετέλει γινόμενα καὶ τοῖσι πάνυ 

EPIDEMICS 1, vu.-viu. 

grew worse after the manner of semitertians, with 
remission during one day followed by exacerbation 
during the next, were the most severe of all the 
fevers which occurred at this time, the longest 
and the most painful. Beginning mildly, and on 
the whole increasing always, with exacerbation, 
and growing worse, they had slight remissions 
followed quickly after an abatement by more violent 
exacerbations, generally becoming worse on the 
critical days. All patients had irregular rigors that 
followed no fixed law, most rarely and least in 
the semitertians,! but more violent in the other 
fevers. Copious sweats, least copious in the semi- 
tertians; they brought no relief, but on the con- 
trary caused harm. These patients suffered great 
chill in the extremities, which grew warm again 
with difficulty. Generally there was sleeplessness, 
especially with the semitertians, followed after- 
wards by coma. In all the bowels were disordered 
and in a bad state, but in the semitertians they were 
far the worst. In most of them urine either (a) 
thin, crude, colourless, after a time becoming slightly 
concocted with signs of crisis, or (6) thick enough 
but turbid, in no way settling or forming sediment, 
or (c) with small, bad, crude sediments, these being 
the worst of all. Coughs attended the fevers, but 
I cannot say that either harm or good resulted from 
the coughing on this occasion. 

VIII. Now the greatest number of these symptoms 
continued to be protracted, troublesome, very dis- 
ordered, very irregular, and without any critical signs, 
both in the case of those who came very near death 

11 take the pronoun οὗτος throughout this chapter to 
refer to the remittent semitertian, or to sufferers from it. 




ὀλεθρίως ἔχουσι καὶ τοῖσι μή. εἰ γάρ τινας 
αὐτῶν καὶ διαλίποι σμικρά, ταχὺ πάλιν 
ὑπέστρεφεν. ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσιν ἔκρινεν αὐτῶν 
ὀλίγοισιν, οἷσι τὰ βραχύτατα γένοιτο, περὶ 
ὀγδοηκοστὴν ἐ ἐοῦσι, καὶ τούτων ἐνίοις ὑπέστρεφεν, 
ὥστε κατὰ χειμῶνα τοὺς πλείστους αὐτῶν ἔτι 
νοσεῖν. τοῖσι δὲ πλείστοισιν ἀκρίτως ἐξέλειπεν. 
ὁμοίως δὲ ταῦτα συνέπιπτεν τοῖς περιγινομένοισιν 
καὶ τοῖσιν ov. πολλῆς δέ τινος γινομένης 
ἀκρισίης καὶ ποικιλίης ἐπὶ τῶν νοσημάτων καὶ 
μεγίστου μὲν σημείου καὶ κακίστου διὰ τέλεος 
παρεπομένου τοῖσι πλείστοισιν ἀποσίτοις εἶναι 
πάντων γευμάτων, μάλιστα δὲ τούτων, οἷσι καὶ 
τἄλλα ὀλεθρίως ἔχοι, δυψώδεες οὐ λίην ἀκαίρως 

ἦσαν ἐπὶ τοῖσι πυρετοῖσι τούτοισι. γενομένων 
δὲ χρόνων μακρῶν καὶ πόνων πολλῶν καὶ κακῆς 
συντήξιος, ἐπὶ τούτοισιν ἀποστάσιες ἐγίνοντο ἢ 
μέξους, ὥστε ὑποφέρειν μὴ δύνασθαι, ἢ μείους, 
ὥστε μηδὲν ὠφελεῖν, ἀλλὰ ταχὺ παλινδρομεῖν 
καὶ συνεπείγειν ἐπὶ τὸ κάκιον. 

IX. "Hy δὲ τούτοισι τὰ γινόμενα δυσεντεριώδεα 
καὶ τεινεσμοί, καὶ λειεντερικοὶ 3 καὶ ῥοώδεες. 
ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσι καὶ ὕδρωπες μετὰ τούτων καὶ ἄνευ 
τούτων. ὅ τι δὲ παραγένοιτο τούτων βιαίως 
ταχὺ συνήρει, ἢ πάλιν ἐπὶ τὸ μηδὲν ὠφελεῖν. 
ἐξανθήματα σμικρὰ καὶ οὐκ ἀξίως τῆς περιβολῆς 
τῶν νοσημάτων καὶ ταχὺ πάλιν ἀφανιζόμενα ἢ 
παρὰ τὰ ὦτα οἰδήματα μωλυόμενα 3 καὶ οὐδὲν 

1 Τῇ this be the true reading, and ποῦ λειεντερίαι, it cannot 
possibly be an adjective in agreement with τεινεσμοί, which 

would give an absurd sense. It must agree with some such 
word as οἱ νοσέοντες. 


EPIDEMICS I, νιῖ.--ἰχ. 

and in the case of those who did not. For even if 
some patients enjoyed slight intermissions, there 
followed a quick relapse. A few of them experienced 
a crisis, the earliest being about the eightieth day, 
some of the latter having a relapse, so that most of 
them were still ill in the winter. The greatest 
number had no crisis before the disease terminated. 
These symptoms occurred in those who recovered 
just as much as in those who did not. The illnesses 
showed a marked absence of crisis and a great variety ; 
the most striking and the worst symptom, which 
throughout attended the great majority, was a com- 
plete loss of appetite, especially in those whose 
general condition exhibited fatal signs, but in these 
fevers they did not suffer much from unseasonable 
thirst. After long intervals, with many pains and 
with pernicious wasting, there supervened abscessions 
either too severe to be ‘endured, or too slight to be 
beneficial, so that there was a speedy return of the 
original symptoms, and an aggravation of the 

IX. The symptoms from which these patients 
suffered were dysenteries and tenesmus, lienteries 
also and fluxes. Some had dropsies also, either with 
or without these. Whenever any of these attacked 
violently they were quickly fatal, or, if mild, they did 
no good. Slight eruptions, which did not match the 
extent of the diseases and quickly disappeared again, 
or swellings by the ears that grew smaller? “and 

1 That is, the abscessions did not carry off the morbid 
ΠΙΠΠΌΜΤΗ; which spread again throughout the sy stem. 
2 μολυνόμενα Would mean ‘‘ remained crude.” 

2 μωλυόμενα Foes: μὴ Avoweva A: μολυνόμεναν. 







ἀποσημαίνοντα, ἔστι δ᾽ οἷς ἐς ἄρθρα, μάλιστα δὲ 
κατὰ ἰσχίον, ὀλίγοισι κρισίμως ἀπολείποντα καὶ 
ταχὺ πάλιν ἐπικρατεύμενα ἐπὶ τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς 

X. "Εθνῃσκον δ᾽ ἐκ πάντων μέν, πλεῖστοι δ᾽ ἐκ 
τούτων, καὶ τούτων παιδία, ὅσα ἀπὸ γάλακτος 
ἤδη, καὶ πρεσβύτερα, ὀκταετέα καὶ δεκαετέα, καὶ 
ὅσα πρὸ ἥβης. ἐγίνετο δὲ τούτοισι ταῦτα οὐκ 
ἄνευ τῶν πρώτων γεγραμμένων, τὰ δὲ πρῶτα 
πολλοῖσιν ἄνευ τούτων. μοῦνον δὲ χρηστὸν καὶ 
μέγιστον τῶν γενομένων σημείων καὶ πλείστους 
ἐρρύσατο τῶν ἐόντων ἐπὶ τοῖσι μεγίστοισι κινδύ- 
νοισιν, οἷσιν ἐπὶ τὸ στραγγουριῶδες ἐ ἐτράπετο καὶ 
ἐς τοῦτο ἀποστάσιες ἐγίνοντο. συνέπιπτε δὲ καὶ 
τὸ στραγγουριῶδες τῇσιν ἡλικίησιν ταύτῃσιν 
γίνεσθαι μάλιστα. ἐγίνετο δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων 
πολλοῖσιν ὀρθοστάδην καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν νοσημάτων. 
ταχὺ δὲ καὶ μεγάλη τις ἡ μεταβολὴ τούτοισι 
πάντων ἐγίνετο. κοιλίαι τε γάρ, καὶ εἰ τύχοιεν 
ἐφυγραινόμεναι κακοήθεα τρόπον, ταχὺ συν- 
ίσταντο, γεύμασίν τε πᾶσιν ἡδέως εἶχον, οἵ τε 
πυρετοὶ πρηέες μετὰ ταῦτα. χρόνια δὲ καὶ τού- 
τοισι τὰ περὶ τὴν στραγγουρίην καὶ ἐπιπόνως. 
οὖρα δὲ τούτοισιν ἤει πολλὰ παχέα καὶ ποικίλα 
καὶ ἐρυθρά, μειξόπυα μετ᾽ ὀδύνης. περιεγένοντο 
δὲ πάντες οὗτοι, καὶ οὐδένα τούτων οἶδα ἀπο- 

ΧΙ. "Oca διὰ κινδύνων, πεπασμοὺς τῶν ἀπιόν- 
των πάντας πάντοθεν ἐπικαίρους ἢ καλὰς καὶ 
κρισίμους ἀποστάσιας σκοπεῖσθαι. πεπασμοὶ 
ταχυτῆτα κρίσιος καὶ ἀσφάλειαν ὑγιείης σημαΐί- 


EPIDEMICS I, ιχ.-- σι. 

signified nothing, in some cases appearing at the 
joints, especially the hip-joint, in few instances 
leaving with signs of crisis, when they quickly 
re-established themselves in their original state. 

X. From all the diseases some died, but the greatest 
number from these fevers,! especially children—those 
just weaned, older children of eight or ten years, 
and_ those ‘approaching puberty. These victims 
never suffered from the latter symptoms without 
the first I have described above, but often the first 
without the latter. The only good sign, the most 
striking that occurred, which saved very many of 
those who were in the greatest danger, was when 
there was a change to strangury, into which absces- 
sions took place. The strangury, too, came mostly 
to patients of the ages mentioned, though it did 
happen to many of the others, either without their 
taking to bed or when they were ill. Rapid and 
great was the complete change that occurred in 
their case. For the bowels, even if they were 
perniciously loose, quickly recovered ; their appetite 
for everything returned, and hereafter the fever 
abated. But the strangury, even in these cases, was 
long and painful. Their urine was copious, thick, 
varied, red, mixed with pus, and passed with pain. 
But they all survived, and I know of none of these 
that died. 

XI. In all dangerous cases you should be on the 
watch for all favourable coctions of the evacuations 
from all parts, or for fair and critical abscessions. 
Coctions signify nearness of crisis and sure recovery 

1 It is not clear to what πάντων and τούτων refer. Prob- 
ably πάντων refers to all the semitertians, and τούτων to the 
special type of them described in Chapter IX. 






νουσιν, ὠμὰ δὲ Kal ἄπεπτα καὶ ἐς κακὰς 
ἀποστάσιας τρεπόμενα ἀκρισίας ἢ πόνους ἢ 
χρόνους ἢ θανάτους ἢ τῶν αὐτῶν ὑποστροφάς. 
ὅ τι δὲ τούτων ἔσται μάλιστα, σκεπτέον ἐξ 
ἄλλων. λέγειν τὰ προγενόμενα, γινώσκειν τὰ 
παρεόντα, προλέγειν τὰ ἐσόμενα" μελετᾶν ταῦτα. 
ἀσκεῖν περὶ τὰ νοσήματα δύο, ὠφελεῖν ἢ μὴ 
βλάπτειν. ἡ τέχνη διὰ τριῶν, τὸ νόσημα καὶ ὁ 
νοσέων καὶ ὁ ἰητρός" ὁ ἰητρὸς ὑπηρέτης τῆς 
τέχνης" ὑπεναντιοῦσθαι τῷ νοσήματι τὸν νοσέοντα 
μετὰ τοῦ ἰητροῦ. 

XII. Τὰ περὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ τράχηλον ἀλγήματα 
καὶ βάρεα pet ὀδύνης ἄνευ πυρετῶν καὶ ἐν 
πυρετοῖσι" φρενιτικοῖσι μὲν σπασμοί, καὶ ἰώδεα 
ἐπανεμεῦσιν, ἔνιοι ταχυθάνατοι τούτων. ἐν 
καύσοισι δὲ καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις πυρετοῖς, οἷσι μὲν 
τραχήλου πόνος καὶ κροτάφων βάρος καὶ 
σκοτώδεα περὶ τὰς ὄψιας καὶ ὑποχονδρίου σύν- 
τασις οὐ μετ᾽ ὀδύνης γίνεται, τούτοισιν αἱμορ- 
ραγεῖ διὰ ῥινῶν" οἷσι δὲ βάρεα μὲν ὅλης τῆς 
κεφαλῆς, καρδιωγμοὶ δὲ καὶ ἀσώδεές εἰσιν, ἐπανε- 
μέουσιν χολώδεα καὶ φλεγματώδεα. τὸ πολὺ 
δὲ παιδίοισιν ἐν τοῖσι τοιούτοισιν οἱ σπασμοὶ 
μάλιστα, γυναιξὶ δὲ καὶ ταῦτα καὶ ἀπὸ ὑστερέων 
πόνοι, πρεσβυτέροισι δὲ καὶ ὅσοις ἤδη τὸ θερμὸν 
κρατεῖται, παραπληγικὰ ἢ μανικὰ ἢ στερήσιες 

κατάστασις τρίτη 

XIII. Ἂν Θάσῳ πρὸ ἀρκτούρου ὀλίγον καὶ 
ἐπ᾽ ἀρκτούρου ὕδατα πολλὰ μεγάλα ἐν βορείοις. 
περὶ δὲ ἰσημερίην καὶ μέχρι πληϊάδος νότια 

EPIDEMICS: I, x1:—xim. 

of health, but crude and unconcocted evacuations, 
which change into bad abscessions, denote absence 
of crisis, pain, prolonged illness, death, or a return 
of the same symptoms. But it is by a consideration 
of other signs that one must decide which of these 
results will be most likely. Declare the past, 
diagnose the present, foretell the future; practise 
these acts. As to diseases, make a habit of two 
things—to help, or at least to do no harm. The 
art has three factors, the disease, the patient, the 
physician, The physician is the servant of the art. 
The patient must co-operate with the physician in 
combating the disease. 

XII. Pains about the head and neck, and heaviness 
combined with pain, occur both without and with 
fever. Sufferers from phrenitis have convulsions, and 
eject verdigris-coloured vomit ; some die very quickly. 
But in ardent and the other fevers, those with pain in 
the neck, heaviness of the temples, dimness of sight, 
and painless tension of the hypochondrium, bleed 
from the nose; those with a general heaviness of the 
head, cardialgia, and nausea, vomit afterwards bile and 
phlegm. Children for the most part in such cases 
suffer chiefly from the convulsions. Women have 
both these symptoms and pains in the womb. Older 
people, and those whose natural heat is failing, have 
paralysis or raving or blindness. 

Turirp ConsTITUTION 

XIII. In Thasos a little before and at the season 
of Arcturus many violent rains with northerly winds. 
About the equinox until the setting of the Pleiades 





ὕσματα ὀλίγα. χειμὼν βόρειος, αὐχμοί, ψύχεα, 
πνεύματα μεγάλα, χιόνες. περὶ δὲ ἰσημερίην 
χειμῶνες μέγιστοι. ἔαρ βόρειον, αὐχμοί, ὕσματα 
ὀλίγα, ψύχεα. περὶ δὲ ἡλίου τροπὰς θερινὰς ὕδατα 
ὀλίγα, μεγάλα ψύχεα μέχρι. κυνὸς ἐπλησίασε.} 
μετὰ δὲ κύνα μέχρι ἀρκτούρου θέρος θερμόν" 
καύματα μεγάλα καὶ οὐκ ἐκ προσαγωγῆς, ἀλλὰ 
συνεχέα καὶ βίαια: ὕδωρ οὐκ ἐγένετο" ἐτησίαι 
ἔπνευσαν. περὶ ἀρκτοῦρον ὕσματα νότια μέχρι 

XIV. Ἂν τῇ καταστάσει ταύτῃ κατὰ χειμῶνα 
μὲν ἤρξαντο παραπληγίαι καὶ πολλοῖσιν ἐγίνοντο, 
καὶ τινὲς αὐτῶν ἔθνῃσκον διὰ ταχέων" καὶ γὰρ 
ἄλλως τὸ Ῥόσημα ἐπίδημον ἣν" τὰ δὲ ἄλλα 
διετέλεον ἄνοσοι. πρωὶ δὲ τοῦ ἦρος ἤρξαντο 
καῦσοι καὶ διετέλεον μέχρι ἰσημερίης καὶ πρὸς 
τὸ θέρος. ὅσοι μὲν οὖν ἦρος καὶ θέρεος ἀρξαμένου 
αὐτίκα νοσεῖν ἤρξαντο, οἱ πλεῖστοι διεσώζοντο, 
ὀλίγοι δέ τινες ἔθνῃσκον. ἤδη δὲ τοῦ φθινοπώρου 
καὶ τῶν ὑσμάτων γενομένων θανατώδεες ἦσαν καὶ 
πλείους ἀπώλλυντο. 

Ἢν δὲ τὰ παθήματα τῶν καύσων, οἷσι μὲν 
καλῶς καὶ δαψιλέως ἐκ ῥινῶν αἱμορραγήσαι,2 διὰ 
τούτου μάλιστα σῴζεσθαι, καὶ οὐδένα οἶδα, εἰ 
καλῶς αἱμορραγήσαι, ἐν τῇ καταστάσει ταύτῃ 
ἀποθανόντα. Φιλίσκῳ γὰρ καὶ ᾿Επαμείνονι καὶ 
Σιληνῷ τεταρταίῳ καὶ πεμπταίῳ σμικρὸν ἀπὸ 
ῥινῶν ἔσταξεν: ἀπέθανον. οἱ μὲν οὖν πλεῖστοι 
τῶν νοσησάντων περὶ κρίσιν ἐπερρίγουν καὶ 

11 suspect the MSS. reading, as ὕδατα and ψύχεα can 
scarcely be the subjects of ἐπλησίασε. I think that ἐπλησίασε 


EPIDEMICS I, x11.—x1v. 

slight, southerly rains. Winter northerly, droughts, 
cold periods, violent winds, snow. About the 
equinox very severe storms. Spring northerly, 
droughts, slight rains, periods of cold. About the 
summer solstice slight showers, periods of great cold 
until near the Dog Star. After the Dog Star, until 
Arcturus, hotsummer. Great heat, not intermittent 
but continuous and severe. No rain fell. The 
Etesian winds blew. About Arcturus southerly 
rains until the equinox. 

XIV. In this constitution during winter began 
paralyses which attacked many, a few of whom 
quickly died. In fact, the disease was generally 
epidemic. In other respects the public health 
continued good. Early in spring began ardent 
fevers which continued until the equinox and on to 
summer. Now those who began to be ill at once, in 
spring or the beginning of summer, in most cases 
got well, though a few died; but when autumn and 
the rains came the cases were dangerous, and 
more died. 

As to the peculiarities of the ardent fevers, the 
most likely patients to survive were those who had a 
proper and copious bleeding from the nose, in fact I 
do not know of a single case in this constitution that 
proved fatal when a proper bleeding occurred, For 
Philiscus and Epaminon and Silenus, who died, had 
only a slight epistaxis on the fourth and fifth days. 
Now the majority of the patients had rigors near the 

either is part of a gloss, or has replaced a verb meaning 
‘* persisted.” 

* aiuoppaynoa Kihlewein: αἱμορραγῆσαι A V. 

3 αἱμορραγήσαι Kuhlewein : αἱμορραγῆσαι A: aluoppaynoe: V. 





μάλιστα οἷσι μὴ αἱμορραγήσαι.Σ ἐπερρίγουν δὲ 
Ἷ καὶ ἡ 5 οὗτοι καὶ ἐφίδρουν. 

XV. Ἔστι δὲ οἷσιν ἴκτεροι ἑκταίοις, ἀλλὰ 
τούτοις ἢ κατὰ κύστιν κάθαρσις ἢ κοιλίη ἐκταρα- 
χθεῖσα ὠφέλει ἢ δαψιλὴς αἱμορραγίη, οἷον 
Ἡρακλείδῃ, ὃς κατέκειτο παρὰ ᾿Αριστοκύδει. 
καίτοι τούτῳ καὶ ἐκ ῥινῶν ἡμορράγησε καὶ ἡ 
κοιλίη ἐπεταράχθη, καὶ κατὰ κύστιν ἐκαθήρατο" 
ἐκρίθη εἰκοσταῖος" οὐχ οἷον ὁ Φαναγόρεω οἰκέτης, 
ᾧ οὐδὲν τούτων ἐγένετο" ἀπέθανεν. ἡμορράγει 
δὲ τοῖσι πλείστοισι, μάλιστα δὲ μειρακίοισι καὶ 
ἀκμάζουσι, καὶ ἔθνῃσκον πλεῖστοι τούτων, οἷσι 
μὴ αἱμορραγήσαι.38 πρεσβυτέροισι δὲ ἐς ἰκτέρους 
ἢ κοιλίαι ταραχώδεες, οἷον Biwys τῷ παρὰ 
Σωληνὸν κατακειμένῳ. ἐπεδήμησαν δὲ καὶ δυσ- 
εντερίαι κατὰ θέρος, καί τισι καὶ τῶν διανοση- 
σάντων, οἷσι καὶ αἱμορραγίαι ἐγένοντο, ἐς 
δυσεντεριώδεα ἐτελεύτησεν, οἷον τῷ ‘Epatavos 
παιδὶ καὶ Μύλλῳ πολλῆς αἱμορραγίης γενομένης 
ἐς δυσεντεριώδεα κατέστη" περιεγένοντο. 

Πολὺς μὲν οὖν μάλιστα οὗτος ὃ χυμὸς ἐπε- 
πόλασεν, ἐπεὶ καὶ οἷσι περὶ κρίσιν οὐχ ἡμορ- 
ράγησεν, ἀλλὰ παρὰ τὰ ὦτα ἐπαναστάντα 
ἠφανίσθη --τούτων δὲ ἀφανισθέντων παρὰ τὸν 
κενεῶνα βάρος τὸν ἀριστερὸν καὶ ἐς ἄκρον ἰσχίον 
-- ὠἀλγήματος μετὰ κρίσιν γενομένου καὶ οὔρων 
λεπτῶν διεξιόντων, αἱμορραγεῖν σμικρὰ ἤρξατο 
περὶ τετάρτην καὶ εἰκοστήν, καὶ ἐγένοντο ἐς 


αἱμορραγήσαι Kihlewein: αἱμορραγῆσαι A: αἱμορραγήσει V. 

καὶ before οὗτοι is contrary to the sense. One MS. (D) 
omits it. Galen read οἱ αὐτοὶ for καὶ vito. The omission 
of καὶ is the simplest remedy. 


EPIDEMICS I, xtv.—xv. 

crisis, especially such as had no epistaxis, but these 
had sweats also as well as rigors. 

XV. Some had jaundice on the sixth day, but 
these were benefited by either a purging through 
the bladder or a disturbance of the bowels or a 
copious hemorrhage, as was the case with Hera- 
clides, who lay sick at the house of Aristocydes. 
This patient, however, who had a crisis on the 
twentieth day, not only bled from the nose, but also 
experienced disturbance of the bowels and a purging 
through the bladder. Far otherwise was it with the 
servant of Phanagoras, who had none of these 
symptoms, and died. But the great majority had 
hemorrhage, especially youths and those in the 
prime of life, and of these the great majority who 
had no hemorrhage died. Older people had jaundice 
or disordered bowels, for example Bion, who lay 
sick at the house of Silenus. Dysenteries also were 
general in summer, and some too of those who had 
fallen ill, and also suffered from hemorrhage, finally 
had dysentery ; for example, the slave of Erato and 
Myllus, after copious hemorrhage, lapsed into dysen- 
tery. They recovered. 

This humour,! then, especially was in great abun- 
dance, since even those who had no hemorrhage 
near the crisis, but swellings by the ears which 
disappeared—and after their disappearance there 
was a heaviness along the left flank up to the ex- 
tremity of the hip—after the crisis had pain and 
passed thin urine, and then began to suffer slight 
hemorrhage about the twenty-fourth day, and 

1 That is, blood. 

3 αἱμορραγήσαι Kihlewein: aiuoppayjoa AV: ἡμορράγησεν AS, 






αἱμορραγίην ἀποστάσιες" ᾿Αντιφῶντει Κριτο- 
βούλου ἀπεπαύσατο καὶ ἐκρίθη τελέως περὶ 

XVI. Γυναῖκες δὲ ἐνόσησαν μὲν πολλαί, éhac- 
σους δὲ ἢ ἄνδρες καὶ ἔθνῃσκον ἧσσον. ἐδυστόκεον 
δὲ αἱ πλεῖσται καὶ μετὰ τοὺς τόκους ἐπενόσεον, 
καὶ ἔθνησκον αὗται μάλιστα, οἷον ἣ Τελεβούλου 
θυγάτηρ ἀπέθανεν ἑκταίη ἐκ τόκου. τῇσι μὲν 
οὖν πλείστῃσιν ἐν τοῖσι πυρετοῖσι γυναικεῖα 
ἐπεφαίνετο καὶ παρθένοισι πολλῇσι τότε πρῶτον 
ἐγένετο" ἔστι δ᾽ How ἡμορράγησεν ἐκ ῥινῶν" 1 
ἔστι δ᾽ ὅτε καὶ ἐκ ῥινῶν καὶ τὰ γυναικεῖα τῇσιν 
αὐτῇσιν ἐπεφαίνετο, οἷον τῇ Δαιθάρσεος θυγατρὶ 
παρθένῳ ἐπεφάνη τότε πρῶτον καὶ ἐκ ῥινῶν 
λάβρον ἐρρύη, καὶ οὐδεμίαν οἷδα ἀποθανοῦσαν, 
OL τούτων τι καλῶς γένοιτο. ἧσι δὲ συνεκύρησεν 
ἐν γαστρὶ ἐχούσῃσι νοσῆσαι, πᾶσαι ἀπέφθειραν, 
ἃς καὶ ἐγὼ οἶδα. 

XVII. Odpa δὲ τοῖσι πλείστοισιν εὔχρω μέν, 
λεπτὰ δὲ καὶ ὑποστάσιας ὀλίγας ἔχοντα, κοιλίαι 
δὲ ταραχώδεες τοῖσι πλείστοισι διαχωρήμασι 
λεπτοῖσι καὶ χολώδεσι. πολλοῖσι δὲ τῶν ἄλλων 
κεκριμένων ἐς δυσεντερίας ἐτελεύτα, οἷον Ξενο- 
φάνει καὶ Κριτίᾳ. οὖρα δὲ ὑδατώδεα πολλὰ 
καθαρὰ καὶ λεπτὰ καὶ μετὰ κρίσιν καὶ ὑπο- 
στάσιος καλῆς γενομένης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων καλῶς 
κεκριμένων ἀναμνήσομαι οἷσιν See Βίωνι, ὃ ὃς 
κατέκειτο παρὰ Σιληνόν, Κράτιδι 3 τῇ παρὰ 
Ἐενοφάνεος, ᾿Αρέτωνος παιδί, Μνησιστράτου 
γυναικί. μετὰ δὲ δυσεντεριώδεες ἐγένοντο οὗτοι 

Περὶ δὲ ἀρκτοῦρον ἑνδεκαταίοισι πολλοῖσιν 

EPIDEMICS I, xv.—xvu. 

abscessions into hemorrhage occurred. In the case 
of Antipho, son of Critobulus, the illness ceased and 
came to a complete crisis about the fortieth day. 

XVI. Though many women fell ill, they were 
fewer than the men and less frequently died. But 
the great majority had difficult childbirth, and after 
giving birth they would fall ill, and these especially 
died, as did the daughter of Telebulus on the sixth 
day after delivery. Now menstruation appeared 
during the fevers in most cases, and with many 
maidens it occurred then for the first time. Some 
bled from the nose. Sometimes both epistaxis and 
menstruation appeared together; for example, the 
maiden daughter of Daitharses had her first men- 
struation during fever and also a violent discharge 
from the nose. I know of no woman who died if 
any of these symptoms showed themselves properly, 
but all to my knowledge had abortions if they 
chanced to fall ill when with child. 

XVII. Urine in most cases was of good colour, but 
thin and with slight sediments, and the bowels of most 
were disordered with thin, bilious excretions. Many 
after a crisis of the other symptoms ended with dysen- 
tery,as did Xenophanes and Critias. I will mention 
cases in which was passed copious, watery, clear and 
thin urine, even after a crisis in other respects favour- 
able, and a favourable sediment: Bion, who lay sick 
at the house of Silenus, Cratis, who lodged with 
Xenophanes, the slave of Areto,and the wife of Mnesi- 
stratus. Afterwards all these suffered from dysentery. 

About the season of Arcturus many had crisis on 

1 MSS. place ἔστι δ᾽ fow . . . ῥινῶν after ἐπεφαίνετο. The 
words were first transposed by Ermerins. 
* Κράτιδι Meineke: Kpatin V: Κρατιαίτη A. 






v \ ΄ δή», Ὁ \ ω ΄ 
ἔκρινε καὶ τούτοισιν ovo ai κατὰ λόγον γινόμεναι 
ὑποστροφαὶ ὑπέστρεφον" ἧσαν δὲ καὶ κωματώδεες 
περὶ τὸν χρόνον τοῦτον, πλείω δὲ παιδία, καὶ 
ἔθνησκον ἥκιστα οὗτοι πάντων. 

ΧΥ ILI. Περὶ δὲ ὦ ἰσημερίην καὶ μέχρι πληϊάδος 
καὶ ὑπὸ χειμῶνα παρείποντο μὲν οἱ καῦσοι, 
ἀτὰρ καὶ οἱ φρενιτικοὶ τηνικαῦτα πλεῖστοι 
ἐγένοντο καὶ ἔθνῃσκον τούτων οἱ πλεῖστοι. 
ἐγένοντο δὲ καὶ κατὰ θέρος ὀλίγοι. τοῖσι μὲν 
οὖν καυσώδεσιν ἀρχομένοισιν ἐπεσήμαινεν, οἷσι 
τὰ ὀλέθρια συνέπιπτεν' αὐτίκα γὰρ ἀρχομένοισι 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς, σμικρὰ ἐπερρίγουν, ἄγρυπνοι, 
διψώδεες, ἀσώδεες, σμικρὰ ἐφίδρουν περὶ μέτωπον 
καὶ κληῖδας, οὐδεὶς δι᾿ ὅλου, πολλὰ παρέλεγον, 
φόβοι, δυσθυμίαι, ¢ ἄκρεα περίψυχρα, πόδες a ἄκροι, 
μᾶλλον δὲ τὰ περὶ χεῖρας" οἱ παροξυσμοὶ ἐν 
ἀρτίῃσι: τοῖσι δὲ πλείστοισιν τεταρταίοισιν οἱ 
πόνοι μέγιστοι καὶ ἱδρὼς ἐπὶ πλεῖστον ὑπόψυχρος 
καὶ ἄκρεα οὐκ ἔτι ἀνεθερμαίνοντο, ἀλλὰ πελιδνὰ 
καὶ ψυχρά, οὐδ᾽ ἐδίψων ἔτι ἐπὶ τούτοισιν" οὖρα 
τούτοις ὀλίγα, μέλανα, λεπτὰ καὶ κοιλίαι ἐφί- 
σταντο' οὐδ᾽ ἡμορράγησεν ἐκ ῥινῶν οὐδενί, οἷσι 
ταῦτα συμπίπτοι, ἀλλ᾽ ἢ σμικρὰ ἔσταξεν" οὐδ᾽ ἐς 
ὑποστροφὴν οὐδενὶ τούτων ἦλθεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἑκταῖοι 
ἀπέθνῃσκον σὺν ἱδρῶτι. τοῖσι δὲ φρενιτικοῖσι 
συνέπιπτε μὲν καὶ τὰ ὑπογεγραμμένα πάντα, 
ἔκρινε δὲ τούτοισιν ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ ἑνδεκαταίοισιν' 
ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσι καὶ εἰκοσταίοισι, οἷσιν οὐκ εὐθὺς 5 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἡ φρενῖτις ἤρξατο ἢ 3. περὶ τρίτην 
ἢ τετάρτην ἡμέρην, ἀλλὰ μετρίως ἔχουσιν ἐν τῷ 

1 After ἄγρυπνοι Galen adds ἀδήμονες. 

EPIDEMICS I, xvu.—xvin. 

the eleventh day, and these did not suffer even the 
normal relapses. ‘There were also comatose fevers 
about this time, usually in children, and of all 
patients these showed the lowest mortality. 

XVIII. About the equinox up to the setting of 
the Pleiades, and during winter, although the ardent 
fevers continued, yet cases of phrenitis were most 
frequent at this time, and most of them were fatal. 
In summer, too, a few cases had occurred. Now the 
sufferers from ardent fever, when fatal symptoms 
attended, showed signs at the beginning. For right 
from the beginning there was acute fever with slight 
rigors, sleeplessness, thirst, nausea, slight sweats 
about the forehead and collar-bones, but in no case 
general, much delirium, fears, depression, very cold 
extremities, toes and hands, especially the latter. 
The exacerbations on the even days; but in most 
cases the pains were greatest on the fourth day, with 
sweat for the most part chilly, while the extremities 
could not now be warmed again, remaining livid and 
cold; and in these cases the thirst ceased. Their 
urine was scanty, black, thin, with constipation of the 
bowels. Nor was there hemorrhage from the nose in 
any case when these symptoms occurred, but only 
slight epistaxis. None of these cases suffered relapse, 
but they died on the sixth day, with sweating. 
The cases of phrenitis had all the above symptoms, 
but the crises generally occurred on the eleventh 
day. Some had their crises on the twentieth day, 
namely those in whom the phrenitis did not begin 
at first, or began about the third or fourth day, but 

2 οὐκ εὐθὺς Kiithlewein: εὐθὺς οὐκ most MSS.: ofow..... 
μετέπεσεν omitted by AV. 
3 ἢ added by Kihlewein. 




πρώτῳ χρόνῳ περὶ τὴν ἑβδόμην ἐς ὀξύτητα TO 
νόσημα μετέπεσεν. 

XIX. Πλῆθος μὲν οὖν τῶν νοσημάτων ἐγένετο. 
ἐκ δὲ τῶν καμνόντων ἀπέθνῃσκον μάλιστα 
μειράκια, νέοι, ἀκμάζοντες, λεῖοι, ὑπολευκόχρωτες, 
ἰθύτριχες, μελανότριχες, μελανόφθαλμοι, οἱ εἰκῇ 
καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ ῥάθυμον βεβιωκότες, ἰσχνόφωνοι, τρη- 
χύφωνοι, τραυλοί, ὀργίλοι. καὶ γυναῖκες πλεῖσται 
ἐκ τούτου τοῦ εἴδεος ἀπέθνῃσκον. ἐν δὲ ταύτη 
τῇ καταστάσει ἐπὶ σημείων μάλιστα τεσσάρων 
διεσώζοντο" οἷσι γὰρ ἢ διὰ ῥινῶν καλῶς alpop- 
ραγήῆσαι 1 ἢ κατὰ κύστιν οὖρα πολλὰ καὶ πολλὴν 
καὶ καλὴν ὑπόστασιν ἔχοντα ἔλθοι ἢ κατὰ κοιλίην 
ταραχώδεα χολώδεσιν ἐπικαίρως, ἢ δυσεντερικοὶ 
γενοίατο. πολλοῖσι δὲ συνέπιπτε μὴ ἐφ᾽ ἑνὸς 
κρίνεσθαι τῶν ὑπογεγραμμένων σημείων, ἀλλὰ 
διεξιέναι διὰ πάντων τοῖσι πλείστοισι καὶ δοκεῖν 
μὲν ἔχειν ὀχληροτέρως: διεσώζοντο δὲ πάντες, 
οἷσι ταῦτα συμπίπτοι. γυναιξὶ δὲ καὶ παρθένοισι 
συνέπιπτε μὲν καὶ τὰ ὑπογεγραμμένα σημεῖα 
πάντα, ἧσι δὲ ἢ τούτων τι καλῶς γένοιτο ἢ τὰ 
γυναικεῖα δαψιλέως ἐπιφανείη, διὰ τούτων ἐσῴ- 
ζοντο καὶ ἔκρινε, καὶ οὐδεμίαν οἶδα ἀπολομένην, 
Hol τούτων τι καλῶς γένοιτο. Φίλωνος γὰρ 
θυγάτηρ,3 ἐκ ῥινῶν λάβρον ἐρρύη, ἑβδομαίη ἐοῦσα 
ἐδείπνησεν ἀκαιροτέρως" ἀπέθανεν. 

Οἷσιν ἐν πυρετοῖσιν ὀξέσι, μᾶλλον. δὲ καυσώ- 
δεσιν, ἀ ἀέκουσιν δάκρυα παραρρεῖ, τούτοισιν ἀπὸ 
ῥινῶν αἱμορραγίην προσδέχεσθαι, ἢν καὶ τἄλλα 

1 αἱμορραγήσαι Kithlewein: αἱμορραγῆσαι V: ἡμορράγησεν A, 
with ev in litura. 



though these fared tolerably at the beginning, yet 
the disease assumed an acute form about the seventh 

XIX. Now the number of illnesses was great. And 
of the patients there died chiefly striplings, young 
people, people in their prime, the smooth, the fair- 
skinned, the straight-haired, the black-haired, the 
black-eyed, those who had lived recklessly and care- 
lessly, the thin-voiced, the rough-voiced, the lispers, 
the passionate. Women too died in very great 
numbers who were of this kind. In this constitution 
there were four symptoms especially which denoted 
recovery :—a proper hemorrhage through the nostrils ; 
copious discharges by the bladder of urine with 
much sediment of a proper character; disordered 
bowels with bilious evacuations at the right time; 
the appearance of dysenteric characteristics. The 
crisis in many cases did not come with one only 
of the symptoms described above, but in most cases 
all symptoms were experienced, and the patients 
appeared to be more distressed ; but all with these 
symptoms got well. Women and maidens experi- 
enced all the above symptoms, but besides, whenever 
any took place properly, and whenever copious men- 
struation supervened, there was a crisis therefrom 
which resulted in recovery; in fact I know of no 
woman who died when any of these symptoms took 
place properly. For the daughter of Philo, who 
died, though she had violent epistaxis, dined rather 
unseasonably on the seventh day. 

In acute fevers, more especially in ardent fevers, 
when involuntary weeping occurs, epistaxis is to be 

2 After θυγάτηρ Kuhlewein adds 7. 





ὀλεθρίως μὴ ἔχωσιν, ἐπεὶ τοῖσί ye φλαύρως 
ἔχουσιν οὐχ αἱμορραγίην, ἀλλὰ θάνατον 

XX. Ta παρὰ τὰ ὦτα ἐν πυρετοῖσιν ἐπαιρόμενα 
μετ᾽ ὀδύνης ἔστιν οἷσιν ἐκλείποντος τοῦ πυρετοῦ 
κρισίμως οὔτε καθίστατο οὔτε ἐξεπύει" τούτοισι 
διάρροιαι ͵χολωδέων ἢ δυσεντερίη ἢ παχέων 
οὔρων ὑπόστασις γενομένη ἔλυσεν, οἷον ἹἙρμίππῳ 
τῷ Κλαξομενίῳ. τὰ δὲ περὶ τὰς κρίσιας, GE 
ὧν Kal διεγινώσκομεν, ἢ ὅμοια 7) ἀνόμοια, οἷον 
οἱ δύο ἀδελφεοί, οἱ ἤρξαντο ὁμοῦ τὴν αὐτὴν 
ὥρην" κατέκειντο παρὰ τὸ θέρετρον ᾿Επιγένεος." 2 
τούτων τῷ πρεσβυτέρῳ ἔκρινεν ἑκταίῳ, τῷ δὲ 
νεωτέρῳ ἑβδομαίῳ. ὑπέστρεψεν ἀμφοτέροισιν 
ὁμοῦ τὴν αὐτὴν ὥρην καὶ διέλιπεν ἡ ἡμέρας πέντε. 
ἐκ δὲ τῆς ὑποστροφῆς ἐκρίθη ἀμφοτέροισιν ὁμοῦ 
τὸ σύμπαν ἑπτακαιδεκαταίοισιν. ἔκρινε δὲ τοῖσι 
πλείστοισιν ἑκταίοις. διέλειπεν EE: ἐκ δὲ τῶν 
ὑποστροφέων ἔκρινε πεμπταίοις. οἷσι δ᾽ ἔκρινεν 
ἑβδομαίοισι, διέλειπεν ἑπτά" ἐκ δὲ τῆς ὑποστροφῆς 
ἔκρινε τριταίοις. οἷσι δ᾽ ἔκρινεν ἑβδομαίοισι, 
διαλείποντα τρεῖς ἔκρινεν ἑβδομαίοις. οἷσι δ᾽ 
ἔκρινεν ἑκταίοισι, διαλείποντα ἕξ ἐλάμβανε 
τρισίν, διέλειπε μίαν, μίαν ἐλάμβανεν" ἔκρινεν, 
οἷον “Ἐὐάγοντι τῷ Δαιθάρσεος. οἷσι δ᾽ ἔκρινεν 
ἑκταίοισι, διέλειπεν ἑπτά, ἐκ δὲ τῆς ὑποστροφῆς 
ἔκρινε τετάρτῃ, οἷον τῇ ᾿Αγλαΐδου θυγατρί. οἱ 
μὲν οὖν πλεῖστοι τῶν νοσησάντων ἐν τῇ κατα- 
στάσει ταύτῃ τούτῳ τῷ τρόπῳ διενόσησαν, καὶ 

1 Ermerins would omit οἷσιν to σημαίνει. 
2 After ’Emyéveos the MSS. add ἀδελφεοί. 


EPIDEMICS I, x1x,—xx. 

expected it the patient have no fatal symptoms 
besides ; for when he is in a bad way such weeping 
portends not hemorrhage but death. 

XX. The painful swellings by the ears in fevers 
in some cases neither subsided nor suppurated when 
the fever ceased with a crisis. They were cured by 
bilious diarrhoea, or dysentery, or a sediment of 
thick urine such as closed the illness of Hermippus 
of Clazomene. The circumstances of the crises, 
from which too I formed my judgments, were either 
similar or dissimilar; for example, the two brothers, 
who fell sick together at the same time, and lay ill 
near the bungalow of Epigenes. The elder of these 
had a crisis on the sixth day, the younger on the 
seventh. Both suffered a relapse together at the 
same time with an intermission of five days. After 
the relapse both had a complete crisis together on 
the seventeenth day. But the great majority had 
a crisis on the sixth day, with an intermission of 
six days followed by a crisis on the fifth day after the 
relapse. Those who had a crisis on the seventh day 
had an intermission of seven days, with a crisis on 
the third day after the relapse. Others with a crisis 
on the seventh had an intermission of three days, 
with a crisis on the seventh day after the relapse. 
Some who had a crisis on the sixth day had an 
intermission of six and a relapse of three, an inter- 
mission of one and a relapse of one, followed by a 
crisis; for example, Euagon the son of Daitharses. 
Others with a crisis on the sixth had an intermission 
of seven days, and after the relapse a crisis on the 
fourth ; for example, the daughter of Aglaidas. Now 
most of those who fell ill in this constitution went 
through their illness in this manner, and none of 






οὐδένα οἶδα τῶν περιγενομένων, ᾧτινι οὐχ 
ὑπέστρεψαν αἱ κατὰ λόγον. ὑποστροφαὶ γενόμεναι, 
καὶ διεσώζοντο πάντες, ous κἀγὼ οἶδα, οἷσιν αἱ 
ὑποστροφαὶ διὰ τοῦ εἴδεος τούτου γενοίατο. οὐδὲ 
τῶν διανοσησάντων διὰ τούτου τοῦ τρόπου οὐδενὶ 
οἶδα ὑποστροφὴν γενομένην πάλιν. 

ΧΧΙ. "Εθνῃσκον δὲ τοῖσι νοσήμασι τούτοις οἱ 
πλεῖστοι ἑκταῖοι, οἷον ᾿Επαμεινώνδας καὶ Σιληνὸς 
καὶ Φιλίσκος ὁ ᾿Ανταγόρεω. οἷσι δὲ τὰ παρὰ τὰ 
ὦτα γενοίατο, ἔκρινε μὲν εἰκοσταίοισι, κατέσβη 
δὲ πᾶσι καὶ οὐκ ἐξεπύησεν, ἀλλ᾽ ἐπὶ κύστιν 
ἐτράπετο. Κρατιστώνακτι, ὃς παρ᾽ Ἡρακλεῖ 
ὠκει, καὶ Σκύμνου τοῦ γναφέως θεραπαίνῃ 
ἐξεπύησεν᾽ ἀπέθανον" οἷσι δ᾽ ἔκρινεν ἑβδομαίοισι, 
διέλειπεν ἐννέα, ὑπέστρεφεν, ἔκρινεν ἐκ τῆς 
ὑποστροφῆς τεταρταίοισι ---ἰ ΠΠαντακλεῖ, ὃς ῴκει 
παρὰ Διονύσιον ---. οἷσι δ᾽ ἔκρινεν ἑβδομαίοισιν, 
διέλειπεν ἕξ' ὑποστροφή" ἐκ δὲ τῆς ὑποστροφῆς 
ἔκρινεν ἑβδομαίοισι ---ἰ Φανοκρίτῳ, ὃς κατέκειτο 
παρὰ Τνυάθωνι τῷ γναφεῖ. 

XXII. Ὑπὸ δὲ χειμῶνα περὶ ἡλίου τροπὰς 
χειμερινὰς καὶ μέχρι ἰσημερίης παρέμενον μὲν 
καὶ οἱ καῦσοι καὶ τὰ φρενιτικά, καὶ ἔθνῃσκον 
πολλοί: αἱ μέντοι κρίσιες μετέπεσον, καὶ ἔκρινε 
τοῖσι πλείστοισιν ἐξ ἀρχῆς πεμπταίοισι, διέλειπε 
τέσσαρας, ὑπέστρεφεν, ἐκ δὲ τῆς ὑποστροφῆς 
ἔκρινε πεμπταίοισι, τὸ σύμπαν τεσσαρεσκαι- 
δεκαταίοις. ἔκρινε δὲ παιδίοισιν οὕτω τοῖσι 
πλείστοισιν, ἀτὰρ καὶ πρεσβυτέροισιν. ἔστι δὲ 

1 Here some editors would add οἷον. 


EPIDEMICS I, xx.-xxu. 

those who recovered, so far as I know, failed to 
suffer the relapses which were normal in these cases, 
but all, so far 5.1 know, recovered if their relapses 
took place after this fashion. Further, I know of 
none who suffered a fresh relapse after going through 
the illness in the manner described above. 

XXI. In these diseases most died on the sixth 
day, as did Epaminondas, Silenus and Philiscus the 
son of Antagoras. Those who had the swellings by 
the ears had a crisis on the twentieth day, but these 
subsided in all cases without suppuration, being 
diverted to the bladder. There were two cases of 
suppuration, both fatal, Cratistonax, who lived near 
the temple of Heracles, and the serving-maid of 
Scymnus the fuller. When there was a crisis on 
the seventh day, with an intermission of nine days 
followed by a relapse, there was a second crisis on 
the fourth day after the relapse—in the case of 
Pantacles, for example, who lived by the temple of 
Dionysus. When there was a crisis on the seventh 
day, with an intermission of six days followed by a 
relapse, there was a second crisis on the seventh day 
after the relapse—in the case of Phanocritus, for 
example, who lay sick at the house of Gnathon the 

XXII. During winter, near the time of the 
winter solstice, and continuing until the equinox, 
the ardent fevers and the phrenitis still caused 
many deaths, but their crises changed. Most cases 
had a crisis on the fifth day from the outset, then 
intermitted four days, relapsed, had a crisis on the 
fifth day after the relapse, that is, after thirteen 
days altogether. Mostly children experienced crises 
thus, but older people did so too. Some had a crisis 







οἷσιν ἔκρινεν ἑνδεκαταίοις, ὑποστροφὴ τεσσαρεσ- 
καιδεκαταίοις, ἔκρινε τελέως εἰκοστῇ. εἰ δέ τίνες 
ἐπερρίγουν περὶ τὴν εἰκοστήν, τούτοισιν ἔκρινε 
τεσσαρακοσταίοις. ἐπερρίγουν δ᾽ οἱ πλεῖστοι 
περὶ κρίσιν τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς" οἱ δ᾽ ἐπιρριγώσαντες 
ἐξ ἀρχῆς περὶ κρίσιν, καὶ ἐν τῇσιν ὑποστροφῇσιν 
ἅμα κρίσει. ἐρρίγουν & ἐλάχιστοι μὲν τοῦ ἦρος, 
θέρεος πλείους, φθινοπώρου ἔτι πλείους, ὑπὸ δὲ 
χειμῶνα πολὺ πλεῖστοι. αἱ δὲ αἱμορραγίαι 

XXII. Τὰ δὲ περὶ τὰ νοσήματα, ἐξ ὧν 
διεγινώσκομεν, μαθόντες ἐκ τῆς κοινῆς φύσιος 
ἁπάντων καὶ τῆς ἰδίης ἑκάστου, ἐκ τοῦ νοσήματος, 
ἐκ τοῦ νοσέοντος, ἐκ τῶν προσφερομένων, ἐκ τοῦ 
προσφέροντος — ἐπὶ τὸ ῥᾷον γὰρ καὶ χαλεπώτερον 
ἐκ τούτων — ἐκ τῆς καταστάσιος ὅλης καὶ κατὰ 
μέρεα τῶν οὐρανίων καὶ χώρης ἑκάστης, ἐκ τοῦ 
ἔθεος, ἐκ τῆς διαίτης, ἐκ τῶν ἐπιτηδευμάτων, ἐκ 
τῆς ἡλικίης ἑκάστου, λόγοισι, τρόποισι, σιγῇ, δια- 
νοήμασιν, ὕπνοισιν, οὐχ ὕπνοισιν, ἐνυπνίοισι, 
οἵοισι καὶ ὅτε, τιλμοῖσι, κνησμοῖσι, δάκρυσιν, 
ἐκ τῶν παροξυσμῶν, διαχωρήμασιν, οὔροισιν, 
πτυάλοισιν, ἐμέτοισι, καὶ ὅσαι ἐξ οἵων ἐς οἷα 
διαδοχαὶ νοσημάτων καὶ ἀποστάσιες ἐπὶ τὸ 
ὀλέθριον καὶ κρίσιμον, ἱδρώς, ῥῖγος, ψύξις, βήξ, 
πταρμοΐ, λυγμοί, πνεύματα, ἐρεύξιες, φῦσαι, 
σιγῶσαι, ψοφώδεες, αἱμορραγίαι, αἱμορροΐδες. ἐκ 
τούτων καὶ ὅσα διὰ τούτων σκεπτέον. 

XXIV. Πυρετοὶ οἱ μὲν συνεχέες, οἱ δ᾽ ἡμέρην 
ἔχουσι, νύκτα διαλείπουσι, νύκτα ἔχουσιν, ἡμέρην 
διαλείπουσιν: ἡμιτριταῖοι, τριταῖοι, τεταρταῖοι, 


EPIDEMICS I, χχιι.--χχιν. 

on the eleventh day, a relapse on the fourteenth, 
and a complete crisis on the twentieth. But if rigor 
came on about the twentieth day the crisis came on 
the fortieth. Most had rigors near the first crisis, 
and those who had rigors at first near the crisis, 
had rigors again in the relapses at the time of the 
crisis. Fewest experienced rigors in the spring, 
more in summer, more still in autumn, but by far 
the most during winter. But the hemorrhages 
tended to cease. 

XXIII. The following were the circumstances 
attending the diseases, from which I framed my 
judgments, learning from the common nature of all 
and the particular nature of the individual, from the 
disease, the patient, the regimen prescribed and the 
prescriber—for these make a diagnosis more favour- 
able or Jess; from the constitution, both as a whole 
and with respect to the parts, of the weather and of 
each region ; from the custom, mode of life, practices 
and ages of each patient ; from talk, manner, silence, 
thoughts, sleep or absence of sleep, the nature and 
time of dreams, pluckings, scratchings, tears ; from 
the exacerbations, stools, urine, sputa, vomit, the 
antecedents and consequents of each member in the 
successions of diseases, and the abscessions to a fatal 
issue or a crisis, sweat, rigor, chill, cough, sneezes, 
hiccoughs, breathing, belchings, flatulence, silent or 
noisy, hemorrhages, and hemorrhoids. From these 
things must we consider what their consequents also 
will be. 

XXIV. Some fevers are continuous, some have an 
access during the day and an intermission during 
the night, or an access during the night and an 
intermission during the day; there are semitertians, 







πεμπταῖοι, “ἑβδομαῖοι, ἐναταῖοι. εἰσὶ δὲ ὀξύταται 
μὲν καὶ μέγισται καὶ χαλεπώταται, νοῦσοι καὶ 
θανατωδέσταται ἐ ἐν τῷ συνεχεῖ πυρετῷ. ἀσφαλέ- 
στατος δὲ πάντων καὶ ῥήϊστος καὶ μακρότατος 
πάντων ὁ τεταρταῖος" οὐ γὰρ μοῦνον αὐτὸς ἐφ᾽ 
ἑωυτοῦ τοιοῦτός ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ καὶ νοσημάτων 
ἑτέρων μεγάλων ῥύεται. ἐν δὲ τῷ ἡμιτριταίῳ 
καλεομένῳ συμπίπτει μὲν καὶ ὀξέα νοσήματα 
γίνεσθαι, καὶ ἔστι τῶν λοιπῶν οὗτος θανατωδέ- 
στατος" ἀτὰρ καὶ φθινώδεες καὶ ὅσοι ἄλλα 
μακρότερα, νοσήματα νοσέουσιν, ἐπὶ τούτῳ μά- 
λιστα νοσέουσι. VUKTEPLVOS: οὐ λίην θανατώδης, 
μακρὸς δέ. ἡμερινὸς μακρότερος" ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσι 
ῥέπει καὶ ἐπὶ τὸ φθινῶδες. ἑβδομαῖος μακρός, 
οὐ θανατώδης. ἐναταῖος ἔτι μακρότερος, οὐ 
θανατώδης. τριταῖος ἀκριβὴς ταχυκρίσιμος καὶ 
οὐ θανατώδης. ὁ δὲ πεμπταῖος πάντων μὲν 
κάκιστος" καὶ γὰρ πρὸ φθίσιος καὶ ἤδη φθίνουσιν 
ἐπιγινόμενος κτείνει. 

XXV. Εἰσὶ δὲ τρόποι καὶ καταστάσιες καὶ 
παροξυσμοὶ τούτων ἑκάστου τῶν πυρετῶν. 
αὐτίκα γὰρ συνεχὴς ἔστιν οἷσιν ἀρχόμενος ἀνθεῖ 
καὶ ἀκμάξει μάλιστα καὶ ἀνάγει ἐπὶ τὸ χαλεπώ- 
τατον, περὶ δὲ κρίσιν καὶ ἅμα κρίσει λεπτύνεται: 
ἔστι δ᾽ οἷσιν ἄρχεται μαλακῶς καὶ ὑποβρύχια, 
ἐπαναδιδοὺ δὲ καὶ παροξύνεται καθ᾽ ἡμέρην 
ἑκάστην, περὶ δὲ κρίσιν 1 ἅλις ἐξέλαμψεν' ἔστι δ᾽ 
οἷσιν ἀρχόμενος πρηέως ἐπιδιδοῖ καὶ παροξύνεται 
καὶ μέχρι τινὸς ἀκμάσας πάλιν ὑφίησι μέχρι 
κρίσιος καὶ περὶ κρίσιν. συμπίπτει δὲ ταῦτα 
γίνεσθαι ἐ ἐπὶ παντὸς πυρετοῦ καὶ νοσήματος. δεῖ 

δὲ καὶ τὰ διαιτήματα σκοπεύμενον ἐκ τούτων 

EPIDEMICS I, xxrv.—xxv. 

tertians, quartans, quintans, septans, nonans. The 
most acute diseases, the most severe, difficult and 
fatal, belong to the continuous fevers. The least 
fatal and least difficult of all, but the longest of all, 
is the quartan. Not only is it such in itself, but it 
also ends other, and serious, diseases. In the fever 
called semitertian, which is more fatal than any 
other, there occur also acute diseases, while it 
especially precedes the illness of consumptives, and 
of those who suffer from other and longer diseases. 
The nocturnal is not very fatal, but it is long. The 
diurnal is longer still, and to some it also brings 
a tendency to consumption. The septan is long but 
not fatal. The nonan is longer still but not fatal. 
The exact tertian has a speedy crisis and is not 
fatal. But the quintan is the worst of all. For if it 
comes on before consumption or during consumption 
the patient dies. 

XXV. Each of these fevers has its modes, its 
constitutions and its exacerbations. For example, 
a continuous fever in some cases from the beginning 
is high and at its worst, leading up to the most 
severe stage, but about and at the crisis it moderates. 
In other cases it begins gently and in ἃ sup- 
pressed manner, but rises and is exacerbated each 
day, bursting out violently near the crisis. In some 
cases it begins mildly, but increases and is exacer- 
bated, reaching its height after a time; then it 
declines again until the crisis or near the crisis. 
These characteristics may show themselves in any 
fever and in any disease. It is necessary also to 
consider the patient’s mode of life and to take it 

1 After «plow V adds καὶ ἅμα κρίσει. 





προσφέρειν. πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα , ἐπίκαιρα σημεῖα 
τούτοις ἐστὶν “ἠδελφισμένα, περὶ ὧν τὰ μέν που 
γέγραπται, τὰ δὲ καὶ γεγράψεται. πρὸς ἃ δεῖ 
διαλογιζόμενον δοκιμάζειν καὶ σκοπεῖσθαι, τίνι 
τούτων ὀξὺ καὶ θανατῶδες ἢ περιεστικὸν καὶ τίνι 
μακρὸν καὶ θανατῶδες ἢ περιεστικὸν καὶ τίνι 
προσαρτέον ἢ οὗ καὶ πότε καὶ πόσον καὶ τί τὸ 
προσφερόμενον ἔσται. 

XXVI. Ta δὲ παροξυνόμενα ἐ ἐν ἀρτίῃσι κρίνεται 
ἐν ἀρτίῃσιν' ὧν δὲ οἱ παροξυσμοὶ ἐν περισσῇσι, 
κρίνεται ἐν περισσῆσιν. ἔστι δὲ πρώτη περίοδος 
τῶν ἐν τῇσιν ἀρτίῃσι κρινόντων τετάρτη, ἕκτη, 
ὀγδόη, δεκάτη, τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτη, εἰκοστή, 
τετάρτη καὶ εἰκοστή, τριακοστή, τεσσαρακοστή, 
ἑξηκοστή, ὀγδοηκοστή, εἰκοστὴ καὶ ἑκατοστή᾽ 
τῶν δ᾽ ἐν τῇσι περισσῇσι κρινόντων περίοδος 

πρώτη, τρίτη, πέμπτη, ἑβδόμη, ἐνάτη, ἑνδεκάτη, 
ἑπτακαιδεκάτη, εἰκοστὴ πρώτη, εἰκοστὴ ἑβδόμη, 
τριακοστὴ πρώτη. εἰδέναι δὲ χρὴ ἔτι, ἢν ἄλλως 
κριθῇ ἔξω τῶν ὑπογεγραμμένων, ἐσομένας 
ὑποστροφάς" γένοιτο δὲ ἂν καὶ ὀλέθρια. δεῖ δὴ 
προσέχειν τὸν νόον καὶ εἰδέναι ἐν τοῖσι χρόνοισι 
τούτοισι τὰς κρίσιας ἐσομένας ἐπὶ ᾿σωτηρίην ἢ 
ὄλεθρον ἢ ῥοπὰς ἐπὶ τὸ ἄμεινον ἢ τὸ χεῖρον. 
πλάνητες δὲ πυρετοὶ καὶ τεταρταῖοι καὶ πεμπταῖοι 
καὶ ἑβδομαῖοι καὶ ἐναταῖοι, ἐν ἧσι περιόδοισι 
κρίνονται, σκεπτέον. 

EPIDEMICS 1, xxv.—xxvi. 

into account when prescribing. Many other im- 
portant symptoms there are which are akin to 
these, some of which I have described, while others 
I shall describe later. These must be duly weighed 
when considering and deciding who is suffering from 
one of these diseases in an acute, fatal form, or 
whether the patient may recover; who has a chronic, 
fatal illness, or one from which he may recover; 
who is to be prescribed for or not, what the pre- 
scription is to be, the quantity to be given and the 
time to give it. 

XXVI. When the exacerbations are on even days, 
the crises areon even days. But the diseases exacer- 
bated on odd days have their crises on odd days. 
The first period of diseases with crises on the even 
days is the fourth day, then the sixth, eighth, tenth, 
fourteenth, twentieth, twenty-fourth, thirtieth, 
fortieth, sixtieth, eightieth, hundred and twentieth. 
Of those with a crisis on the odd days the first period 
is the third, then the fifth, seventh, ninth, eleventh, 
seventeenth, twenty-first, twenty-seventh, thirty- 
first. Further, one must know that, if the crises 
be on other days than the above, there will be 
relapses, and there may also be a fatal issue. So 
one must be attentive and know that at these times 
there will be the crises resulting in recovery, or 
death, or a tendency for better or worse. One must 
also consider in what periods the crises occur of 
irregular fevers, of quartans, of quintans, of septans 
and of nonans. 

VOL. I. I 185 





ἄρρωστοι τεσσαρεσκαίδεκα 

' , " \ \ Ξ : , 
a’. Φιλίσκος WKEL παρὰ TO TELYOS’ κατεκλίνη, 
τῇ πρώτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἵδρωσεν, ἐς νύκτα 
> / / / / > \ \ 
ἐπιπόνως: δευτέρῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, ὀψὲ δὲ 
> \ / la lol Σ Ue οὖ hg / 
ἀπὸ κλυσματίου καλῶς διῆλθε: νύκτα du ἡσυχίης. 
τρίτῃ πρωὶ καὶ μέχρι μέσου ἡμέρης ἔδοξε γενέσθαι 
ἄπυρος, πρὸς δείλην δὲ πυρετὸς ὀξὺς μετὰ ἱδρῶτος, 
΄ n 2 / / ” 
διψώδης, γχῶσσα ἐπεξηραίνετο, μέλανα οὔρησε" 
νύκτα δυσφόρως, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, πάντα παρέκρουσε. 
τετάρτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, οὖρα μέλανα" νύκτα 
εὐφορωτέρην, ovpa εὐχροώτερα. πέμπτῃ περὶ 
μέσον ἡμέρης σμικρὸν ἀπὸ ῥινῶν ἔσταξεν ἄκρητον" 
οὖρα δὲ ποικίλα, ἔχοντα ἐναιωρήματα στρογγύλα, 
γονοειδέα, διεσπασμένα, οὐχ ἱδρύετο' προσθεμένῳ 
δὲ βάλανον φυσώδεα σμικρὰ διῆλθε. νύκτα 
ἐπιπόνως, ὕπνοι σμικροί, λόγοι, λῆρος, ἄκρεα 
πάντοθεν ψυχρὰ καὶ οὐκέτι ἀναθερμαινόμενα, 
οὔρησε μέλανα, ἐκοιμήθη σμικρὰ πρὸς ἡμέρην, 
” 1 lal BA ἣν, ὃ / si δὲ 
ἄφωνος, ἴόρωσε ψυχρῴ, ἄκρεα πελιὸνά. περὶ ὃὲ 
,ὔ lal / rn 
μέσον ἡμέρης ἑκταῖος ἀπέθανεν. τούτῳ πνεῦμα 
διὰ τέλεος, ὥσπερ ἀνακαλεομένῳ, ἀραιὸν μέγα" 
σπλὴν ἐπήρθη περιφερεῖ κυρτώματι, ἱδρῶτες 
ψυχροὶ διὰ τέλεος. οἱ παροξυσμοὶ ἐν ἀρτίῃσιν. 
/ SS \ v Sean a rn / 
β΄. Σιληνὸς ῴκει ἐπὶ τοῦ πλαταμῶνος πλησίον 
lal ΄ / 
τῶν Evadkidew. ἐκ κόπων Kal πότων Kal 

1 The patient seemed to forget the necessity of breathing, 
and then to remember it and to breathe consciously. 


EPIDEMICS I, cases 1.-11. 


Case I 

Philiscus lived by the wall. He took to his bed 
with acute fever on the first day and sweating; 
night uncomfortable. 

Second day. General exacerbation, later a small 
clyster moved the bowels well. A restful night. 

Third day. Early and until mid-day he appeared 
to have lost the fever; but towards evening acute 
fever with sweating ; thirst ; dry tongue ; black urine. 
An uncomfortable night, without sleep; completely 
out of his mind. 

Fourth day. Ail symptoms exacerbated; black 
urine; a more comfortable night, and urine of a 
better colour. 

Fifth day. About mid-day slight epistaxis of un- 
mixed blood. Urine varied, with scattered, round 
particles suspended in it, resembling semen; they 
did not settle. On the application of a suppository 
the patient passed, with flatulence, scanty excreta. 
A distressing night, snatches of sleep, irrational talk ; 
extremities everywhere cold, and would not get 
warm again; black urine; snatches of sleep towards 
dawn; speechless; cold sweat; extremities livid. 
About mid-day on the sixth day the patient died. 
The breathing throughout, as though he were re- 
collecting to do it,t was rare and large. Spleen 
raised in a round swelling; cold sweats all the 

time. The exacerbations on even days. 

Case II 

Silenus lived on Broadway near the place of 
Eualcidas. After over-exertion, drinking, and exer- 





γυμνασιων ἀκαίρων πῦρ ἔλαβεν. ἤρξατο δὲ 
πονεῖν κατ᾽ ὀσφῦν καὶ κεφαλῆς βάρος καὶ 
τραχήλου σύντασις. ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης τῇ πρώτῃ 
χολώδεα, ἄκρητα, ἔπαφρα, κατακορέα πολλὰ 
διῆλθεν: οὖρα μέλανα, μέλαιναν ὑπόστασιν 
᾽ , eS Lge Shafi cors 
ἔχοντα, διψώδης, γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, νυκτὸς οὐδὲν 
ἐκοιμήθη. δευτέρῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, διαχωρήματα 
πλείω, λεπτότερα, ἔπαφρα, οὖρα μέλανα, νύκτα 
δυσφόρως, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσε. τρίτῃ πάντα 
παρωξύνθη ὑποχονδρίου σύντασις ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων 
παραμήκης πρὸς ὀμφαλόν, ὑπολάπαρος" δια- 
χωρήματα λεπτά, ὑπομέλανα, οὖρα θολερά, 
ὑπομέλανα, νυκτὸς οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη, λόγοι πολλοί, 
γέλως, ὠδή, κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο. τετάρτῃ διὰ 
τῶν αὐτῶν. πέμπτῃ διαχωρήματα ἄκρητα, χο- 
λώδεα, λεῖα, λιπαρά, οὖρα λεπτά, διαφανέα" 
σμικρὰ κατενόει. ἕκτῃ περὶ κεφαλὴν σμικρὰ 
ἐφίδρωσεν, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, πελιδνά, πολὺς βλη- 
στρισμός, ἀπὸ κοιλίης οὐδὲν διῆλθεν, οὖρα ἐπέστη, 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς. ἑβδόμῃ ἄφωνος, ἄκρεα οὐκέτι 
ἀνεθερμαίνετο, οὔρησεν οὐδέν. ὀγδόῃ ἵδρωσεν 
δι ὅλου ψυχρῷ: ἐξανθήματα μετὰ ἱδρῶτος 
ἐρυθρά, στρογγύλα, σμικρὰ οἷον ἴονθοι, παρέμενεν, 
οὐ καθίστατο᾽ ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης ἐρεθισμῷ σμικρῷ 

1 The word ὑπολάπαρος is often applied to σύντασις or 
ἔντασις of the hypochondria. Galen (see Littré on Epidemics 
III, Case τι, Vol. Ill, p. 34) says that it means ‘‘ without 
bulk,” or ‘‘ without swelling.” This is possible if the word 
is etymologically connected with λαπάζω. The translators 
are not very precise. Littré has ‘‘ sans beaucoup de réni- 
tence,” ‘‘sans tumeur,” ‘sans gonflement,” ‘‘sans grand 
gonflement ; » Adams has ‘“‘empty,” ‘‘loose,” ‘‘softish.” 
In Epidemics I, Case x11, occurs the phrase preypov) ὑπολά- 


EPIDEMICS I, case un. 

cises at the wrong time he was attacked by fever. 
He began by having pains in the loins, with heavi- 
ness in the head and tightness of the neck. From 
the bowels on the first day there passed copious 
discharges of bilious matter, unmixed, frothy, and 
highly coloured. Urine black, with a black sediment ; 
thirst ; tongue dry; no sleep at night. 

Second day. Acute fever, stools more copious, 
thinner, frothy; urine black; uncomfortable night ; 
slightly out of his mind. 

Third day. General exacerbation ; oblong tight- 
ness! of the hypochondrium, soft underneath, ex- 
tending on both sides to the navel; stools thin, 
blackish ; urine turbid, blackish; no sleep at night; 
much rambling, laughter, singing; no power of 
restraining himself. 

Fourth day. Same symptoms. 

Fifth day. Stools unmixed, bilious, smooth, greasy ; 
urine thin, transparent; lucid intervals. 

Sixth day. Slight sweats about the head; extremi- 
ties cold and livid; much tossing; nothing passed 
from the bowels; urine suppressed ; acute fever. 

Seventh day. Speechless; extremities would no 
longer get warm ; no urine. 

Eighth day. Cold sweat all over; red spots with 
sweat, round, small like acne, which persisted with- 
out subsiding. From the bowels with slight stimulus 

mapos ἐκ τοῦ ἔσω μέρεος, from which it seems that the prefix 
ὑπο- means ‘‘underneath,” not ‘‘rather.” ‘‘ Empty under- 
neath” seems the primary meaning, and suggests a tightness, 
or inflammation, with nothing hard and bulky immediately 
beneath the surface to cause the tightness or inflammation. 
Perhaps the word also suggests the tenderness often found 
in the hypochondria of malaria patients, 





KoTpava λεπτά, ola ἄπεπτα, πολλὰ διήει μετὰ 
πόνου" οὔρει μετ᾽ ὀδύνης δακνώδεα" ἄκρεα σμικρὰ 
, ¢ , 
ἀνεθερμαίνετο, ὕπνοι NETTOL, κωματώδης, ἄφωνος, 
οὖρα λεπτὰ διαφανέα. ἐνάτῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν. 
δεκάτῃ ποτὰ οὐκ ἐδέχετο, κωματώδης, ὕπνοι 
, Ν ¢ » 
λεπτοί ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης ὅμοια, οὔρησεν ἀθρόον 
΄ , / 
ὑπόπαχυ" κειμένῳ ὑπόστασις κριμνώδης λευκή, 
" ΄ὕ ΄ € , > , , 
ἄκρεα πάλιν ψυχρά. ἑνδεκάτῃ ἀπέθανεν. ἐξ 
rn / fal 
ἀρχῆς τούτῳ καὶ διὰ τέλεος πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα. 
/ \ 
ὑποχονδρίου παλμὸς συνεχής, ἡλικίη ὡς περὶ 
ἔτεα εἴκοσιν. 
(- “ \ 3 
γ΄. Ἡροφῶντι πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἀπὸ κοιλίης ὀλίγα, 
͵ὔ 5 γ / \ 
τεινεσμώδεα κατ᾽ ἀρχάς, μετὰ δὲ λεπτὰ διήει 
, c , A 5 
χολώδεα, UTocvyva: ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν, οὖρα 
μέλανα λεπτά. πέμπτῃ πρωὶ κώφωσις, παρ- 
΄ὔ 4 \ > / id / 
ωὠξύνθη πάντα, σπλὴν ἐπήρθη, ὑποχονδρίου 
7 Sn / ea, aA , 
σύντασις, ἀπὸ κοιλίης ολίγα διῆλθε μέλανα, παρ- 
Υ. “ > / τὸ / € La w; 
eppovnoev. ἕκτῃ ἐλήρει, ἐς νύκτα ἱδρώς, ψύξις, 
παράληρος παρέμενεν. ἑβδόμῃ περιέψυκτο, 
διψώδης, παρέκρουσε. νύκτα κατενόει, κατε- 
> ΄ / r 
κοιμήθη. ὀγδόῃ ἐπύρεσσεν, σπλὴν ἐμειοῦτο, 
κατενόει πάντα, ἤλγησεν τὸ πρῶτον κατὰ 
a ὡς tee) x” \ ’ :) 
βουβῶνα, σπληνὸς κατ᾽ ἴξιν, ἔπειτα δὲ πόνοι ἐς 
ἀμφοτέρας κνήμας. νύκτα εὐφόρως, οὖρα εὐχρο- 
ώτερα, ὑπόστασιν εἶχε σμικρήν. ἐνάτῃ ἵδρωσεν, 

1 T take λεπτός here to mean ‘‘thinner than usual, than 
might have been expected,” a meaning it has once or twice in 
the Hippocratic Corpus. It might also mean ‘‘ consisting of 
small pieces.”” See on Zpidemics III, Case 11 (first series). 


EPIDEMICS I, cases 11.--Π|. 

there came a copious discharge of solid stools, thin,! 
as it were unconcocted, painful. Urine painful and 
irritating. Extremities grow a little warmer ; 
fitful sleep ; coma; speechlessness ; thin, transparent 

Ninth day. Same symptoms. 

Tenth day. Took no drink; coma; fitful sleep. 
Discharges from the bowels similar; had a copious 
discharge of thickish urine, which on standing left 
a farinaceous, white deposit ; extremities again cold. 

Eleventh day. Death. 

From the beginning the breath in this case was 
throughout rare and large. Continuous throbbing 
of the hypochondrium ; age about twenty years. 

Case ΠῚ 

Herophon had acute fever; scanty stools with 
tenesmus at the beginning, afterwards becoming 
thin, bilious and fairly frequent. No sleep; urine 
black and thin. 

Fifth day. Deafness early in the day; general 
exacerbation ; spleen swollen; tension of the hypo- 
chondrium ; scanty black stools; delirium. 

Sixth day. Wandering talk; at night sweat and 
chill; the wandering persisted. 

Seventh Day. Chill all over; thirst; out of his 
mind. During the night he was rational, and slept. 

Eighth day. Fever; spleen lessened; quite 
rational; pain at first in the groin, on the side of 
the spleen; then the pains extended to both legs. 
Night comfortable ; urine of a better colour, with a 
slight deposit. 

Jinth day. Sweat, crisis, intermission. 





> ΄ / / e t ΕῚ ’, 
ἐκρίθη, διέλιπεν. πέμπτῃ ὑπέστρεψεν. αὐτίκα 
\ , 
δὲ σπλὴν ἐπήρθη, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, κώφωσις πάλιν" 
N \ \ . \ / \ > na 
μετὰ δὲ THY ὑποστροφὴν τρίτῃ σπλὴν ἐμειοῦτο, 
Ἄ Φ' “ ’ / 4 / “ 
κώφωσις ἧσσον, σκέλεα ἐπωδύνως" νύκτα ἵδρωσεν. 
/ s 
ἐκρίθη περὶ ἑπτακαιδεκάτην" οὐδὲ παρέκρουσεν 
ἐν τῇ ὑποστροφῇ. 
/ > rf 
δ. Ἐν Θάσῳ Φιλίνου γυναῖκα θυγατέρα 
τεκοῦσαν κατὰ φύσιν καθάρσιος γενομένης καὶ 
τὰ ἄλλα κούφως διάγουσαν, τεσσαρεσκαίδεκα- 
/ , An A \ , lal ” \ 
ταίην ἐοῦσαν μετὰ τὸν τόκον, πῦρ ἔλαβε μετὰ 
εἰν, fe yA \ » / , \ e 
ῥίγεος: Ayer δὲ ἀρχομένη καρδίην καὶ ὑπο- 
χόνδριον δεξιόν γυναικείων πόνοι" κάθαρσις 
5 / a \ lal \ > / 
ἐπαύσατο. προσθεμένῃ δὲ ταῦτα μὲν ἐκουφίσθη, 
fol : / 
κεφαλῆς δὲ καὶ τραχήλου Kal ὀσφύος πόνοι Tap- 
ee > ’ rn ” 7 , 
ἔμενον, ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, Sirwdns, 
/ / N , i ΄ 
κοιλίη συνεκαύθη, σμικρὰ διήει, οὐρα λεπτά, 
> e / 
ἄχρω κατ᾽ ἀρχάς. ἑκταίη ἐς νύκτα παρέκρουσε 
\ , 
πολλὰ καὶ πάλιν κατενόει. ἑβδόμῃ διψώδης, 
/ ’ , / , ’ / 
διαχωρήματα ὀλίγα χολώδεα κατακορέα. ὀγδόῃ 
᾽ la \ ’ ͵ \ \ Ἂν 
ἐπερρίγωσεν, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, σπασμοὶ πολλοὶ μετὰ 
πόνου, πολλὰ παρέλεγεν' ἐξανίστατο βάλανον 
a Ἂν 
προσθεμένη' πολλὰ διῆλθε μετὰ περιρρόου 
΄ an 2 “2 
xyorwdeos* ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν. ἐνάτῃ σπασμοί. 
δεκάτῃ σμικρὰ κατενόει. ἑνδεκάτῃ ἐκοιμήθη, 
πάντων ἀνεμνήσθη, ταχὺ δὲ πάλιν παρέκρουσεν" 

EPIDEMICS I, cases τπ|.--ἰν. 

On the fifth day after the crisis the patient 
relapsed. Immediately the spleen swelled; acute 
fever; return of deafness. On the third day after 
the relapse the spleen grew less and the deafness 
diminished, but there was pain in the legs. During 
the night he sweated. The crisis was about the 
seventeenth day. There was no delirium during 
the relapse. 

Case IV 

In Thasos the wife of Philinus gave birth to a 
daughter. The lochial discharge was normal, and 
the mother was doing well when on the fourteenth 
day after delivery she was seized with fever attended 
with rigor, At first she suffered in the stomach 
and the right hypochondrium. Pains in the genital 
organs. The discharge ceased. By a pessary these 
troubles were eased, but pains persisted in the head, 
neck and loins. No sleep; extremities cold; thirst ; 
bowels burnt; scanty stools; urine thin, and at first 

Swath day. Much delirium at night, followed by 
recovery of reason. 

Seventh day. Thirst; stools scanty, bilious, highly 

Eighth day. Rigor; acute fever; many painful 
convulsions; much delirium. The application of a 
suppository made her keep going to stool, and 
there were copious motions with a bilious flux. No 

Ninth day. Convulsions. 

Tenth day. Lucid intervals. 

Eleventh day. Slept; complete recovery of her 
memory, followed quickly by renewed delirium. 






οὔρει δὲ μετὰ σπασμῶν ἀθρόον πολὺ ὀλιγάκις 
ἀναμιμνῃσκόντων παχὺ λευκόν, οἷον γίνεται ἐκ 
τῶν καθισταμένων, ὅταν ἀναταραχθῇ" κείμενον 
πολὺν χρόνον οὐ καθίστατο χρῶμα καὶ πάχος 
ἴκελον οἷον γίνεται ὑποζυγίου. τοιαῦτα οὔρει, 
οἷα κἀγὼ εἶδον. περὶ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην ἐούσῃ 
παλμὸς δι’ ὅλου τοῦ σώματος, λόγοι πολλοί, 
σμικρὰ κατενόει" διὰ ταχέων δὲ πάλιν παρ- 
ἔκρουσεν. περὶ δὲ ἑπτακαιδεκάτην ἐοῦσα ἄφωνος. 
εἰκοστῇ ἀπέθανε. 

ε΄. ᾿Επικράτεος γυναῖκα, ἣ κατέκειτο παρὰ 
ἀρχηγέτην, περὶ τόκον ἤδη ἐοῦσαν ῥῖγος ἔλαβεν 
ἰσχυρῶς, οὐκ ἐθερμάνθη, ὡς ἔλεγον, καὶ τῇ 
ὑστεραίῃ τὰ αὐτά. τρίτῃ δ᾽ ἔτεκεν θυγατέρα 
καὶ τἄλλα πάντα κατὰ λόγον ἦλθε. δευτεραίην 
μετὰ τὸν τόκον ἔλαβε πυρετὸς ὀξύς, καρδίης 
πόνος καὶ γυναικείων. προσθεμένῃ δὲ ταῦτα μὲν 
ἐκουφίσθη, κεφαλῆς δὲ καὶ τραχήλου καὶ ὀσφύος 
πόνος" ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης ὀλίγα 
χολώδεα λεπτὰ διήει ἄκρητα: οὖρα λεπτὰ 
ὑπομέλανα. ἀφ᾽ ἧς δὲ ἔλαβε τὸ πῦρ, ἐς νύκτα 
ἑκταίη παρέκρουσεν. ἑβδομαίῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, 
ἄγρυπνος, παρέκρουσεν, διψώδης, διαχωρήματα 
χολώδεα κατακορέα. ὀγδόῃ ἐπερρίγωσεν καὶ 
ἐκοιμήθη πλείω. ἐνάτῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν. δεκάτῃ 

17. 6. near the statue of the founder of the city, or near 
the temple of the god who presided over the founding of the 


EPIDEMICS I, casss τν.--ν. 

A copious passing of urine with convulsions—her 
attendants seldom reminding her—which was white 
and thick, like urine with a sediment and then 
shaken ; it stood for a long time without forming a 
sediment ; colour and consistency like that of the 
urine of cattle. Such was the nature of the urine 
that I myself saw. 

About the fourteenth day there were twitchings 
over all the body; much wandering, with lucid 
intervals followed quickly by renewed delirium. 
About the seventeenth day she became speechless. 

Twentieth day. Death, 

Case V 

The wife of Epicrates, who lay sick near the 
founder,’ when near her delivery was seized with 
severe rigor without, it was said, becoming warm, 
and the same symptoms occurred on the following day. 
On the third day she gave birth to a daughter, and 
the delivery was in every respect normal. On the 
second day after the delivery she was seized with 
acute fever, pain at the stomach and in the genitals. 
A pessary relieved these symptoms, but there was 
pain in the head, neck and loins. No sleep. From 
the bowels passed scanty stools, bilious, thin and 
unmixed. Urine thin and blackish. Delirium on 
the night of the sixth day from the day the fever 

Seventh day. All symptoms exacerbated } sleep- 
lessness; delirium ; thirst; bilious, highly-coloured 

Eighth day. Rigor; more sleep. 

Ninth day. The same symptoms. 






σκέλεα ἐπιπόνως ἤλγει, καρδίης πάλιν ὀδύνη, 
καρηβαρίη, οὐ παρέκρουεν, “ἐκοιμᾶτο μᾶλλον, 
κοιλίη ἐπέστη. ἑνδεκάτῃ οὔρησεν εὐχροώτερα 
συχνὴν ὑπόστασιν ἔχοντα διῆγε κουφότερον. 
τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ ἐπερρίγωσεν, πυρετὸς ὀξύς. 
πεντεκαιδεκάτῃ ἤμεσε χολώδεα ξανθὰ ὑ ὑπόσυχνα, 
ἴδρωσεν ἄπυρος, ἐς νύκτα δὲ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, οὖρα 
πάχος ἔχοντα, ὑπόστασις λευκή. ἑκκαιδεκάτῃ 
παρωξύνθη: νύκτα δυσφόρως: οὐχ ὕπνωσεν" 
παρέκρουσεν. ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῃ διψώδης, γλῶσσα 
ἐπεκαύθη, οὐχ ὕπνωσεν, παρέκρουσε πολλά, 
σκέλεα ἐπωδύνως εἶχεν. περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν πρωὶ 
σμικρὰ ἐπερρίγωσεν, κωματώδης, δι’ ἡσυχίης 
ὕπνωσεν, ἤμεσε χολώδεα ὀλίγα μέλανα, ἐς νύκτα 
κώφωσις. περὶ δὲ πρώτην καὶ εἰκοστὴν πλευροῦ 
ἀριστεροῦ βάρος ov ὅλου μετ᾽ ὀδύνης, σμικρὰ 
ὑπέβησσεν. οὗρα. δὲ πάχος ἔχοντα, θολερά, 
ὑπέρυθρα: κείμενα οὐ καθίστατο: τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα 
κουφοτέρως" οὐκ ἄπυρος. αὕτη > ἐξ ἀρχῆς 
φάρυγγα ἐπώδυνος" ἔρευθος" κίων ἀνεσπασμένος" 
ῥεῦμα δριμύ, δακνῶδες, ἁλμυρῶδες διὰ τέλεος 
παρέμενεν. “περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν ἑβδόμην ἄπυρος, 
οὔροισιν ὑπόστασις, πλευρὸν ὑπήλγει. περὶ δὲ 
πρώτην καὶ τριακοστὴν πῦρ ἔλαβεν, κοιλίη 
χολώδεσιν ἐπεταράχθη. τεσσαρακοστῇ ἤμεσεν 
ὀλίγα χολώδεα. ἐκρίθη τελέως ἄπυρος ὀγδοη- 

ς΄. Κλεανακτίδην, ὃς κατέκειτο ἐπάνω τοῦ 
Ἡρακλείου, πῦρ ἔλαβε πεπλανημένως" ἤλχγει δὲ 

1 For αὕτη Littré reads αὖθις (with a colon) and deletes the 
stop at ἄπυρος. 


EPIDEMICS I, cases ν.--νι. 

Tenth day. Severe pains in the legs; pain again 
at the stomach ; heaviness in the head; no delirium ; 
more sleep; constipation. 

Eleventh day. Urine of better colour, with a 
thick deposit ; was easier. 

Fourteenth day. Rigor; acute fever. 

Fifteenth day. Vomited fairly frequently bilious, 
yellow vomit; sweated without fever; at night, how- 
ever, acute fever ; urine thick, with a white sediment. 

Stateenth day. Exacerbation; an uncomfortable 
night; no sleep; delirium. 

Eighteenth day. Thirst; tongue parched; no 
sleep; much delirium ; pain in the legs. 

About the twentieth day. Slight rigors in the 
early morning; coma; quiet sleep; scanty, bilious, 
black vomits; deafness at night. 

About the twenty-first day. Heaviness all over 
the left side, with pain; slight coughing; urine 
thick, turbid, reddish, no sediment on standing. 
In other respects easier; no fever. From the 
beginning she had pain in the throat ; redness ; uvula 
drawn back; throughout there persisted an acrid 
flux, smarting, and salt. 

About the twenty-seventh day. No fever; sedi- 
ment in urine; some pain in the side. 

About the thirty-first day. Attacked by fever; 
bowels disordered and bilious. 

Fortieth day. Scanty, bilious vomits. 

Eightteth day. Complete crisis with cessation ot 

Case VI 

Cleanactides, who lay sick above the temple of 
Heracles, was seized by an irregular fever. He had 





Ν > > “ \ \ > / \ 
κεφαλὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς καὶ πλευρὸν ἀριστερόν, Kal 
lal , ΄ 
τῶν ἄλλων πόνοι κοπιώδεα τρόπον: οἱ πυρετοὶ 
/ ’ / ar 
παροξυνόμενοι ἄλλοτ᾽ ἀλλοίως, ἀτάκτως" ἱδρῶτες 
ω ΄ “ ἊΣ » \ - 
ὅτε μέν, ὅτε δ᾽ οὔ τὰ μὲν πλεῖστα ἐπεσήμαινον 
οἱ παροξυσμοὶ ἐν κρισίμοις μάλιστα. περὶ δὲ 
“ la 
εἰκοστὴν τετάρτην χεῖρας ἄκρας ἐπόνησεν, ἷ 
” , 7, ny Me eZ 
ἤμεσε χολώδεα ξανθά, ὑπόσυχνα, μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
’ ΄ / 
δὲ ἰώδεα: πάντων ἐκουφίσθη. περὶ δὲ τρια- 
κοστὴν ἐόντι ἤρξατο ἀπὸ ῥινῶν αἱμορραγεῖν ἐξ 
ἀμφοτέρων καὶ ταῦτα πεπλανημένως KAT ὀλίγον 
72 7 > > f Oe ὃ γὃ ἈΝ 
μέχρι κρίσιος: οὐκ ἀπόσιτος οὐδὲ διψώδης παρὰ 
Ν ΄ ,’ 7 
πάντα τὸν χρόνον οὐδ᾽ ἄγρυπνος" οὖρα δὲ λεπτά, 
5) \ 
οὐκ ἄχρω. περὶ δὲ τεσσαρακοστὴν ἐὼν οὔρησεν 
ig , e [4 \ > \ Μ 
ὑπέρυθρα ὑπόστασιν πολλὴν ἐρυθρὴν ἔχοντα" 
> / \ \ /- Ἂν lat ” 
ἐκουφίσθη. μετὰ δὲ ποικίλως τὰ τῶν οὔρων" 
“ Ι ? an 
ὅτε μὲν ὑπόστασιν εἶχεν, ὅτε δ᾽ οὔ. ἑξηκοστῇ 
” t / \ \ \ \ / 
οὐὔὐροισιν vTooTacls πολλὴ καὶ λευκὴ καὶ λείη, 
συνέδωκε πάντα, πυρετοὶ διελιίπον, οὖρα δὲ πάλιν 
\ / 5» / lol ΄ 
λεπτὰ μέν, εὔχρω δέ. ἑβδομηκοστῇ πυρετός, 
/ > A 
διέλειπεν3 ἡμέρας δέκα. ὀγδοηκοστῇ ἐρρίγωσε, 
πυρετὸς ὀξὺς ἔλαβεν ἵδρωσεν πολλῷ" οὔροισιν 
id / ’ / , / >’ / 
ὑπόστασις ἐρυθρή, λείη. τελέως ἐκρίθη. 
ζ΄. Μέτωνα πῦρ ἔλαβεν, ὀσφύος βάρος ἐπώ- 
/ ε , 
δυνον. δευτέρῃ ὕδωρ πιόντι ὑπόσυχνον ἀπὸ 
an fol ’ὔ na 
κοιλίης καλῶς διῆλθε. τρίτῃ κεφαλῆς βάρος, δια- 
χωρήματα λεπτά, χολώδεα, ὑπέρυθρα. τετάρτῃ 
1 For ἐπόνησεν V has ἐψύχετο. 
2 For διέλειπεν V has διέλιπεν. 


EPIDEMICS I, cases vi.—vu. 

at the beginning pains in the head and the left side, 
and in the other parts pains like those caused by 
fatigue. The exacerbations of the fever were varied 
and irregular; sometimes there were sweats, some. 
times there were not. Generally the exacerbations 
manifested themselves most on the critical days. 

About the twenty-fourth day. Pain in the hands; 
bilious, yellow vomits, fairly frequent, becoming after 
a while like verdigris; general relief. 

About the thirtieth day. Epistaxis from both 
nostrils began, and continued, irregular and slight, 
until the crisis. All the time he suffered no thirst, 
nor lack of appetite or sleep. Urine thin, and not 

About the fortieth day. Urine reddish, and with 
an abundant, red deposit. Was eased. Afterwards 
the urine varied, sometimes having, sometimes not 
having, a sediment. 

Stxtieth day. Urine had an abundant sediment, 
white and smooth; general improvement; fever 
intermitted ; urine again thin but of good colour. 

Seventieth day. Fever, which intermitted for 
ten days. 

Eightieth day. Rigor; attacked by acute fever; 
much sweat; in the urine a red, smooth sediment. 
A complete crisis. 

Case VII 

Meton was seized with fever, and painful heaviness 
in the loins. 

Second day. After a fairly copious draught of 
water had his bowels well moved. 

Third day. UHeaviness in the head; stools thin, 
bilious, rather red. 






/ 4 5 4 » Ν fa) \ , 
πάντα παρωξύνθη, ἐρρύη ἀπὸ δεξιοῦ δὶς κατ 
ὀλίγον. νύκτα δυσφόρως, διαχωρήματα ὅμοια 
τῇ τρίτῃ, οὖρα ὑπομέλανα: εἶχεν ἐναιώρημα 
ὑπόμελαν ἐόν, διεσπασμένον: οὐχ ἱδρύετο. 
πέμπτῃ ἐρρύη λάβρον ἐξ ἀριστεροῦ ἄκρητον, 

fe , 
ἵδρωσεν, ἐκρίθη. μετὰ κρίσιν ἄγρυπνος, παρ- 
έλεγεν, οὖρα λεπτὰ ὑπομέλανα. δλουτροῖσιν 
ἐχρήσατο κατὰ κεφαλῆς, ἐκοιμήθη, κατενόει. 

/ > (2 / > ae E. / / 
τούτῳ οὐχ ὑπέστρεψεν, ἀλλ᾿ ῃμορράγει πολλάκις 
μετὰ κρίσιν. 

aS A ” \ , ΄, 

η΄. ᾿Πρασῖνος ὠκει παρὰ Βοώτεω χαράδρην. 
πῦρ ἔλαβεν μετὰ δεῖπνον, νύκτα ταραχώδης. 
e ΄ ? 
ἡμέρην τὴν πρώτην SL ἡσυχίης, νύκτα ἐπιπόνως. 
δευτέρῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, ἐς νύκτα παρέκρουσε. 

, \ 
τρίτῃ ἐπιπόνως, πολλὰ παρέκρουσε. τετάρτῃ 
, 5 \ \ ‘ 9 \ > / 

δυσφορώτατα" ἐς δὲ τὴν νύκτα οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη" 
ἐνύπνια καὶ λογισμοί: 1 ἔπειτα χείρω, μεγάλα 

Kal ἐπίκαιρα, φόβος, δυσφορίη. πέμπτῃ πρωὶ 

/ \ 
KATNPTNTO κατενόει πάντα" πολὺ δὲ πρὸ μέσου 
ἡμέρης ἐξεμάνη, κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο, ἄκρεα 
ψυχρὰ ὑποπέλια, οὖρα ἐπέστη" 5 ἀπέθανε περὶ 
ἡλίου δυσμάς. τούτῳ πυρετοὶ διὰ τέλεος σὺν 
e 4 ς / / , 
ἱδρῶτι, ὑποχόνδρια μετέωρα, σύντασις MET ὀδύνης" 
οὖρα μέλανα ἔχοντα ἐναιωρήματα στρογγύλα" 
> e / > Ν Ν if / / / 
οὐχ ἱδρύετο' ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης κόπρανα Sine Siva 

1 For λογισμοί Kihlewein suggests λόγοι πολλοί. The 
meaning must be delirium, and there is no instance of 
λογισμοί in this sense. 


2 ἐπέστη D: ὑπέστη A: ἀπέστη V. 


EPIDEMICS I, cases vit.—vi. 

Fourth day. General exacerbation ; slight epistaxis 
twice from the right nostril. An uncomfortable 
night; stools as on the third day; urine rather 
black; had a rather black cloud floating in it, spread 
out, which did not settle. 

Fifth day. Violent epistaxis of unmixed blood 
from the left nostril; sweat; crisis. After the crisis 
sleeplessness; wandering; urine thin and rather 
black. His head was bathed; sleep; reason re- 
stored. The patient suffered no relapse, but after 
the crisis bled several times from the nose. 

Case VIII 

Erasinus lived by the gully of Bodtes. Was seized 
with fever after supper; a troubled night. 

First day. Quiet, but the night was painful. 

Second day. General exacerbation; delirium at 

Third day. Pain and much delirium. 

Fourth day. Very uncomfortable; no sleep at 
night; dreams and wandering. Then worse 
symptoms, of a striking and significant character ; 
fear and discomfort. 

Fifth day. Early in the morning was composed, 
and in complete possession of his senses. But long 
before mid-day was madly delirious; could not 
restrain himself; extremities cold and rather livid ; 
urine suppressed ; died about sunset. 

In this patient the fever was throughout accom- 
panied by sweat; the hypochondria were swollen, 
distended and painful. Urine black, with round, 
suspended particles which did not settle. There 
were solid discharges from the bowels. Thirst 





Ν / , a 
διὰ τέλεος οὐ λίην: σπασμοὶ πολλοὶ σὺν ἱδρῶτι 
περὶ θάνατον. 

θ΄. Κρίτων. ἐν Θάσῳ ποδὸς ὀδύνη ἤρξατο 
2 \ > x 4 aA / ’ ΄ 
ἰσχυρὴ ἀπὸ δακτύλου τοῦ μεγάλου ὀρθοστάδην 

περιιόντι. κατεκλίνη αὐθημερόν, φρικώδης, 
΄ \ 
ἀσώδης, σμικρὰ ὑποθερμαινόμενος, ἐς νύκτα 
t ὃ / ” eG? fa 
παρεφρόνησεν. δευτέρῃ οἴδημα δι’ ὅλου τοῦ 
Ν \ \ Ν 
ποδὸς καὶ περὶ σφυρὸν ὑπέρυθρον μετὰ συντάσιος, 
/ \ 
φλυκταινίδια μέλανα, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἐξεμάνη: ἀπὸ 
/ a / / , 
δὲ κοιλίης ἄκρητα, χολώδεα, ὑπόσυχνα. ἀπέθανεν 
ἀπὸ τῆς ἀρχῆς δευτεραῖος. 
\ 7 a 
ι. Tov Κλαξζομένιον, ὃς κατέκειτο παρὰ τὸ 
/ / a Yj 
Φρυνιχίδεω φρέαρ, πῦρ ἔλαβε. ἤλγει δὲ κεφαλήν, 

, ᾽ A 3 ᾽ aA . 7 \ ΄ 
τράχηλον, ὀσφῦν ἐξ ἀρχῆς, αὐτίκα δὲ κώφωσις" 
“ > re sin \ 2 \ ” ς 
ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν, πυρετὸς ὀξὺς ἔλαβεν, ὑπο- 
χόνδριον ἐπῆρτο μετ᾽ ὄγκου οὐ λίην, σύντασις, 

lal / 
γλῶσσα ξηρή. τετάρτῃ ἐς νύκτα παρεφρόνει. 

/ © / 
πέμπτῃ ἐπιπόνως. ἕκτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη. 
περὶ δὲ ἑνδεκάτην σμικρὰ συνέδωκεν. ἀπὸ δὲ 
7 et ὦ a 
κοιλίης aT ἀρχῆς Kal μέχρι τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτης 
λεπτά, πολλά, ὑδατόχολα 3 διήει: εὐφόρως τὰ 
περὶ διαχώρησιν διῆγεν. ἔπειτα κοιλίη ἐπέστη. 

4 \ I \ , > / \ \ 
οὖρα διὰ τέλεος λεπτὰ μέν, εὔχρω δέ' καὶ πολὺ 
εἶχεν ἐναιώρημα ὑποδιεσπασμένον" οὐχ ἱδρύετο. 
περὶ δὲ ἕκτην καὶ δεκάτην οὔρησεν ὀλίγῳ παχύ- 

\ ΄ 
τερα' εἶχε σμικρὴν ὑπόστασιν" ἐκούφισεν ὀλίγῳ" 

1 ὑδατόχολα most MSS.: ὑδατόχροα V. 

EPIDEMICS I, cases vit.—x. 

throughout not very great. Many convulsions with 
sweating about the time of death, 

Case IX 

Crito, in Thasos, while walking about, was seized 
with a violent pain inthe greattoe. He took to bed 
the same day with shivering and nausea; regained 
a little warmth ; at night was delirious. 

Second day. Swelling of the whole foot, which 
was rather red about the ankle, and distended ; 
black blisters; acute fever; mad delirium. Alvine 
discharges unmixed, bilious and rather frequent. 

He died on the second day from the commencement. 

Case Χ 

The man of Clazomenae, who lay sick by the well 
of Phrynichides, was seized with fever. Pain at the 
beginning in head, neck and loins, followed immedi- 
ately by deafness. No sleep; seized with acute 
fever ; hypochondrium swollen, but not very much; 
distension ; tongue dry. 

Fourth day. Delirium at night. 

Fifth day, Painful. 

Stvth day. All symptoms exacerbated. 

About the eleventh day slight improvement. 
From the beginning to the fourteenth day there 
were from the bowels thin discharges, copious, of 
a watery biliousness; they were well supported by 
the patient. Then the bowels were constipated. 
Urine throughout thin, but of good colour. It had 
much cloud spread through it, which did not 
settle in a sediment. About the sixteenth day the 
urine was a little thicker, and had a slight sediment. 






/ an 
κατενόει μᾶλλον. ἑπτακαιδεκάτῃ πάλιν λεπτά, 
\ \ \ > ’ / 2 ΄ \ 3 ΄ 
παρὰ δὲ τὰ ὦτα ἀμφότερα ἐπήρθη σὺν ὀδύνῃ" 
ὕπνοι οὐκ ἐνῆσαν, παρελήρει, σκέλεα ἐπωδύνως 
3 > “ Yd , 
εἶχεν. εἰκοστῇ ἄπυρος ἐκρίθη, οὐχ ἵδρωσε, 
πάντα κατενόει. περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν ἑβδόμην 
’ / fal lal 
ἰσχίου ὀδύνη δεξιοῦ ἰσχυρῶς: διὰ ταχέων 
΄ \ > , 
ἐπαύσατο. τὰ δὲ παρὰ τὰ ὦτα οὔτε καθίστατο 
/ Vi / \ ΄ \ 
οὔτε ἐξεπύει, Ayer δέ. περὶ πρώτην Kal τριη- 
κοστὴν διάρροια πολλοῖσιν ὑδατώδεσιν μετὰ 
δυσεντεριωδέων: οὖρα παχέα οὔρει: κατέστη τὰ 
\ \ ΟΣ Ka 9s ysl \ \ 
παρὰ τὰ ὦτα. τεσσαρακοστῇ ὀφθαλμὸν δεξιὸν 
> / [4 / 
ἤλγει, ἀμβλύτερον ἑώρα" κατέστη. 
r / a 
ια΄. Τὴν Δρομεάδεω γυναῖκα θυγατέρα τεκοῦσαν 
ω ” if \ Ἧ 
καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πάντων γενομένων κατὰ λόγον 
/ na “-“ \ 5 
δευτεραίην ἐοῦσαν ῥῖγος ἔλαβεν" πυρετὸς ὀξύς. 
\ a an \ ig , 
ἤρξατο δὲ πονεῖν τῇ πρώτῃ περὶ ὑποχόνδριον᾽ 
> ,ὔ , > A \ \ > / 
ἀσώδης, φρικώδης, ἀλύουσα Kal Tas ἐχομένας 
¢ lal ji / , 
οὐχ ὕπνωσε. πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα, αὐτίκα 
, / \ 
ἀνεσπασμένον. δευτέρῃ ad’ ἧς ἐρρίγωσεν, ἀπὸ 
», n lel 5 
κοιλίης καλῶς κόπρανα διῆλθεν: οὖρα παχέα, 
λευκώ, θολερά, οἷα γίνεται ἐκ τῶν καθισταμένων, 
ὅταν avatapayOn κείμενα χρόνον πολύν οὐ 
,ὔ / 
καθίστατο. νύκτα οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη. τρίτῃ περὶ 
, \ > / 
μέσον ἡμέρης ἐπερρίγωσε, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ovpa 
ὅμοια, ὑποχονδρίου πόνος, ἀσώδης, νύκτα δυσ- 
, > 3 7 ied 5 “ a 
Popws, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη: ἵδρωσε δι ὅλου ψυχρῷ, 
ταχὺ δὲ πάλιν ἀνεθερμάνθη. τετάρτῃ περὶ ὑπο- 

1 As we might say, ‘‘ with a catch in it.” 


EPIDEMICS I, cases x.—x1. 

The patient became a little easier, and was more 

Seventeenth day. Urine thin again ; painful swell- 
ings by both ears. No sleep; wandering; pain in 
the legs. 

Twentieth day. A crisis left the patient free 
from fever; no sweating; quite rational. About 
the twenty-seventh day violent pain in the right 
hip, which quickly ceased. The swellings by the 
ears neither subsided nor suppurated, but continued 
painful. About the thirty-first day diarrhoea with 
copious, watery discharges and signs of dysentery. 
Urine thick ; the swellings by the ears subsided. 

Fortieth day. Pain in the right eye; sight rather 
impaired ; recovery. 

CasE XI 

The wife of Dromeades, after giving birth to a 
daughter, when everything had gone normally, on 
the second day was seized with rigor; acute fever. 
On the first day she began to feel pain in the region 
of the hypochondrium ; nausea; shivering; restless ; 
and on the following days did not sleep. Respiration 
rare, large, interrupted at once as by an inspiration. 

Second day from rigor, Healthy action of the 
bowels. Urine thick, white, turbid, like urine 
which has settled, stood a long time, and then 
been stirred up. It did not settle. No sleep at 

Third day. At about mid-day rigor; acute fever ; 
urine similar; pain in the hypochondrium ; nausea ; 
an uncomfortable night without sleep; a cold sweat 
all over the body, but the patient quickly recovered 






χόνδριον σμικρὰ ἐκουφίσθη, κεφαλῆς δὲ βάρος 
μετ᾽ ὀδύνης" ὑπεκαρώθη:" σμικρὰ ἀπὸ ῥινῶν ἔσταξε" 
lal » / 5 ΄ 3 \ \ 
γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος" διψώδης: οὖρα σμικρὰ λεπτὰ 
5 , \ > Vf / , 
ἐλαιώδεα: σμικρὰ ἐκοιμήθη. πέμπτῃ διψώδης, 
» (4 4 ef > \ / > / \ \ 
ἀσώδης, οὖρα ὅμοια, ἀπὸ κοιλίης οὐδέν, περὶ δὲ 
μέσον ἡμέρης πολλὰ παρέκρουσε καὶ πάλιν ταχὺ 
σμικρὰ κατενόει: ἀνισταμένη ὑπεκαρώθη, ψύξις 
σμικρά, νυκτὸς ἐκοιμήθη, παρέκρουσεν. ἕκτῃ 
πρωὶ ἐπερρίγωσεν, ταχὺ διεθερμάνθη, ἵδρωσε bv 
ὅλου: ἄκρεα ψυχρά, παρέκρουσεν, πνεῦμα μέγα, 
ἀραιόν" μετ᾽ ὀλίγον σπασμοὶ ἀπὸ κεφαλῆς ἤρξαντο, 
ταχὺ ἀπέθανεν. 
ι΄. "Ανθρωπος θερμαινόμενος ἐδείπνησεν καὶ 
ἔπιε πλέον. ἤμεσε πάντα νυκτός, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, 
c / a / WK / 
ὑποχονδρίου δεξιοῦ πόνος, φλεγμονὴ ὑπολάπαρος 
ἐκ τοῦ ἔσω μέρεος, νύκτα δυσφόρως" οὖρα δὲ κατ᾽ 
ἀρχὰς πάχος ἔχοντα, ἐρυθρά: κείμενα οὐ καθί- 
στατο' γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, οὐ λίην διψώδης. 
τετάρτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, πόνοι πάντων. πέμπτῃ 
ΕΣ “ 9 “-“ “ Ν 5 ΄ A 
οὔρησε λεῖον ἐλαιῶδες πολύ: πυρετὸς ὀξύς. ἕκτῃ 
δείλης πολλὰ παρέκρουσεν. οὐδὲ νύκτα ἐκοιμήθη. 
€ , ΄ / 3 “ / 
ἑβδόμῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη: οὖρα ὅμοια, λόγοι 
’ὔ 4 > > / >? \ \ / 
TOXAOL, κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο: ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης 
> a e \ , fol \ > yi 
ἐρεθισμῷ ὑγρὰ ταραχώδεα διῆλθεν μετὰ ἐλμίγ- 
γων. νύκτα ἐπιπόνως, πρωὶ δ᾽ ἐρρίγωσε. πυρετὸς 
» / “ a ” ” / > 
ὀξύς, ἵδρωσε θερμῷ, ἄπυρος ἔδοξε γενέσθαι" ov 

1 See note, p. 188, 

EPIDEMICS I, cases x1.—x11. 

Fourth day. Slight relief of the pains about the 
hypochondrium ; painful heaviness of the head; 
somewhat comatose ; slight epistaxis; tongue dry; 
thirst ; scanty urine, thin and oily; snatches of sleep. 

Fifth day. Thirst; nausea; urine similar; no 
movement of the bowels; about mid-day much 
delirium, followed quickly by lucid intervals ; rose, 
but grew somewhat comatose; slight chilliness ; 
slept at night; was delirious. 

Sixth day. In the morning had a rigor; quickly 
recovered heat ; sweated all over; extremities cold ; 
was delirious ; respiration large and rare. After a 
while convulsions began from the head, quickly 
followed by death. 

Case XII 

A man dined when hot and drank too much. 
During the night he vomited everything; acute 
fever; pain in the right hypochondrium ; inflam- 
mation, soft underneath, from the inner part!; an 
uncomfortable night; urine at the first thick and 
red; on standing it did not settle ; tongue dry; no 
great thirst. 

Fourth day. Acute fever; pains all over. 

Fifth day. Passed much smooth, oily urine ; 
acute fever. 

Siath day. In the afternoon much delirium. No 
sleep at night. 

Seventh day. General exacerbation ; urine similar ; 
much rambling; could not restrain himself; on 
stimulation the bowels passed watery, disturbed 
discharges, with worms. An uncomfortable night, 
with rigor in the morning. Acute fever. Hot 
sweat, and the patient seemed to lose his fever: 





πολὺ ἐκοιμήθη, ἐξ ὕπνου ψύξις: πτυαλισμός. 
7, \ / 5 ’ / Ν BA 
δείλης πολλὰ παρέκρουσε, μετ᾽ ὀλίγον δὲ ἤμεσε 
μέλανα, ὀλίγα, χολώδεα. ἐνάτῃ ψύξις, παρελήρει 
te 5 cf 4 ΄ ’ / 

πολλὰ, οὐχ ὕπνωσεν. δεκάτῃ σκέλεα ἐπωδύνως, 
πάντα παρωξύνθη, παρελήρει. ἑνδεκάτῃ ἀπέ- 

͵ a a ͵, ᾽ > a , 

uy’. Γυναῖκα, ἣ κατέκειτο ἐν ἀκτῇ, τρίμηνον 
πρὸς ἑωυτῇ ἔχουσαν πῦρ ἔλαβεν: αὐτίκα δὲ 
ἤρξατο πονεῖν ὀσφῦν. τρίτῃ πόνος τραχήλου 
καὶ κεφαλῆς καὶ κατὰ κληΐϊδα 5" δεξιήν: διὰ 
ταχέων δὲ γχῶσσα ἠφώνει, δεξιὴ χεὶρ παρελύθη 
μετὰ σπασμοῦ παραπληγικὸν τρόπον, παρελήρει 
πάντα. νύκτα δυσφόρως, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, κοιλίη 
΄ / / 

ἐπεταράχθη χολώδεσιν ἀκρήτοισιν ὀλίγοισιν. 

΄ a > \ 5 > 4 , 
TeTapTH γλῶσσα ἀσαφὴς ἣν, ἐλύθη, σπασμοί: 
πόνοι τῶν αὐτῶν παρέμενον, κατὰ ὑποχόνδριον 
ἔπαρμα σὺν ὀδύνῃ, οὐκ ἐκοιμᾶτο, παρέκρουσε 
πάντα, κοιλίη ταραχώδης, οὖρα λεπτά, οὐκ εὔχρω. 


πέμπτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ὑποχονδρίου πόνος, παρ- 
έκρουε πάντα, διαχωρήματα χολώδεα. ἐς νύκτα 
ἴδρωσεν, ἄπυρος. ἕκτῃ κατενόει, πάντα ἐκουφίσθη, 
περὶ δὲ κληῖδα ἀριστερὴν πόνος παρέμενε" 
διψώδης, οὖρα λεπτά, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη. ἑβδόμῃ 
τρόμος, ὑπεκαρώθη, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσεν, ἀλγή- 
ματα κατὰ κληῖδα καὶ βραχίονα ἀριστερὸν 

\ be STA J ΄ , 
παρέμενε, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα διεκούφισεν, πάντα κατενόει. 

1 καὶ added by Blass. 
2 After κληῖδα the MSS. add χεῖρα. It is deleted by 


EPIDEMICS I, cases xu.—xiu. 

little sleep, followed by chilliness; expectoration. 
In the evening much delirium, and shortly after- 
wards he vomited black, scanty, bilious vomits. 
Ninth day. Chill; much wandering ; no sleep. 
Tenth day. Legs painful; general exacerbation ; 

Eleventh day. Death. 

Crises NUIT 

A woman lying sick by the shore, who was three 
months gone with child, was seized with fever, and 
immediately began to feel pains in the loins. 

Third day. Pan in the neck and in the head, 
and in the region of the right collar-bone. Quickly 
she lost her power of speech, the right arm was 
paralyzed, with a convulsion, after the manner of 
a stroke ; completely delirious. An uncomfortable 
night, without sleep ; bowels disordered with bilious, 
unmixed, scanty stools. 

Fourth day. Her speech was recovered, but was 
indistinct ; convulsions; pains of the same _ parts 
remained ; painful swelling in the hypochondrium ; 
no sleep; utter delirium ; bowels disordered ; urine 
thin, and not of good colour. 

Fifth day. Acute fever; pain in the hypochon- 
drium ; utter delirium; bilious stools. At night 
sweated ; was without fever. 

Sixth day. Rational; general relief, but pain 
remained about the left collar- bone ; thirst ; urine 
thin ; no sleep. 

Seventh day. Trembling; some coma; slight 
delirium; pains in the region of the collar-bone 
and left upper arm remained; other symptoms 






ar / a € / i¢ / b] 
τρεῖς διέλιπεν ἄπυρος. ἑνδεκάτῃ ὑπέστρεψεν, ἐπερ- 
la fa) 7 \ δὲ ὃ “ 
ρίγωσεν, πῦρ ἔλαβεν. περὶ δὲ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκά- 
τὴν ἤμεσε χολώδεα ξανθὰ ὑπόσυχνα, ἵδρωσεν" 
ἄπυρος ἐκρίθη. 

ἃ A 7 . 

ιδ΄, Μελιδίῃ, ἣ κατέκειτο παρὰ “Ἥρης ἱρόν, 
ἤρξατο κεφαλῆς καὶ τραχήλου καὶ στήθεος πόνος 
> , ὝΕΣ ᾿ SIO eo ΒΝ . A 
ἰσχυρός" αὐτίκα δὲ πυρετὸς ὀξὺς ἔλαβεν" γυναικεῖα 

/ ΄ 
δὲ σμικρὰ ἐπεφαίνετο: πόνοι τούτων πάντων 
77 “ ΄ » UA , 

συνεχέες. ἕκτῃ κωματώδης, ἀσώδης, φρικώδης, 
» / ’ \ 4 \ / ε / 
ἐρύθημα ἐπὶ γνάθων, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσεν. ἑβδόμῃ 
ἵδρωσε, πυρετὸς διέλιπεν, οἱ πόνοι παρέμενον, 
ἘΞ “ γ᾽ 5 \ “ 
ὑπέστρεψεν, ὕπνοι σμικροί οὖρα διὰ τέλεος 
” L \ hes ΄ ΄ 
εὔχρω μέν, λεπτὰ δέ' διαχωρήματα λεπτά, 
χολώδεα, δακνώδεα, ὀλίγα, μέλανα, δυσώδεα 
διῆλθεν, οὔροις ὑπόστασις λευκή, λείη" ἵδρωσεν. 

ἐκρίθη τελέως ἑνδεκάτῃ. 



relieved ; quite rational. For three days there 
was an intermission of fever. 

Eleventh day. Relapse ; rigor ; attack of fever. 
But about the fourteenth day the patient vomited 
bilious, yellow matter fairly frequently; sweated ; 
a crisis took off the fever. 

Case XIV 
Melidia, who lay sick by the temple of Hera, 

began to suffer violent pain in the head, neck and 
chest. Immediately she was attacked by acute 
fever, and there followed a slight menstrual flow. 
There were continuous pains in all these parts. 

Sith day. Coma; nausea; shivering; flushed 
cheeks; slight delirium. 

Seventh day. Sweat; intermittence of fever; the 
pains persisted ; relapse; snatches of sleep; urine 
throughout of good colour but thin; stools thin, 
bilious, irritating, scanty, black and of bad odour ; 
sediment in the urine white and smooth; sweating. 

Eleventh day. Perfect crisis. 



Some MSS., the most important being V, have 
certain characters at the end of the medical histories 
in Book III of the Epidemics. These characters were 
known to Galen, who wrote, or contemplated writing, 
a treatise about them. There is no doubt, therefore, 
that they are ancient; Galen indeed in his com- 
mentary tells us that his predecessors had been much 
exercised over them. Zeuxis, he says, had written 
a history of them in which they were traced back 
to Mnemon, who either added them to a manuscript 
in the Library at Alexandria or else brought to the 
Library a copy with the characters inserted. 

These characters are of no real value for the inter- 
pretation of the text, but they bear witness to the 
interest taken in the ‘“ medical histories”’ from very 
early times. Somebody or other invented a short- 
hand script in order to summarize these histories, or 
rather the main teaching of them. For some reason 
they were only applied to the histories of the third 
book, and Galen says that the older manuscripts 
of his time had no characters inserted until the 
seventh case (woman with angina). 

Galen gives the following explanation of the 
characters :-— 

e a Ν τα ε μὴ, ε ΄ \ Ν , 
Ἠγεῖται μὲν οὖν, ὡς ἔφην, ἁπάντων τὸ τὴν διάμετρον 
“ % “ 
γραμμὴν ἔχον I, σημαῖνον ἀεὶ τὸ πιθανόν. τελευταῖον δ᾽ 



ἤτοι τὸ Y γράμμα φαίνεται “γεγραμμένον ἢ τὸ Θ, τὸ “μὲν 
ὑγείαν, τὸ δὲ θάνατον σημαῖνον. ἔμπροσθεν δ᾽ αὐτῶν ὁ 
τῶν ἡμερῶν ἀριθμός, ἐν αἷς ἐνόσησεν ἢ ἀπέθανεν ὃ κάμνων. 
ε Ν > “ ‘\ ΄ὔ “ Ψ ΄ 3 
οἱ δὲ ἐν τῷ μεταξὺ τούτων χαρακτῆρες ἅπαντες μέν εἶσι 
διὰ τῶν γραμμάτων, ἃ σημαίνει τὰ στοιχεῖα τῆς φωνῆς 
Ν A 4 > / / / Ν ΄, 
πλὴν τοῦ κάτωθεν ἀπεστιγμένου δέλτα. τίνα δὲ διάνοιαν 
r > lol . 
ἕκαστος αὐτῶν ἔχει, δηλώσω. μεμνημένων οὖν ἡμῶν, ὅτι 
τὰ πρὸ τοῦ τελευταίου τῶν χαρακτήρων, ὑφ᾽ οὗ θάνατον ἢ 
ὑγείαν ἔφαμεν δηλοῦσθαι, γεγραμμένα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν 
ἡμερῶν σημαίνει, περὶ τῶν ἄλλων, ὅσα μεταξὺ τούτων τε 
καὶ τῆς ἀρχῆς γέγραπται, ποιήσομαι τὸν λόγον. τὸ μὲν 
A δηλοῖ ἀποφθοράν, ἀπώλειαν, τὸ δὲ Τ' γονοειδὲς οὖρον, 
τὸ δ᾽ ἀπεστιγμέιον, οἷάπερ ἔστιν ἃ κάτωθεν ἔχει, τρόπῳ 
cal > 
τοιῷδε γεγραμμένον A διαχωρούμενα δι᾿ ἱδρώτων καὶ διά,- 
ροιαν καὶ διαφόρησιν 2 καὶ συνελόντι φάναι κένωσιν ἧντι- 
~ ,ὔ , A Ν 9 ΄ὔ 7 Ν Ν 
ναοῦν σημαίνειν βούλονται, τὸ δὲ E ἐποχήν, ἕδραν, τὸ δὲ 
Z ζήτημα, τὸ δὲ Θ θάνατον, ὡς προείρηται, τὸ δὲ I ἱδρῶτα 
UU fee ? ᾿ 
Ν ΩΝ / BS Ἂς ’, ‘ Ν 4 
τὸ δὲ K κρίσιν ἢ κοιλιακὴν διάθεσιν, τὸ δὲ Μ μανίαν ἢ 
,, Ν Ν evs Ν / Ν Ν ‘ 
μήτραν, τὸ δὲ N νεότητα καὶ νέκρωσιν, τὸ δὲ Ξ ξανθὴν 
χολὴν καὶ ξένον τι καὶ σπάνιον καὶ ξυσμὸν καὶ ξηρότητα, 
Ν Ν 9 x = μὲ , 9 3 ΄ 
τὸ δὲ Ο ὀδύνας ἢ οὖρον---ἔνιοι δέ φασιν, ὅταν ἐπικείμενον 
ΕΣ ει Ν ΄ ΄ τ > > ΄ ΄ 
ἄνωθεν ἔχῃ τὸ Ὗ, τότε σημαίνειν τὸ οὖρον αὐτό, γραφό- 
ἘΠΕ τον Ag , Ν ΡΝ a Ἂ 
μενον ὡς εἰώθασι τὸ οὕτως γράφειν---, τὸ δὲ Π πλῆθος ἢ 
πτύελον ἢ πυρὸν ὃ ἢ πυρετὸν ἢ πνεύμονος πάθος, τὸ [II] δ᾽ 
ἐν αὑτῷ μέσον ἔχον τὸ I, καθότι προείρηται, τὸ πιθανὸν 
δηλοῖ, τὸ δὲ P ῥύσιν ἢ ῥῖγος, τὸ δὲ Φ φρενῖτιν ἢ φθίσιν, 
ω) aA 
τὸ δὲ & σπασμὸν ἢ στομάχου κάκωσιν ἢ “στόματος, τὸ δὲ 
T τόκον, τὸ δὲ Y ὑγείαν ἢ ὑποχόνδριον, τὸ δὲ Χ χολὴν ἢ 
χολῶδες, τὸ δὲ Ψ ψύξιν, τὸ δὲ QO ὠμότητα. 

Kiihn XVII, A 611-613. 

1 This sentence is evidently corrupt. 
2 Littré would read διαχώρησιν. 
3 Littré would read πυρρόν. 



Now the first character, as I said, is always the 
letter II with the intersecting line, meaning in all 
cases “probable.” At the end we see written either 
Y or ©, meaning “recovery”? and “death” re- 
spectively. Before them is the number of the days 
at the end of which the patient recovered or died. 
The characters in the middle are in all cases (except 
the delta with a mark below it) the letters indicating 
the elements of the word.! I will now state the 
meaning of each. Remember that the last character 
was said to signify recovery or death, and the last 
but one the number of the days, and [ will now give 
a list of the others written between the number and 
the beginning. A signifies “ miscarriage,’ “ destruc- 
tion”; I “urine like semen”; the letter with the 
mark underneath,? written thus Δ, means “ evacua- 
tions by sweats,” “diarrhoea” and “ perspiration,” 3 
and in general any evacuation; E “retention,” 
pseat < ὦ ‘“objectsot search ’*;.-@> “death,” asel 
said before; I “sweat”; K “crisis” or “ condition 
of the bowels”; M ‘‘madness”’ or “womb”; N 
“youth” or “mortification”; Ξ ‘“‘yellow bile,” 
“something strange and rare,” “irritation,” “dry- 
ness’’; O “pains” or “urine,” though some say it 
means urine only when it has the Y placed above, 
written as the word οὕτως is generally written; I 
means “ abundance,” “ sputum,” “ wheat,” 4 “ fever,” 

1 That is, each middle character except one is a letter of 
the alphabet, and that letter is significant, being the initial 
of a word, or of several alternative words. 

2 The text is probably mutilated, but the general meaning 
is clear. 

3 Surely this is wrong. Littré’s suggestion (‘‘ stools ἢ) 
may possibly be correct. 

4 This again can surely not be correct. Littré’s emenda- 
tion is unconvincing. 



“affection of the lung”; with a vertical stroke in 
the centre it means as 1 said “probable” ; P means 
“flux,” “rigor”; ® “phrenitis”’ or “ consumption ” ; 
> “convulsion” or “morbid condition of oesophagus 
or mouth”’; T “delivery”; Y “recovery of health”’ 
or “hypochondrium”’; X “bile’’ or “bilious”; © 
‘Cehill” 5, OS cruditye: 

For more information about the characters see 
Littré, III. pp. 28-33, and various notes at the end 
of the cases, and also Ilberg in Ktihlewein’s edition, 
p. 245. 

As might have been expected, there is considerable 
doubt as to the right readings of these characters. 
Thus in V the characters at the end of Case 1 
(first series) are :— 


where the first character is obviously another form 
of Galen’s M. Ilberg emends to :— 


Galen reads :— 

1. 6. πιθανόν. 
“It is probable that abundance of urine caused 
recovery in forty days.” 
Galen’s reading makes it necessary to take the 
words of the text, μετὰ δὲ κρίσιν, τεσσαράκοντα 



ἡμέρῃσιν ὕστερον, in the unnatural sense of “after 
the crisis, forty days from the beginning of the 
illness.” So Littré and Adams, but the Greek 
scarcely allows it. 

It appears certain that there were varieties of this 
shorthand, and that Galen’s account deals with one 

VOL. 1, | 



1. α΄. Πυθίωνι, ὃ ὃς WKEL παρὰ Γῆς ἱρόν, ἤρξατο 
τρόμος ἀπὸ χειρῶν: τῇ πρώτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς: 
λῆρος. δευτέρῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη. τρίτῃ τὰ 
αὐτά. τετάρτῃ ἀπὸ κοιλίης ὀλίγα, ἄκρητα, 
χολώδεα διῆλθε. πέμπτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη 
ὕπνοι λεπτοί: κοιλίη ἔστη. ἕκτῃ πτύαλα ποικίλα, 
ὑπέρυθρα. ἑβδόμῃ στόμα παρειρύσθη. ὀγδόῃ 
πάντα παρωξύνθη, τρόμοι παρέμενον" οὖρα ὲ 
κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς μὲν καὶ μέχρι τῆς ὀγδόης λεπτά, AY pwr 
ἐναιώρημα εἶχον ἐπινέφελον. δεκάτῃ ἵδρωσε, 
πτύαλα ὑποπέπονα, ἐκρίθη: οὗρα ὑπόλεπτα περὶ 
κρίσιν. μετὰ δὲ κρίσιν, τεσσαράκοντα ἡμέρησιν 
ὕστερον, ἐμπύημα περὶ ἕδρην, καὶ στραγγουριώδης 
ἐγένετο ἀπόστασις. 

β΄. ἙἙρμοκράτην, ὃς κατέκειτο παρὰ τὸ καινὸν 
τεῖχος, πῦρ ἔλαβεν. ἤρξατο δὲ ἀλγεῖν κεφαλήν, 
ὀσφῦν' ὑποχονδρίου ἔντασις λαπαρῶς" γλῶσσα 

1 V has here ΠΙΖΣΜΟΝ. 

1 The third book of the Epidemics has always been regarded 

as a continuation of the first book. Kven a casual glance 
will convince any reader that the two books are really one 
work. The Paris manuscript called A, which breaks off 
after the opening words of Fpidemics III, nevertheless 
joins these words without interruption to the end of the 
first book. 



CasE I 

Pythion, who lived by the temple of Earth, was 
seized with trembling which began in the hands. 

First day. Acute fever; wandering. 

Second day. General exacerbation. 

Third day. Same symptoms. 

Fourth day. Stools scanty, uncompounded and 

Fifth day. General exacerbation; fitful sleep ; 

Sixth day. Varied, reddish sputa. 

Seventh day. Mouth drawn awry. 

Eighth day. General exacerbation ; tremblings per- 
sisted ; urine from the beginning to the eighth day 
thin, colourless, with a cloudy substance floating 
im’ it. 

Tenth day. Sweat; sputa somewhat concocted ; 
crisis; urine somewhat thin about the time of the 
crisis. After the crisis, forty days subsequent to 
it, abscess in the seat, and an abscession through 

Case II 

Hermocrates, who lay sick by the new wall, was 
seized with fever. He began to feel pain in the 
head and loins; tension of the hypochondrium with- 






δὲ ἀρχομενῳ ἐπεκαύθη: κώφωσις avtixa’ ὕπνοι 
οὐκ ἐνῆσαν" διψνώδης οὐ λίην" οὖρα παχέα, ἐρυθρά, 
κείμενα οὐ καθίστατο" ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης οὐκ ὀλίγα 
συγκεκαυμένα διήει. πέμπτῃ οὔρησε λεπτά, εἶχεν 
ἐναιώρημα, οὐχ ἵδρυτο," ἐς νύκτα παρέκρουσεν. 
ἕκτῃ ἰκτεριώδης, πάντα παρωξύνθη, οὐ κατενόει. 
ἑβδόμῃ δυσφόρως, οὖρα λεπτά, ὅμοια. τὰς ἑἕπο- 
μένας παραπλησίως. περὶ δὲ ἑνδεκάτην ἐόντι 
πάντα ἔδοξε κουφισθῆναι" κῶμα ἤρξατο, οὔρει 
παχύτερα, ὑπέρυθρα, κάτω λεπτά" οὐ καθίστατο" 
ἡσυχῇ κατενόει. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκά τῃ ἄπυρος, οὐχ 
ἵδρωσεν, ἐκοιμήθη, κατενόει πάντα, οὖρα παρα- 
πλήσια. περὶ δὲ ἑπτακαιδεκάτην ἐόντι ὑπέ- 
στρεψεν, ἐθερμάνθη. τὰς ἑπομένας πυρετὸς ὀξύς, 
οὖρα λεπτά, παρέκρουσεν.3 πάλιν δὲ εἰκοστῇ 
ἐκρίθη, ἄπυρος, οὐχ ἵδρωσεν. ἀπόσιτος παρὰ 
πάντα τὸν χρόνον, κατενόει πάντα,3 διαλέγεσθαι 
οὐκ ἠδύνατο, γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, οὐκ ἐδίψη: κατε- 
κοιμᾶτο σμικρά, κωματώδης. περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν 
καὶ τετάρτην ἐπεθερμάνθη, κοιλίη ὑγρὴ πολλοῖσι 
λεπτοῖσι. καὶ τὰς ἑπομένας πυρετὸς ὀξύς, γχῶσσα 
συνεκαύθη. ἑβδόμῃ καὶ εἰκοστῇ ἀπέθανε. τούτῳ 
κώφωσις διὰ τέλεος παρέμενεν, οὖρα παχέα καὶ 
ἐρυθρά, οὐ καθιστάμενα, ἢ λεπτὰ καὶ ἄχρω καὶ 
ἐναιώρημα ἔχοντα" γεύεσθαι δὲ οὐκ ἠδύνατο." 

1 ἵδρυτο MSS.: ἱδρύετο Kiihlewein. 

2 V omits παρέκρουσεν. 

3 V omits πάντα: Littré restores from Galen. 
4 V has here M11.E-:Z-AT-IA-1Z-KA-.KZ.O. 

1 But see note on p. 188. 
2 Galen says that the meaning of λεπτὰ is here ‘‘ small,’ 


EPIDEMICS III, case 11. 

out swelling!; tongue at the beginning parched ; 
deafness at once; no sleep; no great thirst; urine 
thick, red, with no sediment on standing ; stools not 
scanty, and burnt. 

Fifth day. Urine thin, with particles floating in 
it, without sediment ; at night delirium. 

Stath day. Jaundice; general exacerbation ; not 

Seventh day. Discomfort; urine thin, and as 
before. The following days similar. About the 
eleventh day there seemed to be general relief; 
coma began; urine thicker, reddish, thin? at the 
bottom, without sediment; by degrees grew more 

Fourteenth day. No fever; no sweat; sleep; 
reason quite recovered ; urine as before. 

About the seventeenth day there was a relapse, 
and the patient grew hot. On the following days 
there was acute fever; urine thin; delirium. 

Twentieth day. A fresh crisis; no fever; no sweat. 
All the time the patient had no appetite; was per- 
fectly collected but could not talk ; tongue dry ; ao 
thirst ; snatches of sleep; coma. About the twenty- 
fourth day he grew hot; bowels loose with copious, 
thin discharges. On the following days acute fever ; 
tongue parched. 

Twenty-seventh day. Death. 

In this case deafness persisted throughout ; urine 
thick, red, without settling, or thin, colourless, with 
substances floating in it. The patient had no power 
to take food. 

7. 6. he thinks that there were small particles at the bottom. 
Such is not the meaning of the word in Hippocrates when 
applied to urine. 





γ΄. Ὃ κατακείμενος ἐν τῷ Δελεάρκεος 1 κήπῳ 
κεφαλῆς βάρος καὶ κρόταφον δεξιὸν ἐπώδυνον 
εἶχε χρόνον πολύν. μετὰ δὲ προφάσιος πῦρ 
ἔλαβε, κατεκλίθη. δευτέρῃ ἐξ ἀριστεροῦ ὀλίγον 
ἄκρητον ἐρρύη" ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης κόπρανα καλῶς 
διῆλθεν, οὖρα λεπτὰ ποικίλα, ἐναιωρήματα ἔχοντα 
κατὰ σμικρὰ οἷον κρίμνα, γονοειδέα. τρίτῃ 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς, διαχωρήματα μέλανα, λεπτά, 
ἔπαφρα, ὑπόστασις πελιδνὴ διαχωρήμασιν, ὑπε- 
καροῦτο, ἐδυσφόρει περὶ τὰς ἀναστάσιας, οὔροις 
ὑπόστασις πελιδνή, ὑπόγλισχρος. τετάρτῃ ἤμεσε 
χολώδεα ξανθὰ ὀλίγα, διαλιπὼν ὀλίγον ἰώδεα, ἐξ 
ἀριστεροῦ ὀλίγον ἄκρητον ἐρρύη, διαχωρήματα 
ὅμοια, οὗρα ὅμοια, ἐφίδρωσε περὶ κεφαλὴν καὶ 
κληῖδας, σπλὴν ἐπήρθη, μηροῦ ὀδύνη κατ᾽ ἴξιν, 
ὑποχονδρίου δεξιοῦ σύντασις ὑπολάπαρος, νυκτὸς 
οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, παρέκρουσε σμικρά. πέμπτῃ δια- 
χωρήματα πλείω, μέλανα, ἔπαφρα, ὑπόστασις 
μέλαινα διωχωρήμασι, νύκτα οὐχ ὕπνωσε, παρ- 
éxpovoev. ἕκτῃ διαχωρήματα μέλανα, λιπαρά, 
γλίσχρα, δυσώδεα, ὕπνωσε, κατενόει μᾶλλον. 
ἑβδόμῃ γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, διψώδης, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, 
παρέκρουσεν, οὖρα λεπτά, οὐκ εὔχρω. ὀγδόῃ δια- 
χωρήματα μέλανα ὀλίγα, συνεστηκότα, ὕπνωσε, 
κατενόει, διψώδης οὐ λίην. ἐνάτῃ ἐπερρίγωσε, 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἵδρωσε, ψύξις, παρέκρουσε, δεξιῷ 
ἴλλαινε, γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, διψώδης, ἄγρυπνος. 

1 Δελεάρκεος Meineke from Galen: δεάλδεος V: other MSS. 
have δεόλκους or διάλκους. 


EPIDEMICS III, case 11. 

Case III 

The man lying sick in the garden of Delearces 
had for a long time heaviness in the head and pain 
in the right temple. From some exciting cause he 
was seized with fever, and took to his bed. 

Second day. Slight flow of unmixed blood from 
the left nostril. The bowels were well moved; 
urine thin and varied, with particles in small groups, 
like barley-meal or semen, floating in it. 

Third day. Acute fever; stools black, thin, 
frothy, with a livid sediment in them; slight stupor ; 
getting up caused distress; in the urine a livid, 
rather viscous sediment, 

Fourth day. Vomited scanty, bilious, yellow vomits, 
and after a short interval, verdigris-coloured ones ; 
slight flow of unmixed blood from the left nostril ; 
stools unaltered and urine unaltered; sweat about 
the head and collar-bones; spleen enlarged; pain 
in the direction of the thigh; tension, soft under- 
neath, of the right hypochondrium ;! no sleep at 
night ; slight delirium. 

Fifth day. Stools more copious, black, frothy ; 
black sediment in the stools; no sleep at agit 

Siath day. Stools black, oily, viscid, foul-smelling ; 
slept; was more rational. 

Seventh day. Tongue dry; thirsty; no sleep; 
delirium ; urine thin, not of a good colour. 

Eighth “day. Stools black, scanty, compact ; sleep ; 
was collected ; not very thirsty. 

Ninth day. Rigor, acute fever; sweat; chill; 
delirium ; squinting of the right eye; tongue dry ; 
thirsty ; sleepless. 

1 See note, p. 188. 





δεκάτῃ περὶ τὰ αὐτά. ἑνδεκάτῃ κατενόει πάντα, 
" 5 
ἄπυρος, ὕπνωσεν, οὖρα λεπτὰ περὶ κρίσιν. δύο 
7 » 3 / / 
διέλιπεν ἄπυρος, ὑπέστρεψεν τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ, 
αὐτίκα δὲ νύκτα οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, πάντα παρέκρουσεν. 
΄ > , : 3 rn 
πεντεκαιδεκάτῃ οὖρον θολερόν, οἷον ἐκ τῶν καθε- 
στηκότων γίνεται, ὅταν ἀναταραχθῇ, πυρετὸς 
ὀξύς, πάντα παρέκρουσεν, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, γούνατα 
Ν ΄΄ ’ , “. > \ \ y Je 
Kal κνήμας ἐπώδυνα εἶχεν" ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης βάλανον 
, nr 
προσθεμένῳ μέλανα κόπρανα διῆλθεν. ἑξκαι- 
/ 9S ’ a 5» / > / 
δεκάτῃ οὖρα λεπτά, εἶχεν ἐναιώρημα ἐπινέφελον, 
παρέκρουσεν. ἑπτακαιδεκάτῃ πρωὶ ἄκρεα ψυχρά, 
περιεστέλλετο, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἵδρωσε δι᾿ ὅλου, 
’ nr 
exoupia On, κατενόει μᾶλλον, οὐκ ἄπυρος, διψρώδης, 
> ‘ 7 , 
ἤμεσε χολώδεα, EavOd, ὀλίγα, ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης 
, 4 / 
κόπρανα διῆλθε, pet ὀλίγον δὲ μέλανα, ὀλίγα, 
Υ - ΄ > ” ’ ΄ 
ANETTA οὖρα λεπτά, οὐκ εὔχρω. ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῃ 
οὐ κατενόει, κωματώδης. ἐννεακαιδεκάτῃ διὰ τῶν 
αὐτῶν. εἰκοστῇ ὕπνωσε, κατενόει πάντα, ἵδρωσεν, 
ἄπυρος, οὐκ ἐδίψη, οὖρα δὲ λεπτά. εἰκοστῇ 
πρώτῃ σμικρὰ παρέκρουσεν, ὑπεδίψη, ὑὕὑπο- 
χονδρίου πόνος καὶ περὶ ὀμφαλὸν παλμὸς διὰ 
τέλεος. εἰκοστῇ τετάρτῃ οὔροισιν ὑπόστασις, 
, 7) ’ A e / :) ’, -“ 
κατενόει πάντα. εἰκοστῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἰσχίου δεξιοῦ 
’ / \ ’ » » >) / ” 
ὀδύνη, Ta δ᾽ ἄλλα ἔσχεν ἐπιεικέστατα, οὔροισιν 
e , \ \ > \ 4“: 7 ἢ rn 
ὑπόστασις. περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν ἐνάτην ὀφθαλμοῦ 

EPIDEMICS III, case πὶ. 

Tenth days Symptoms about the same. 

Eleventh day. Quite rational; no fever; slept, 
urine thin about the time of the crisis. 

The patient remained free from fever for two days, 
relapsed on the fourteenth day, and immediately 
had no sleep at night and was completely delirious. 

Fifteenth day. Urine muddy, like that which has 
been stirred up after settling; acute fever; com- 
pletely delirious; no sleep; pain in knees and 
legs. On the application of a suppository, black, 
solid motions were passed. 

Sixteenth day. Urine thin, with a cloudy substance 
floating in it; delirium. 

Seventeenth day. Extremities cold in the early 
morning; would wrap himself up; acute fever; 
sweated all over; was relieved; more rational; 
some fever; thirst; vomited bilious matters, yellow 
and scanty; solid motions from the bowels; after 
a while they became black, scanty and thin; urine 
thin, and not of a good colour. 

Exghteenth day. Was not rational; comatose. 

Nineteenth day. The same symptoms. 

Twentieth day. Slept ; completely rational ; 
sweated ; no fever; no thirst; urine thin. 

Twenty-first day. Slightly delirious; rather thirsty ; 
pain in the hypochondrium and throbbing about the 
navel continuously. 

Twenty-fourth day. Sediment in urine ; completely 

Twenty-seventh day. Pain in the right hip, but in 
other respects very comfortable ; sediment in the 

About the twenty-ninth day pain in the right eye ; 
urine thin, 





a b] / 5 / a 
δεξιοῦ ὀδύνη, οὖρα λεπτά. τεσσαρακοστῇ διε- 
΄ ΄ / ς , vA 
χώρησε φλεγματώδεα, λευκά, ὑπόσυχνα, ἵδρωσε 
πολλῷ δι᾽ ὅλου, τελέως ἐκρίθη.1 
1. τς rn / 
δ΄. “Ev Θάσῳ Φιλιστῆς 5 κεφαλὴν ἐπόνει χρόνον 
\ / \ id \ / > 
πολὺν καί ποτε Kal ὑποκαρωθεὶς κατεκλίθη" ἐκ 
n , ς 4 
δὲ πότων πυρετῶν συνεχέων γενομένων ὁ πόνος 
N n 
παρωξύνθη. νυκτὸς ἐπεθερμάνθη τὸ πρῶτον. 
a ΄ » / >] / \ \ lal 
τῇ πρώτῃ ἤμεσε χολώδεα, ὀλίγα, ξανθὰ τὸ πρῶ- 
\ \ a 53). ἢ ΄ ᾽ \ \ , 
TOV, μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἰώδεα πλείω, ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης 
an / 
κόπρανα διῆλθε: νύκτα δυσφόρως. δευτέρῃ κώ- 
φωσις, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ὑποχόνδριον δεξιὸν συν- 
/ » > Nor, 5 , / 
ετάθη, ἔρρεπεν ἐς τὰ ἔσω' οὖρα λεπτά, διαφανέα, 
> > , ΄ / 
εἶχεν ἐναιώρημα γονοειδές, σμικρόν: ἐξεμάνη 
/ , 
περὶ μέσον ἡμέρης. τρίτῃ δυσφόρως. τετάρτῃ 
σπασμοί, παρωξύνθη. πέμπτῃ πρωὶ ἀπέθανεν. 
΄ Ai , ἃ / ΝΥ ΟΣ 4 4 
ε΄. Χαιρίωνα, ὃς κατέκειτο Tapa ΤΔημαινέτῳ,Ἷ 
fa He rn 
ἐκ πότου πῦρ ἔλαβεν. αὐτίκα δὲ κεφαλῆς βάρος 
ἐπώδυνον, οὐκ ἐκοιμᾶτο, κοιλίη ταραχώδης λεπτοῖ- 
Π ig {2 / Ν > 4 a 
civ, ὑποχολώδεσι. τρίτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, κεφαλῆς 
τρόμος, μάλιστα δὲ χείλεος τοῦ κάτω: μετ᾽ ὀλίγον 
tn / 
δὲ ῥῖγος, σπασμοί, πάντα Tapéxpovce, νύκτα 
/ , / 
δυσφόρως. τετάρτῃ Ov ἡσυχίης, σμικρὰ ἐκοιμήθη, 

1 has here 1 KA OA ΜΥ. 

2 Φιλιστῆς Blass: φιλίστης MSS. 

V has here ΠΙΦΔΕΘΚΚ. 

Δηλίαν V: Δημαινέτῳ Littré and some MSS. 

- (ὁ 


1 The variants indicate corruption. Can Δηλίαν be ‘‘ Delian 
goddess ” or ‘‘ Delias” ? The form is not Ionic. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases 11.-v. 

Fortieth day. Passed motions full of phlegm, white 
and rather frequent; copious sweat all over; a 
perfect crisis. 

Casz 1V 

Philistes in Thasos had for a long time pain in the 
head, and at last fell into a state of stupor and took 
to his bed. Heavy drinking having caused continu- 
ous fevers the pain grew worse. At night he grew 
hot at the first. 

First day. Vomited bilious matters, scanty, at 
first yellow, afterwards increasing and of the colour 
of verdigris; solid motions from the bowels; an 
uncomfortable night. 

Second day. Deafness; acute fever; tension of 
the right hypochondrium, which fell inwards. Urine 
thin, transparent, with a small quantity of substance, 
like semen, floating in it. About mid-day became 

Third day. Uncomfortable. 

Fourth day. Convulsions ; exacerbation. 

Fifth day. Died early in the morning. 

Case V 

Chaerion, who lay sick in the house of Demaenetus,! 
was seized with fever after drinking. At once there 
was painful heaviness of the head ; no sleep ; bowels 
disturbed with thin, rather bilious stools. 

Third day. Acute fever, trembling of the head, 
particularly of the lower lip; after a while rigor, 
convulsions, complete delirium; an uncomfortable 

Fourth day. Quiet; snatches of sleep ; wandering. 






/ / 9 Ud , ’ 
παρέλεγε. πέμπτῃ ἐπιπόνως, πάντα παρωξύνθη, 
λῆρος, νύκτα δυσφόρως, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη. ἕκτῃ διὰ 

a lal / / 
τῶν αὐτῶν. ἑβδόμῃ ἐπερρίγωσε, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, 
δ \ 
ἵδρωσε δι’ ὅλου, ἐκρίθη. τούτῳ διὰ τέλεος ἀπὸ 
/ / , 5 / ” 
κοιλίης διαχωρήματα χολώδεα, ὀλίγα, ἄκρητα" 
i / 3 1 ” > , bd / 
οὖρα λεπτά, ovK! εὔχρω, ἐναιώρημα ἐπινέφελον 
ἔχοντα. περὶ ὀγδόην οὔρησεν εὐχροώτερα, ἔχοντα 
ὑπόστασιν λευκὴν ὀλίγην, κατενόει, ἄπυρος" διέ- 
’ / e , Ν \ 
Aurev. ἐνάτῃ ὑπέστρεψε. περὶ δὲ τεσσαρεσ- 
καιδεκάτην πυρετὸς ὀξύς. ἑκκαιδεκάτῃ ἤμεσε 
γὃ θ Ψ' e / e ὃ , 
χολώδεα, EavOd, ὑπόσυχνα. ἑπτακαιδεκάτῃ 
7 δὴ uA tA 
ἐπερρίγωσε, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἵδρωσεν, ἄπυρος 
ἐκρίθη. οὖρα μετὰ ὑποστροφὴν καὶ κρίσιν 
εὔχρω, ὑπόστασιν ἔχοντα, οὐδὲ παρέκρουσεν ἐν 
τῇ ὑποστροφῇς ὀκτωκαιδεκάτῃ ἐθερμαίνετο 
σμικρά, ὑπεδίψη, οὖρα λεπτά, ἐναιώρημα ἐπινέ- 
erov, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσεν. ἐννεακαιδεκάτῃ 
ἄπυρος, τράχηλον ἐπωδύνως εἶχεν, οὔροισιν ὑπό- 
/ fal 
στασις. τελέως ἐκρίθη εἰκοστῇ.3 
, \ > / / Ie lal 
ς΄. Τὴν Εὐρυάνακτος θυγατέρα, παρθένον, πῦρ 
ἔλαβεν. ἣν δὲ ἄδιψος διὰ τέλεος: γεύματα οὐ 
/ 5 Ν \ if \ , ? 
προσεδέχετο. ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης σμικρὰ διήει, οὖρα 
λεπτά, ὀλίγα, οὐκ εὔχρω. ἀρχομένου δὲ τοῦ 
a ty / th la 
πυρετοῦ περὶ ἕδρην ἐπόνει. ἑκταίη δὲ ἐοῦσα 

1 οὐκ restored by Littré and Ermerins. 
2 V has here 11- XNAOTYKY. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases v.—v1. 

Fifth day. Pain; general exacerbation ; irrational 
talk ; uncomfortable night ; no sleep. 

Sixth day. ‘The same symptoms. 

Seventh day. Rigor; acute fever; sweating all 
over ; crisis. 

This patient’s stools were throughout. bilious, 
scanty and uncompounded. Urine thin, not of a 
good colour, with a cloudy substance floating in it. 
About the eighth day the urine had a better colour, 
with a slight, white sediment ; quite rational and 
no fever; an intermission. 

Ninth day. Relapse. 

About the fourteenth day acute fever. 

Sixteenth day. Vomited bilious, yellow matters 
rather frequently. 

Seventeenth day. Rigor; acute fever; sweating 
crisis ended the fever. 

Urine after relapse and crisis of a good colour, 
with a sediment ; no delirium during the relapse. 

Eighteenth day, Slight heat ; rather thirsty ; urine 
thin, with cloudy substance floating in it; slight 

Nineteenth day. No fever; pain in the neck; 
sediment in urine. 

Twentieth day. Complete crisis, 


Cast VI 

The maiden daughter of Euryanax was seized 
with fever. ‘Throughout the illness she suffered no 
thirst and had no inclination for food. Slight alvine 
discharges ; urine thin, scanty, and not of a good 
colour, At the beginning of the fever suffered pain 
in the seat. On the sixth day did not sweat, being 





Μ > “ 5 / Ν Ν Ν \ 
amupos οὐχ ἵδρωσεν' ἐκρίθη. τὸ δὲ περὶ τὴν 
ἕδρην σμικρὰ ἐξεπύησεν, ἐρράγη ἅμα κρίσει. 
a \ 
μετὰ δὲ κρίσιν ἑβδομαίη ἐοῦσα ἐρρίγωσε, σμικρὰ 
Ε] ΄ θ io 1 “ δὲ », Ni 
ἐπεθερμάνθη, ἵδρωσεν. ὕστερον δὲ ἄκρεα ψυχρὰ 
αἰεί. περὶ δὲ δεκάτην μετὰ τὸν ἱδρῶτα τὸν 
γενόμενον παρέκρουσε καὶ πάλιν ταχὺ κατενόει: 
ἔλεγον δὲ γευσαμένην Bdotpvos.2 διαλιποῦσα δὲ 
δωδεκάτῃ πάλιν πολλὰ παρελήρει, κοιλίη ἐπετα- 
vA / » / ? / rn 
ράχθη χολώδεσιν, ἀκρήτοισιν, ὀλίγοισι, λεπτοῖσι, 
δακνώδεσι, πυκνὰ ἀνίστατο. ἀφ᾽ ἧς δὲ παρ- 
/ Ν “ ᾽ / . A 
éxpovoe τὸ ὕστερον, ἀπέθανε ἑβδόμῃ. αὕτη 
ἀρχομένου τοῦ νοσήματος ἤλγει φάρυγγα, καὶ 
διὰ τέλεος ἔρευθος εἶχε, γαργαρεὼν ἀνεσπασμένος. 
ῥεύματα πολλά, σμικρά, δριμέα. ἔβησσε πέπονα, 
fol / 
οὐδὲν ἀνῆγεν3: ἀπόσιτος πάντων Tapa πάντα 
\ / ἡ δ᾽ > / > / ΕΒ 
τὸν χρόνον οὐδ᾽ ἐπεθύμησεν οὐδενός. ἄδιψος, 
3.5 ἐὰν, 2Q\ Μ , fa) »Q\ 
οὐδ᾽ ἔπινεν οὐδὲν ἄξιον λόγου. σιγῶσα, οὐδὲν 
/ , > ip e n 3 
διελέγετο. δυσθυμίη, ἀνελπίστως ἑωυτῆς εἶχεν. 
ἣν δέ τι καὶ συγγενικὸν φθινῶδες." 
, ‘H ἿΝ [2 Ν 5 WA 72 e 
Ἐς κυναγχικὴ ἡ παρὰ ριστίωνος, ἡ 
nr 6 δ ’ \ / a ’ θ / 
πρῶτον ὃ ἤρξατο ἀσαφὴς φωνή. γλῶσσα ἐρυθρή, 
ἐπεξηράνθη. τῇ πρώτῃ φρικώδης, ἐπεθερμάνθη. 
1 After ἵδρωσεν most MSS. have μετὰ δὲ κρίσιν ὑγδοαίη ἐοῦσα 
ἐρρίγωσεν οὐ πολλά : V omits. 
2 After βότρυος most MSS. have ταῦτα παθεῖν: V and ΗΠ 
3 Galen read πέπον δ᾽ οὐδὲν ἀνῆγεν. 
4 V has here MIEATIAS®. 
5 The MSS. after παρὰ have ta, which is omitted by 

6 After πρῶτον most MSS. add ἀπὸ γλώσσης : V omits, 


EPIDEMICS III, cases vi.-vi1. 

without fever; a crisis. The sore near the seat 
suppurated slightly, and burst at the crisis. After 
the crisis, on the seventh day, she had a rigor ; grew 
slightly hot; sweated. Afterwards the extremities 
always cold. About the tenth day, after the sweat- 
ing that occurred, she grew delirious, but was soon 
rational again. They said that the trouble was due 
to eating grapes, After an intermission, on the 
twelfth day she again wandered a great deal; the 
bowels were disturbed, with bilious, uncompounded, 
scanty, thin, irritating stools, which frequently made 
her get up. She died the seventh day from the 
second attack of delirium. This patient at the 
beginning of the illness had pain in the throat, 
which was red throughout. The uvula was drawn 
back. Many fluxes,t scanty and acrid. She hada 
cough with signs of coction, but brought up nothing.? 
No appetite for any food the whole time, nor did 
she desire anything. No thirst, and she drank 
nothing worth mentioning. She was silent, and did 
not converse at all. Depression, the patient despair- 
ing of herself. There was also some inherited 
tendency to consumption. 

Casre VII 

The woman suffering from angina who lay sick 
in the house of Aristion began her complaint with 
indistinctness of speech. Tongue red, and grew 

First day. Shivered, and grew hot. 

1 Here ῥεύματα πολλὰ must mean ‘‘ many fluxes,” but in 
᾿ Bas + : ς( Ἵ ΕΣ 
Epidemics III. iv. it means ‘‘ copious fluxes. 
2. Or, with Galen’s reading, ‘‘she had a cough, but brought 
up no concocted sputum.” 





τρίτῃ ῥῖγος, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, οἴδημα ὑπέρυθρον, 
σκληρὸν τραχήλου καὶ ἐπὶ στῆθος ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων, 
ἄκρεα ψυχρά, πελιδνά, πνεῦμα μετέωρον, ποτὸν 
διὰ p ῥινῶν, καταπίνειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο, διαχωρήματα 
καὶ οὖρα ἐπέστη. τετάρτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη. 
πέμπτῃ ἀπέθανε. 1 

Ἢ To μειράκιον, ὃ κατέκειτο ἐπὶ ὶ “Ψψευδέων 
ἀγορῇ, πῦρ ἔλαβεν ἐκ κόπων καὶ πόνων καὶ 
δρόμων παρὰ τὸ ἔθος. τῇ πρώτῃ κοιλίη ταρα- 
χώδης χολώδεσι, λεπτοῖσι, πολλοῖσιν, οὖρα λεπτά, 
ὑπομέλανα, οὐχ ὕπνωσε, διψώδης. δευτέρῃ πάντα 
παρωξύνθη, διαχωρήματα πλείω, ἀκαιρότερα. 
οὐχ ὕπνωσε, τὰ τῆς γνώμης ταραχώδεα, σμικρὰ 
ὑφίδρωσε. τρίτῃ δυσφόρως, δυψώδης, ἀσώδης, 
πολὺς βληστρισμός, ἀπορίη, παρέκρουσεν, ἄκρεα 
πελιδνὰ καὶ ψυχρά, ὑποχονδρίου ἔντασις ὑπο- 
λάπαρος ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων. τετάρτῃ οὐχ ὕπνωσευ" 
ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον. ἑβδόμῃ ἀπέθανεν, ἡλικίην περὶ 
” Μ 
ἔτεα εἴκοσιν. 

θ΄. Ἢ παρὰ Τεισαμενοῦ γυνὴ κατέκειτο, 4 τὰ 
εἰλεώδεα δυσφόρως ὥρμησεν. ἔμετοι πολλοί, 
ποτὸν κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο. πόνοι περὶ ὑπο- 
χόνδρια. καὶ ἐν τοῖσι κάτω κατὰ κοιλίην οἱ 
πόνοι. στρόφοι συνεχέες. οὐ διψώδης. ἐπε- 
θερμαίνετο, ἄκρεα ψυχρὰ διὰ τέλεος. ἀσώδης, 

1 V has here ΠΙΥΔΈΕΈΗΘΙ. 
2 V has here ΠΙΖΥΘ. 

1 The ancient commentators did not know the meaning of 
this word when applied to respiration, and a modern can 
only guess. 

2 See note, p. 188. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases vu.-1x. 

Third day. Rigor; acute fever; a reddish, hard 
swelling in the neck, extending to the breast on 
either side; extremities cold and livid, breathing 
elevated ;1 drink returned through the nostrils—she 
could not swallow—stools and urine ceased. 

Fourth day, General exacerbation. 

Fifth day. Death. 

Case VIII 

The youth who lay sick by the Liars’ Market was 
seized with fever after unaccustomed fatigue, toil 
and running. 

First day. Bowels disturbed with bilious, thin, 
copious stools; urine thin and blackish; no sleep ; 

Second day. General exacerbation; stools more 
copious and more unfavourable. No sleep; mind 
disordered ; slight sweating. 

Third day. Uncomfortable ; thirst; nausea ; much 
tossing; distress; delirium; extremities livid and 
cold; tension, soft underneath, of the hypochon- 
drium 2 on both sides. 

Fourth day. No sleep; grew worse. 

Seventh day. Died, being about twenty years old. 

Case ΙΧ 

The woman who lodged with Tisamenus was in 
bed with a troublesome attack of inflammation of 
the upper bowel. Copious vomits ; could not retain 
her drink. Pains in the region of the hypochondria. 
The pains were also lower, in the region of the 
bowels. Constant tormina. No thirst. She grew 
hot, though the extremities were cold all the time. 





» > ᾽ / / / 
ἄγρυπνος. οὖρα ὀλίγα, λεπτά. διαχωρήματα 
, / \ ’ ’, 3 lal > / > 4 
ὠμά, AeTTTA, OALYA. ὠφελεῖν OUKETL ἠδύνατο, 
/ a an an 
(. Γυναῖκα ἐξ ἀποφθορῆς νηπίου τῶν περὶ 
/ an a rn 
Παντιμίδην τῇ πρώτῃ πῦρ ἔλαβε. γλῶσσα 
ἐπίξηρος, διψώδης, ἀσώδης, ἄγρυπνος. κοιλίη 
ταραχώδης λεπτοῖσι, πολλοῖσιν, ὠμοῖσι. δευτέρῃ 
> / \ 3 6 > ἮΝ / ͵7 
ἐπερρίγωσε, TUPETOS ὀξύς, ἀπὸ κοιλίης πολλά, 
οὐχ ὕπνωσε. τρίτῃ μείζους οἱ πόνοι. τετάρτῃ 
te ς Z > / , N Ν 
παρέκρουσεν" ἑβδόμῃ ἀπέθανε. κοιλίη διὰ παντὸς 
ὑγρὴ διαχωρήμασι πολλοῖσι, λεπτοῖσιν, ὠμοῖσιν' 
- > / / 2 
οὐρα ohvya λεπτά. 
, [ / 5) 5 rn \ , 
ια΄. “Erépny ἐξ ἀποφθορῆς περὶ πεντάμηνον, 
Ἱκέτεω γυναῖκα, πῦρ ἔλαβεν. ἀρχομένη κωμα- 
, " \ / yy > / 5 / 
τώδης ἣν, Kal πάλιν ἄγρυπνος, ὀσφύος ὀδύνη, 
κεφαλῆς βάρος. δευτέρῃ κοιλίη ἐπεταράχθη 
ὀλίγοισι, NETTOLTLY, ἀκρήτοισι τὸ πρῶτον. τρίτῃ 
πλείω, χείρω: νυκτὸς οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη. τετάρτῃ 
παρέκρουσε, φόβοι, δυσθυμίαι. δεξιῷ ἴλλαινε, 
ἵδρωσε περι κεφαλὴν ὀλίγῳ ψυχρῷ, ἄκρεα ψυχρά" 
/ / ΄ \ lh \ 
πέμπτῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη, πολλὰ παρέλεγε Kal 
7 \ la ” ” 7 
πάλιν ταχὺ κατενόει: ἄδιψος, ἄγρυπνος, κοιλίη 

1 V has here ΠΙΡΕΘ. 

2 V has here WI@AYTA. καῦσος occurs in the MSS. before 
the characters, and similar identifications are given at the 
end of other histories. Galen rejected them, and he is 
followed by modern editors. Such identifications are alien 
from the spirit of the Epidemics, 


EPIDEMICS III, cases 1x.-x1. 

Nausea; sleeplessness. Urine scanty and thin. 
Excreta crude, thin and scanty. It was no longer 
possible to do her any good, and she died. 

Casz X 

A woman who was one of the house of Pantimides 
after a miscarriage was seized with fever on the first 
day. Tongue dry; thirst; nausea; sleeplessness. 
Bowels disordered, with thin, copious and crude 

Second day. Rigor; acute fever; copious stools ; 
no sleep. 

Third day. The pains greater. 

Fourth day. Delirium. 

Seventh day. Death. 

The bowels were throughout loose, with copious, 
thin, crude stools. Urine scanty and thin. 

Case XI 

Another woman, after a miscarriage about the 
fifth month, the wife of Hicetas, was seized with 
fever. At the beginning she had alternations of 
coma and sleeplessness ; pain in the loins; heaviness 
in the head. 

Second day. Bowels disordered with scanty, thin 
stools, which at first were uncompounded. 

Third day. Stools more copious and worse; no 
sleep at night. 

Fourth day. Delirium; fears; depression. Squint- 
ing of the right eye; slight cold sweat about the 
head; extremities cold. 

Fifth day. General exacerbation; much wander- 
ing, with rapid recovery of reason; no thirst; no 





a \ 
πολλοῖσιν ἀκαίροισι διὰ τέλεος" οὖρα ὀλίγα,λεπτά, 
ὑπομέλανα: ἄκρεα ψυχρά, ὑποπέλιδνα. ἕκτῃ 
rn lal , 
διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν. ἑβδόμῃ ἀπέθανε." 
ιβ΄. Τυναῖκα, ἥτις κατέκειτο ἐπὶ ψευδέων 
r “ / lal 
ἀγορῇ, τεκοῦσαν τότε πρῶτον ἐπιπόνως ἄρσεν 
an / / 
πῦρ ἔλαβεν. αὐτίκα ἀρχομένη διψώδης, ἀσώδης, 
/ e 7 Lal b] / / > 
καρδίην ὑπήλγει, γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, κοιλίη ἐπε- 
7 an ’ » > Ὁ“ 
ταράχθη λεπτοῖσιν ὀλίγοισιν, οὐχ ὕπνωσε. 
\ / X 
δευτέρῃ σμικρὰ ἐπερρίγωσε, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, σμικρὰ 
\ \ δ΄ an / ’ , 
περὶ κεφαλὴν ἵἴδρωσε ψυχρῷ. τρίτῃ ἐπιπόνως" 
ἀπὸ κοιλίης ὠμά, λεπτὰ πολλὰ διήει. τετάρτῃ 
ἐπερρίγωσε, πάντα παρωξύνθη: ἄγρυπνος. 
πέμπτῃ ἐπιπόνως. ἕκτῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν: ἀπὸ 
κοιλίης ἦλθε ὑγρὰ πολλά. ἑβδόμῃ ἐπερρίγωσε, 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς, δίψα, πολὺς βληστρισμός, περὶ 
δείλην ἵδρωσε δι’ ὅλου ψυχρῷ, ψύξις, ἄκρεα 
ψυχρά, οὐκέτι ἀνεθερμαίνετο" καὶ πάλιν ἐς νύκτα 
ἐπερρίγωσεν, ἄκρεα οὐκ ἀνεθερμαίνετο, οὐχ 
¢ , 
ὕπνωσε, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσε, καὶ πάλιν ταχὺ 
/ ΄ / 
κατενόει. ὀγδόῃ περὶ μέσον ἡμέρης ἀνεθερμάνθη, 
, » ’ 
διψώδης, κωματώδης, ἀσώδης, ἤμεσε χολώδεα 
ν oe , ΄ ͵ ᾽ ᾿ , 
σμικρὰ ὑπόξανθα. νύκτα δυσφόρως, οὐκ ἐκοιμήθη, 
” Nees ! 5) > aA suas. / 
οὔρησε πολὺ ἀθρόον οὐκ εἰδυῖα. ἐνάτῃ συνέδωκε 

1 has here ΠΙΘΔΑΖΘ. Before the characters most 
MSS. have φρενιτιαία: φρενῖτις Galen. 
2 After émepplywoe Galen adds γλῶσσα ξηρή. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases x1.—x11. 

sleep; stools copious and unfavourable throughout ; 
urine scanty, thin and blackish; extremities cold 
and rather livid. 

Sixth day, Same symptoms. 

Seventh day. Death. 

Case XII 

A woman who lay sick by the Liars’ Market, after 
giving birth in a first and painful delivery to a male 
child, was seized with fever. From the very first 
there was thirst, nausea, slight pain at the stomach, 
dry tongue, bowels disordered with thin and scanty 
discharges, no sleep. 

Second day. Slight rigor; acute fever; slight, 
cold sweating around the head. 

Third day. In pain; crude, thin, copious dis- 
charges from the bowels. 

Fourth day. Rigor; general exacerbation ; sleep- 

Fifth day. Jn pain. 

Sixth day, ‘The same symptoms; copious, fluid 
discharges from the bowels. 

Seventh day. Rigor; acute fever; thirst; much 
tossing ; towards evening cold sweat all over; chill; 
extremities cold, and would not be warmed. At 
night she again had a rigor; the extremities would 
not be warmed; no sleep; slight delirium, but 
quickly was rational again. 

Eighth day, About mid-day recovered her heat; 
thirst; coma; nausea; vomited bilious, scanty, 
yellowish matters. An uncomfortable night; no 
sleep; unconsciously passed a copious discharge 
of urine. 






πάντα, κωματώδης. πρὸς δείλην σμικρὰ ἐπερ- 
ρίγωσεν, ἤμεσε σμικρὰ χολώδεα. δεκάτῃ ῥῖγος, 
πυρετὸς παρωξύνθη, οὐχ ὕπνωσεν οὐδέν᾽ πρωὶ 
οὔρησε πολὺ ὑπόστασιν οὐκ ἔχον, ἄκρεα ἀνεθερ- 
μάνθη. ἑνδεκάτῃ ἤμεσε χολώδεα, ἰώδεα. ἐπερ- 
ρίγωσεν οὐ μετὰ πολύ, καὶ πάλιν ἄκρεα ψυχρά, 
ἐς δείλην ἱδρώς, ῥῖγος, ἤμεσε πολλά, νύκτα 
ἐπιπόνως. δωδεκώτῃ ἤμεσε πολλὰ μέλανα 
δυσώδεα, λυγμὸς πολύς, δίψος ἐπιπόνως. τρισ- 
καιδεκάτῃ μέλανα, δυσώδεα πολλὰ ἤμεσε, ῥῇγος" 
περὶ δὲ μέσον ἡμέρης ἄφωνος. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ 
αἷμα διὰ ῥινῶν" ἀπέθανε. ταύτῃ διὰ τέλεος 
κοιλίη ὑγρή φρικώδης: ἡλικίη περὶ ἔτεα 


II. "Etos νότιον ἔπομβρον" ἄπνοια διὰ τέλεος: 
αὐχμῶν δὲ γενομένων τοὺς ὑπόπροσθεν χρόνους 3 
ἐν νοτίοισι περὶ ἀρκτοῦρον ὕδατα πολλά. φθι- 
νόπωρον σκιῶδες, ἐπινέφελον, ὑδάτων πλήθεα. 
χειμὼν νότιος, ὑγρός, μαλθακὸς μετὰ ἡλίου 
τροπάς" ὕστερον πολλῷ, πλησίον ,ἰσημερίης, 
ὀπισθοχειμῶνες, καὶ ἤδη περὶ ἰσημερίην βόρεια, 
χιονώδεα, οὐ πολὺν χρόνον. 7p πάλιν νότιον, 
ἄπνοον. ὕδατα πολλὰ διὰ τέλεος μέχρι κυνός. 
θέρος αἴθριον, θερμόν, πνίγεα μεγάλα᾽ ἐτησίαι 

1 V has here ΠΙΔΔΙΔΟΔΙΘ. 

2 After χρόνους the MSS. have ἐπ᾽ ἐνιαυτόν. Littré queried 
the phrase and Ermerins deleted it. 


EPIDEMICS III, case xu. anp cH. IL 

Ninth day. General abatement of the symptoms ; 
coma. Towards evening slight rigor; vomited 
scanty, bilious matters. 

Tenth day. Rigor; exacerbation of the fever; no 
sleep whatsoever. In the early morning a copious 
discharge of urine without sediment; extremities 
were warmed. 

Eleventh day. Vomited bilious matters, of the 
colour of verdigris. A rigor shortly afterwards, and 
the extremities became cold again; in the evening 
sweat, rigor and copious vomiting ; a painful night. 

Twelfth day. Vomited copious, black, fetid matters ; 
much hiccoughing ; painful thirst. 

Thirteenth day. Vomited black, fetid, copious 
matters; rigor. About mid-day lost her speech. 

Fourteenth day. Epistaxis; death. 

The bowels of this patient were throughout loose, 
and there were shivering fits. Age about seventeen. 


II. The year was southerly and rainy, with no 
winds throughout. About the rising of Arcturus, 
while during the immediately preceding period 
droughts had prevailed, there were now heavy rains, 
with southerly winds. Autumn dark and cloudy, 
with abundance of rain. The winter southerly, 
humid, and mild after the solstice. Long after the 
solstice, near the equinox, wintry weather returned, 
and at the actual equinoctial period there were 
northerly winds with snow, but not for long. The 
spring southerly again, with no winds; many rains 
throughout until the Dog Star. The summer was 
clear and warm, with waves of stifling heat. The 






\ / y ἐξ / Ν \ 
σμικρὰ διεσπασμένως ἔπνευσαν' πάλιν δὲ περὶ 
rn “ ¢i 
ἀρκτοῦρον ἐν βορείοισιν ὕδατα πολλά. 
lal / n 
Γενομένου δὲ τοῦ ἔτεος νοτίου καὶ ὑγροῦ Kal 
la \ lal a fa 
μαλθακοῦ κατὰ μὲν χειμῶνα διῆγον ὑγιηρῶς πλὴν 
rn / ἈΝ ἐς 
τῶν φθινωδέων, περὶ ὧν γεγράψεται. 
\ \ n 4 ε an 
III. Πρωὶ δὲ τοῦ ἦρος ἅμα τοῖσι γενομένοισι 
A lal 
ψύχεσιν ἐρυσιπέλατα πολλά, τοῖσι μὲν μετὰ 
προφάσιος, τοῖσι δ᾽ οὔ, κακοήθεα" πολλοὺς ἔκτεινε, 
πολλοὶ φάρυγγας ἐπόνησαν" φωναὶ κακούμεναι, 
nr ΄ , 
καῦσοι, φρενιτικοί, στόματα ἀφθώδεα, αἰδοίοισι 
, , , ” , ΄ 
φύματα, ὀφθαλμίαι, ἄνθρακες, κοιλίαι ταραχώδεες, 
͵ , .: ὦ» 5 5 
ἀπόσιτοι, διψώδεες οἱ μέν, οἱ δ᾽ οὔ, οὖρα ταρα- 
χώδεα, πολλά, κακά, κωματώδεες ἐπὶ πολὺ καὶ 
πάλιν ἄγρυπνοι, ἀκρισίαι πολλαί, δύσκριτα, 
“ ΄ / N \ > / 
ὕδρωπες, φθινώδεες πολλοί. τὰ μὲν ἐπιδημήσαντα 
νοσήματα ταῦτα. ἑκάστου δὲ τῶν ὑπογεγραμ- 
μένων εἰδέων ἧσαν οἱ κάμνοντες καὶ ἔθνῃσκον 
, ΄ 505. το Ἐν , - 
πολλοί. συνέπιπτε δ᾽ ἐφ᾽ ἑκάστοισι τούτων ὧδε. 
a Ν 
IV. Πολλοῖσι μὲν τὸ ἐρυσίπελας μετὰ προ- 
φάσιος ἐπὶ τοῖσι τυχοῦσι καὶ πάνυ ἐπὶ σμικροῖσι 
/ 326 a , nr 
τρωματίοις ἐφ᾽ ὅλῳ TH σώματι, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖσι 
\ Υ 
περὶ ἑξήκοντα ἔτεα καὶ" περὶ κεφαλήν, εἰ καὶ 
\ ’ / an \ st > / 
σμικρὸν ἀμεληθείη. πολλοῖσι δὲ καὶ ἐν θεραπείῃ 
la) / \ 
€odar? μεγάλαι φλεγμοναὶ ἐγίνοντο, καὶ τὸ 
ἐρυσίπελας πολὺ ταχὺ πάντοθεν ἐπενέμετο. τοῖσι 
μὲν οὖν πλείστοισιν αὐτῶν ἀποστάσιες ἐς ἐμ- 
πυήματα συνέπιπτον: σαρκῶν καὶ νεύρων καὶ 

1 καὶ omitted by MSS., added by Littré from Galen. 
2 Littré puts a comma at ἀμεληθείη and a colon at ἐοῦσι. 


1 Or, ‘‘ forms.” 
2 With Littré’s punctuation the meaning is, ‘‘ however 



Etesian winds wexe faint and intermittent. But, on 
the other hand, near the rising of Arcturus there 
were heavy rains with northerly winds. 

The year having proved southerly, wet and mild, 
in the winter the general health was good except for 
the consumptives, who will be described in due course. 

III. Early in the spring, at the same time as the 
cold snaps which occurred, were many malignant 
cases! of erysipelas, some from a known exciting cause 
and some not. Many died, and many suffered pain 
in the throat. Voices impaired; ardent fevers ; 
phrenitis; aphthae in the mouth; tumours in the 
private parts ; inflammations of the eyes ; carbuncles ; 
disordered bowels; loss of appetite; thirst in some 
cases, though not in all; urine disordered, copious, 
bad; long coma alternating with sleeplessness ; 
absence of crisis in many cases, and obscure crises ; 
dropsies; many consumptives. Such were the 
diseases epidemic. There were patients suffering 
from each of the above types, and fatal cases were 
many. The symptoms in each type were as follow. 

IV. Many were attacked by the erysipelas all 
over the body when the exciting cause was a trivial 
accident or a very small wound; especially when the 
patients were about sixty years old and the wound 
was in the head, however little the neglect might 
have been. Many even while undergoing treat- 
ment suffered from severe inflammations,? 2 and the 
erysipelas would quickly spread widely in all direc- 
tions. Most of the patients experienced abscessions 
ending in suppurations. Flesh, sinews and bones 

slight the neglect, and even when a patient was actually 
undergoing treatment. There were severe inflammations,” 






ὀστέων ἐκπτώσιες μεγάλαι. VY δὲ Kal TO ῥεῦμα 
τὸ συνιστώμενον οὐ TUM ἴκελον, ἀλλὰ σηπεδών 
τις ἄλλη καὶ ῥεῦμα πολὺ καὶ ποικίλον. οἷσι μὲν 
οὖν περὶ κεφαλὴν τούτων τι συμπίπτοι γίνεσθαι, 
μάδησίς ΤΕ ὅλης τῆς κεφαλῆς ἐγίνετο καὶ τοῦ 
γενείου καὶ ὀστέων Ψιλώματα, καὶ ἐκπτώσιες καὶ 
πολλὰ ῥεύματα. ἐν πυρετοῖσί τε ταῦτα καὶ ἄνευ 
πυρετῶν. nv δὲ ταῦτα φοβερώτερα ἢ κακίω. 
οἷσι γὰρ ἐς ἐμπύημα ἤ τινα τοιοῦτον ἀφίκοιτο 
TET AT LOY," οἱ πλεῖστοι τούτων ἐσώζοντο. οἷσι 
δ᾽ ἡ μὲν φλεγμονὴ καὶ τὸ ἐρυσίπελας ἀπέλθοι, 
τοιαύτην δὲ ἀπόστασιν μηδεμίαν ποιήσαιτο, 
τούτων ἀπώλλυντο πολλοί. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ εἴ πῃ 
ἄλλῃ τοῦ σώματος πλανηθείη, συνέπιπτε ταῦτα. 
πολλοῖσι μὲν γὰρ βραχίων καὶ πῆχυς ὅλος 
περιερρύη. οἷσι δ᾽ ἐπὶ τὰ πλευρά, ταῦτα ἐκα- 
κοῦτο ἢ τῶν ἔμπροσθέν τι ἢ τῶν ὄπισθεν. οἷσι 
δ᾽ ὅλος ὁ μηρὸς ἢ τὰ περὶ κνήμην ἀπεψιλοῦτο 
καὶ ποὺς ὅλος. ἦν δὲ πάντων ναλεπώτατα τῶν 
τοιούτων, ὅτε περὶ ἥβην καὶ αἰδοῖα γενοίατο. τὰ 
μὲν περὶ ἕλκεα καὶ μετὰ προφάσιος τοιαῦτα. 
πολλοῖσι δὲ ἐν πυρετοῖσι καὶ πρὸ πυρετοῦ καὶ 
ἐπὶ πυρετοῖσι συνέπιπτεν. ἦν δὲ καὶ τούτων, 
ὅσα μὲν ἀπόστασιν ποιήσαιτο, διὰ τοῦ ἐκπυῆσαι 
ἢ κατὰ κοιλίην ταραχή τίς ἐπίκαιρος ἢ χρηστῶν 
οὔρων διάδοσις γένοιτο, διὰ τούτων λελύσθαι, 
οἷσι δὲ μηδὲν τούτων συμπίπτοι, ἀσήμως δὲ 
ἀφανιξομένων, θανατώδεα γίνεσθαι. πολὺ μὲν 
οὖν πλείστοισι συνέπιπτε τὰ περὶ τὸ ἐρυσίπελας 
τοῦ ἦρος. παρείπετο δὲ καὶ διὰ τοῦ θέρεος καὶ 
ὑπὸ φθινόπωρον. 



fell away in large quantities. The flux which formed 
was not like pus, but was a different sort of putre- 
faction with a copious and varied flux. If any of these 
symptoms occurred in the head, there was loss of 
hair from all the head and from the chin; the bones 
were bared and fell away, and there were copious 
fluxes. Fever was sometimes present and sometimes 
absent. These symptoms were terrifying rather 
than dangerous. For whenever they resulted in 
suppuration or some similar coction the cases usually 
recovered. But whenever the inflammation and the 
erysipelas disappeared without producing any such 
abscession, there were many deaths. The course of 
the disease was the same to whatever part of the 
body it spread. Many lost the arm and the entire 
forearm. If the malady settled in the sides there 
was rotting either before or behind. In some cases 
the entire thigh was bared, or the shin and the 
entire foot. But the most dangerous of all such 
cases were when the pubes and genital organs were 
attacked. Such were the sores which sprang from 
an exciting cause. In many cases, however, sores 
occurred in fevers, before a fever, or supervening on 
fevers. In some of these also, when an abscession 
took place through suppuration, or when a seasonable 
disturbance of the bowels occurred or a passing of 
favourable urine, this gave rise to a solution; but 
when none of these events happened, and the symp- 
toms disappeared without a sign, death resulted. It 
was in the spring that by far the greater number of 
cases of erysipelas occurred, but they continued 
throughout the summer and during autumn. 

1 So V and most MSS.: ὁ τῶν τοιούτων ἀφίκοιτο πεπασμὺς 
most editions. 






V. Πολλὴ δὲ ταραχή τισι Kal TA περὶ φάρυγγα 
φύματα, καὶ φλεγμοναὶ γλώσσης, καὶ τὰ παρ᾽ 
ὀδόντας ἀποστήματα. φωναί τε πολλοῖσιν 
ἐπεσήμαινον κακούμεναι καὶ κατίλλουσαι," 
πρῶτον μὲν τοῖσι φθινώδεσιν ἀρχομένοισιν, ἀτὰρ 
καὶ τοῖσι καυσώδεσι καὶ τοῖσι φρενιτικοῖσιν. 

VI. Ἤρξαντο μὲν οὖν οἱ καῦσοι καὶ τὰ φρενι- 
τικὰ πρωὶ τοῦ ἦρος μετὰ τὰ γενόμενα Ψύχεα, 
καὶ πλεῖστοι τηνικαῦτα διενόσησαν: ὀξέα δὲ 
τούτοισι καὶ θανατώδεα συνέπιπτεν. ἣν δὲ ἡ 
κατάστασις τῶν γενομένων καύσων ὧδε: ἀρχό- 
μενοι κωματώδεες, ἀσώδεες, φρικώδεες, πυρετὸς 
ὀξύς,3 οὐ διψώδεες λίην, οὐ παράληροι, ἀπὸ ῥινῶν 
ἔσταξε σμικρόν. οἱ παροξυσμοὶ τοῖσι πλεί- 
στοισιν ἐν ἀρτίῃσι, περὶ δὲ τοὺς παροξυσμοὺς 
λήθη καὶ ἄφεσις καὶ ἀφωνίη. ἄκρεά τε τούτοισιν 
αἰεὶ μὲν ψυχρότερα ποδῶν καὶ χειρῶν, πολὺ δὲ 
περὶ τοὺς παροξυσμοὺς μάλιστα: πάλιν τε βρα- 
δέως καὶ οὐ καλῶς ἀνεθερμαίνοντο καὶ πάλιν 
κατενόεον καὶ διελέγοντο. κατεῖχε δὲ ἢ τὸ κῶμα 
συνεχές, οὐχ ὑπνῶδες, ἢ μετὰ πόνων ἄγρυπνοι." 
κοιλίαι ταραχώδεες τοῖσι πλείστοισι τούτων, 
διαχωρήμασιν ὠμοῖσι, λεπτοῖσι, πολλοῖσιν" οὖρά 
τε πολλὰ λεπτὰ κρίσιμον οὐδὲ χρηστὸν οὐδὲν 
ἔχοντα" οὐδὲ ἄλλο κρίσιμον οὐδὲν τοῖσιν οὕτως 
ἔχουσιν ἐφαίνετο’ οὔτε γὰρ ἡμορράγει καλῶς 

1 κατίλλουσαι Freind and Kiihlewein: κατειλοῦσαι Vy 

κατείλλουσαι Hrotian. For other variants see Littré. 
2 Before ὀξύς Galen (VII 651) followed by Littré has οὐκ. 



V. Much trouble was caused to some patients by 
the tumours in the throat, inflammations of the 
tongue and the abscesses about the teeth. Many had 
the symptom of impaired and mutHed ! voice, at first 
at the beginning of the cases of consumption, but 
also in the ardent fevers and in phrenitis. 

VI. Now the ardent fevers and phrenitis began 
early in the spring after the cold snaps which 
occurred, and very many fell sick at that time. 
These suffered acute and fatal symptoms. The con- 
stitution of the ardent fevers that occurred was as 
follows. At the beginning coma, nausea, shivering, 
acute fever, no great thirst, no delirium, slight 
epistaxis. The exacerbations in most cases on even 
days, and about the time of the exacerbations there 
was loss of memory with prostration and speechless- 
ness. The feet and hands of these patients were 
always colder than usual, most especially about the 
times of exacerbation. Slowly and in no healthy 
manner they recovered their heat, becoming rational 
again and conversing. Either the coma held them 
continuously without sleep, or they were wakeful 
and in pain. Bowels disordered in the majority of 
these cases, with crude, thin, copious stools. Urine 
copious, thin, with no critical or favourable sign, nor 
did any other critical sign appear in these patients. 
For there occurred neither favourable hemorrhage 

1 The word so rendered has puzzled the commentators 
from very early times. See the full discussion of Littré 
ad loc. The ancients interpreted either ‘‘cooped up” or 
“altered,” ‘‘faussée” (Littré). See Erotian sub voce φωναὶ 
κατείλλουσαι. 1 think that H. used a strange word meta- 
phorically on purpose to describe a strange alteration in the 
voice, which was as it were ‘‘imprisoned” or (to borrow a 
motoring expression) ‘ silenced.” 





LA Μ lal » , » ΄ Sees, 
οὔτε TLS ἄλλη τῶν εἰθισμένων ἀπόστασις ἐγένετο 
κρίσιμος. ἔθνῃσκόν τε ἕκαστος ὡς τύχοι, πεπλα- 
νημένως τὰ πολλά, περὶ τὰς κρίσιας, ἐκ πολλοῦ 
δέ τινες ἄφωνοι, ἱδρῶντες πολλοί. τοῖσι μὲν 
ὀλεθρίως “ἔχουσι συνέπιπτε ταῦτα" παραπλήσια 
δὲ καὶ τοῖσι φρενιτικοῖσιν. ἄδιψοι δὲ πάνυ οὗτοι 
ἧσαν, οὐδ᾽ ἐξεμάνη τῶν φρενιτικῶν οὐδείς, ὥσπερ 
ἐπ᾿ ἄλλοισιν, ἀλλ᾽ ἄλλῃ τινὶ καταφορῇ νωθρῇ 
καρηβαρέες ' ἀπώλλυντο. 

VII. Ἦσαν δὲ καὶ ἄλλοι πυρετοί, περὶ ὧν γε- 
γράψεται. στόματα πολλοῖσιν ἀφθώδεα, ἑλκώδεα. 
ῥεύματα περὶ αἰδοῖα πολλά, ἑλκώματα, φύματα 
ἔξωθεν, ἔσωθεν. τὰ περὶ βουβῶνας. ὀφθαλμίαι 
ὑγραί, μακροχρόνιοι μετὰ πόνων. ἐπιφύσιες βλεφά- 
ρων ἔξωθεν, ἔσωθεν, πολλῶν φθείροντα τὰς ὄψιας, 
ἃ σῦκα ἐπονομάζουσιν. ἐφύετο δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν 
ἄλλων ἑλκέων πολλὰ καὶ ἐν αἰδοίοισιν. ἄνθρακες 
πολλοὶ κατὰ θέρος καὶ ἄλλα, ἃ on καλεῖται. 
ἐκθύματα μεγάλα. ἕρπητες πολλοῖσι μεγάλοι. 
VIII. Τὰ δὲ κατὰ κοιλίην πολλοῖσι πολλὰ 
καὶ βλαβερὰ συνέβαινε. πρῶτον μὲν τεινεσμοὶ 
πολλοῖσιν ἐπιπόνως, πλείστοισι δὲ παιδίοισι, 
\ -“ Dee 38 ἈΝ ser. ‘ 5 ΄ Ν 
καὶ πᾶσιν 3 ὅσα ὃ πρὸ ἥβης, καὶ ἀπώλλυντο τὰ 
πλεῖστα τούτων. λειεντερικοὶ πολλοί. δυσεντε- 
΄ x09 @ , ᾽ , \ \ , 
ριώδεες, οὐδ᾽ οὗτοι λίην ἐπιπόνως. τὰ δὲ χολώδεα 
\ \ \ \ \ id , “ 
καὶ λιπαρὰ καὶ λεπτὰ καὶ ὑδατώδεα' πολλοῖσι 
So Galen (XVI 579) καταφορῇ κακῇ νωθρῇ βαρέως MSS. 
πᾶσιν 1) and Galen: παισὶν V. 
ὅσα MSS.: ὅσοι most editions. 

eo 1 μ᾿ 

1 Possibly ‘‘ frequent,” ‘‘common.” So Littré. This is 
one of the most doubtful cases of those difficult words in 
a medical context, πολύς and ὀλίγος in the plural. See 
General Introduction, p. lxi. 


EPIDEMICS III, νι.-- ναι. 

nor any other of the usual critical abscessions. ‘The 
manner of their dying varied with the individual ; it 
was usually irregular, at the crises, but in some cases 
after long loss of speech and in many with sweating. 
These were the symptoms attending the fatal cases 
of ardent fever, and the cases of phrenitis were 
similar. These suffered from no thirst at all, and 
no case showed the mad delirium that attacked 
others, but they passed away overpowered by a dull 
oppression of stupor. 

VII. There were other fevers also, which I shall 
describe in due course. Many had aphthae and 
sores in the mouth. Fluxes about the genitals were 
copious!; sores, tumours external and internal ; the 
swellings which appear in the groin.2 Watery in- 
flammations of the eyes, chronic and painful. Growths 
on the eyelids, external and internal, in many cases 
destroying the sight, which are called “figs.” There 
were also often growths on other sores, particularly 
in the genitals. Many carbuncles in the summer, 
and other affections called “rot.” Large pustules. 
Many had large tetters. 

VIII. The bowel troubles in many cases turned 
out many and harmful. In the first place many 
were attacked by painful tenesmus, mostly children 
all in fact who were approaching puberty—and 
most of these died. Many lienteries. Cases of 
dysentery, but they too? were not very painful. 
Stools bilious, greasy, thin and watery. In many 

2 A curious phrase. I suspect that τὰ hides a corruption 
of the text. 

3 7. 2. as Galen suggests in his commentary, they were like 
the lienteries in not causing much pain. Lientery is not 
particularly painful. 





μὲν αὐτὸ τὸ νόσημα ἐς τοῦτο κατέσκηψεν ἄνευ τε 
πυρετῶν καὶ ἐν πυρετοῖσι. μετὰ πόνων στρόφοι 
καὶ ἀνειλήσιες κακοήθεες. διέξοδοί τε τῶν 
πολλῶν ἐνόντων ' τε καὶ ἐπισχόντων. τὰ δὲ 
διεξιόντα πόνους οὐ λύοντα τοῖσί τε προσφερομέ- 
νοισι δυσκόλως ὑπακούοντα" καὶ γὰρ αἱ καθάρσιες 
τοὺς πλείστους προσέβλαπτον. τῶν δὲ οὕτως 
ἐχόντων πολλοὶ μὲν ὀξέως ἀπώλλυντο, ἔστι δ᾽ 
οἷσι καὶ μακρότερα διῆγεν. ὡς δ᾽ ἐν κεφαλαίῳ 
εἰρῆσθαι, πάντες, καὶ οἱ τὰ μακρὰ νοσέοντες καὶ 
οἱ τὰ ὀξέα, ἐκ τῶν κατὰ κοιλίην ἀπέθνῃσκον 
μάλιστα. πάντας γὰρ κοιλίη συναπήνεγκεν. 
ΙΧ. ᾿Απόσιτοι δ᾽ ἐγένοντο πάντες μὲν καὶ ἐπὶ 
πᾶσι τοῖσι προγεγραμμένοισιν, ὡς ἐγὼ οὐδὲ 
πώποτε ἐνέτυχον, πολὺ δὲ μάλιστα οὗτοι Kal” ἐκ 
τούτων καὶ ἐκ τῶν ἄλλων δὲ οἱ καὶ ὀλεθρίως 

1 ἐνόντων MSS. But should we not expect ἐνεόντων Ὁ I 
suggest μενόντων. Cf. my. suggestion on p. 320. 
2 After καὶ MSS. have of. Blass omitted. 

1 Littré in a long and obscure note argues that only ἄνευ 
πυρετῶν and not ἐν πυρετοῖσι can belong to the preceding phrase, 
apparently because it is illogical to say that fever was present 
when the disease consisted merely of unhealthy stools. But 
the writer does not wish to exclude fever; he merely wishes 
to exclude from this class of patient tenesmus, lientery and 
dysentery. The commentary of Galen, πολλοῖς δέ φησιν αὐτὸ 
τοῦτο γενέσθαι τὸ νόσημα, τουτέστι τὸ διαχωρεῖν τὰ τοιαῦτα" καὶ 
γὰρ καὶ χωρὶς πυρετῶν ἐνίοις τοῦτο γενέσθαι φησί, does not, as 
Littré supposes, support his contention. The phrase καὶ 
χωρὶς πυρετῶν ἐνίοις τοῦτο γενέσθαι φησὶ implies καὶ ἐν πυρετοῖς 
τοῦτο ἐγένετο. 

2 It is hard to separate διέξοδοι from τῶν πολλῶν, yet the 
sense seems to require it. The next sentence states that 
these evacuations caused no relief, evidently because they 


EPIDEMICS III, νπι.--ἰχ. 

eases this condition of the bowels constituted the 
disease itself, fever being sometimes absent and 
sometimes present.! Painful tormina and malignant 
colic. There were evacuations, though the bulk of 
the contents remained behind.2 The evacuations 
did not take away the pains, and yielded with diffi- 
culty to the remedies administered. Purgings, in 
fact, did harm in most cases. Of those in this con- 
dition many died rapidly, though a few held out 
longer. In brief, all patients, whether the disease 
was prolonged or acute, died chiefly from the bowel 
complaints. For the bowels carried all off together.® 

IX. Loss of appetite, to a degree that I never 
met before, attended all the cases described above, 
but most especially the last, and of them, and of the 
others also, especially such as were fatally stricken.4 

did not clear the trouble from the bowel. Now if διέξοδοι be 
taken with τῶν πολλῶν, the only possible translation is 
‘‘evacuations of the many contents which were retained 
there,” implying complete evacuation. Galen’s comment 
(Kihn XVII, PartI, p. 708) bears out the former interpreta- 
tion: τὰς δὲ διεξόδους. τουτέστὶ τὰς κενώσεις, αὐτοῖς συμβῆναι, 
πολλῶν ἐνόντων καὶ ἐπισχόντων . . . .. καὶ διὰ τοῦτο μηδὲ τοὺς 
πόνους λύειν τὰ διεξιόντα. πῶς γὰρ οἷόν τε λύειν αὐτά, πολλῶν ἔτι 
τῶν ἐπεχομένων ὄντων ; It should be noticed that ἐπισχόντων 
is probably from ἐπίσχω (Galen’s ἐπεχομένων) and not from 
ἐπέχω, although I cannot find a parallel for intransitive 
ἐπίσχω in this sense. 

5. The writer has not expressed himself clearly in this 
chapter, which seems to be the roughest of rough notes. The 
last two sentences apparently mean :— 

(a) It was always the bowel complaints which caused most 
deaths. This was natural, since (b) all attacked by bowel 
complaints died. 

4 The emendation of Blass permits the translator of this 
passage to harmonize both sense and grammar. Before it 
was impossible to do so, 

VOL,.1. L 249 



ἔχοιεν. διψώδεες οἱ μέν, οἱ δ᾽ ov: τῶν ἐν πυρε- 
τοῖσι καὶ τοῖσιν ἄλλοισιν οὐδεὶς ἀκαίρως, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἣν κατὰ ποτὸν διαιτᾶν ὡς ἤθελες. 

X. Οὖρα δὲ πολλὰ μὲν τὰ διεξιόντα ἣν, οὐκ ἐκ 
τῶν προσφερομένων ποτῶν, ἀλλὰ πολλὸν ὑπερ- 
βάλλοντα. πολλὴ δέ τις καὶ τῶν οὔρων κακότης 
ἣν τῶν ἀπιόντων. οὔτε γὰρ πάχος οὔτε πεπα- 
σμοὺς οὔτε καθάρσιας χρηστὰς elev! ἐσήμαινεν 
δὲ τοῖσι πλείστοισι σύντηξιν καὶ ταραχὴν καὶ 
πόνους καὶ ἀκρισίας. 

XI. Κωματώδεες δὲ μάλιστα οἱ φρενιτικοὶ καὶ 
οἱ καυσώδεες ἦσαν, ἀτὰρ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖς ἄλλοισι 
νοσήμασι πᾶσι τοῖσι μεγίστοισιν, ὅ TL μετὰ 
πυρετοῦ ylvorto. διὰ παντὸς δὲ τοῖσι πλεί- 
στοισιν ἢ βαρὺ κῶμα παρείπετο ἢ μικροὺς καὶ 
λεπτοὺς ὕπνους κοιμᾶσθαι. 

XII. Πολλὰ δὲ καὶ ἄλλα πυρετῶν ἐπεδήμησεν 
εἴδεα, τριταίων, τεταρταίων, νυκτερινῶν, συν- 
εχέων, μακρῶν, πεπλανημένων, ἀσωδέων, ἀκατα- 
στάτων. ἅπαντες δὲ οὗτοι μετὰ πολλῆς ἐγίνοντο 
ταραχῆς" κοιλίαι τε γὰρ τοῖσι πλείστοισιν ταρα- 
χώδεες, φρικώδεες. ἱδρῶτες οὐ κρίσιμοι, καὶ τὰ 
τῶν οὔρων ὡς ὑπογέγραπται. μακρὰ δὲ τοῖσι 
πλείστοισι τούτων: οὐδὲ γὰρ αἱ γινόμεναι 
τούτοισιν ἀποστάσιες ἔκρινον ὥσπερ ἐπὶ τοῖσιν 
ἄλλοισι. δύσκριτα μὲν οὖν πᾶσι πάντα ἐγίνετο 
καὶ ἀκρισίαι καὶ χρόνια, πολὺ δὲ μάλιστα τούτοις. 

1 After εἶχεν MSS. have ἐπὶ πολλοῖσι γὰρ αἱ κατὰ κύστιν 

καθάρσιες χρησταὶ γενομέναι ἀγαθόν. Deleted as an explana- 
tory note by Ermerins. 

1 Probably ‘disordered bowels,” a common meaning of 
ταραχὴ in the Corpus. 



Thirst afflicted some, but not others; of the fever 
patients, as well as of the other cases, none were un- 
seasonably affected, but as far as drink was concerned 
you could diet them as you pleased. 

X. The urine that was passed was copious, not in 
proportion to, but far exceeding, the drink adminis- 
tered. Yet the urine too that was passed showed 
a great malignancy. For it had neither the proper 
consistency, nor coction, nor cleansing powers; it 
signified for most patients wasting, trouble,! pains, 
and absence of crisis. 

XI. Coma attended mostly the phrenitis and ardent 
fevers, without excluding, however, all the other dis- 
eases of the most severe sort that were accompanied 
by fever. Most patients throughout either were 
sunk in heavy coma or slept only in fitful snatches. 

XII. Many other forms also of fever were epi- 
demic :—tertians, quartans, night fevers, fevers 
continuous, protracted, irregular, fevers attended with 
nausea, fevers of no definite character. All these 
cases suffered severely from trouble.2 For the 
bowels in most cases were disordered, with shiver- 
ing fits. Sweats portended no crisis, and the 
character of the urine was as I have described. 
Most of these cases were protracted, for the ab- 
scessions too which took place did not prove critical 
as in other cases; nay rather, in all cases all 
symptoms marked obscurity of crisis,? or absence 
of crisis, or protraction of the disease, but most 
especially in the patients last described. A few 

? See the preceding note. 
Χ Ul ’ 9 
3 For δύσκριτον see Foes’ Oeconomia, sub voce. It means 
that it was hard to see when a crisis took place, or that 
the crisis was not a marked one. 






ἔκρινε δὲ τούτων ὀλίγοισι περὶ ὀγδοηκοστήν. 
τοῖσι δὲ πλείστοισιν ἐξέλειπεν ὡς ἔτυχεν. ἔθνῃ- 
σκον δὲ τούτων ὀλίγοι ὑπὸ ὕδρωπος ὀρθοστάδην. 
πολλοῖσι δὲ καὶ ἐπὶ τοῖσιν ἄλλοισι νοσήμασιν 
οἰδήματα παρώχλει, πολὺ δὲ μάλιστα τοῖσι 

XIII. Μέγιστον δὲ καὶ χαλεπώτατον καὶ 
πλείστους ἔκτεινε τὸ φθινῶδες. πολλοὶ γάρ 
τίνες ἀρξάμενοι κατὰ “χειμῶνα πολλοὶ μὲν κατε- 
κλίθησαν, οἱ δὲ αὐτῶν ὀρθοστάδην ὑπεφέροντο" 
πρωὶ δὲ τοῦ ἦρος ἔθνησκον οἱ πλεῖστοι τῶν 
κατακλιθέντων᾽ τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ἐξέλιπον μὲν 
αἱ βῆχες οὐδενί, ὑφίεσαν δὲ κατὰ θέρος. ὑπὸ 
δὲ τὸ φθινόπωρον κατεκλίθησαν πάντες καὶ 
πολλοὶ ἔθνῃσκον. μακρὰ δὲ τούτων οἱ πλεῖστοι 
διενόσεον. ἤρξατο μὲν οὖν τοῖσι πλείστοισι 
τούτων ἐξαίφνης ἐκ τούτων κακοῦσθαι" φρικώ- 
dees πυκνά. πολλάκις πυρετοὶ συνεχέες, ὀξέες" 
ἱδρῶτες ἄκαιροι πολλοί, ψυχροὶ διὰ τέλεος" 
πολλὴ ψύξις, καὶ μόγις πάλιν ἀναθερμαινόμενοι" 
κοιλίαι ποικίλως ἐφιστάμεναι καὶ πάλιν ταχὺ 
καθυγραινόμεναι, περὶ δὲ “τελευτὴν πᾶσι βιαίως 
καθυγραινόμεναι" καὶ τῶν περὶ πνεύμονα πάν- 
των διάδοσις κάτω. πλῆθος οὔρων οὐ χρηστῶν" 
συντήξιες κακαί. αἱ δὲ βῆχες ἐνῆσαν μὲν διὰ 
τέλεος πολλαὶ καὶ πολλὰ ἀνάγουσαι πέπονα 
καὶ ὑγρά, μετὰ πόνων δὲ οὐ λίην" ἀλλ᾽ εἰ καὶ 
ἐπόνεον, πάνυ πρηέως πᾶσιν ἡ κάθαρσις τῶν 
ἀπὸ πνεύμονος ἐγίνετο. φάρυγγες οὐ λίην δακνώ- 
dees, οὐδὲ ἁλμυρίδες οὐδὲν ἠνώχλεον: τὰ μέντοι 

1 From περὶ to καθυγραινόμεναι omitted by all MSS. except 
H (in margin). 


of these had a crisis about the eightieth day; 
with most recovery followed no rule. A few of 
them died of dropsy, without taking to their bed; 
many sufferers from the other diseases too were 
troubled with swellings, most particularly the 

XIII. The severest and most troublesome disease, 
as well as the most fatal, was the consumption. 
Many cases began in the winter, and of these 
several took to their bed, though some went about 
ailing without doing so. Early in the spring most 
of those who had gone to bed died, while none of the 
others lost their cough, though it became easier in 
the summer. During autumn all took to bed and 
many died. Most of these were ill for a long time. 
Now most of these began suddenly to grow worse, 
showing the following symptoms :—frequent shiver- 
ing; often continuous and acute fever; unseasonable, 
copious,! cold sweats throughout; great chill with 
difficult recovery of heat; bowels variously consti- 
pated, then quickly relaxing, and violently relaxing 
in all cases near the end; the humours about the 
lungs spread downwards ; abundance of unfavourable 
urine; malignant wasting. The coughs throughout 
were frequent, bringing up copious,! concocted and 
liquid sputa, but without much pain; but even if 
there was pain, in all cases the purging from the 
lungs took place very mildly. The throat did not 
smart very much, nor did salt humours cause any 
distress at all. The fluxes, however, viscid, white, 

1 JT am often doubtful as to the meaning of πολλοὶ in 
instances like these; does it refer to quantity or frequency ? 
In these two examples either meaning would give excellent 
sense. See General Introduction, p. 1xi. 





γλίσχρα καὶ λευκὰ καὶ ὑγρὰ καὶ ἀφρώδεα 
πολλὰ ἀπὸ κεφαλῆς ἤει. πολὺ δὲ μέγιστον 
κακὸν παρείπετο καὶ τούτοισι καὶ τοῖσιν ἄλλοισι 
τὰ περὶ τὴν ἀποσιτίην, καθάπερ ὑπογέγραπται" 
οὐδὲ γὰρ πότων μετὰ τροφῆς ἡδέως εἶχον, ἀλλὰ 
πάνυ διῆγον ἀδίψως" βάρος σώματος: κωμα- 
τώδεες" τοῖσι πλείστοισιν αὐτῶν οἴδημα, καὶ ἐς 
ὕδρωπα περιίσταντο' φρικώδεες, παράληροι περὶ 

XIV. Εἶδος δὲ τῶν φθινωδέων ἣν τὸ λεῖον, 
τὸ ὑπόλευκον, τὸ parades, TO ὑπέρυθρον, τὸ 
χαροπόν, λευκοφλεγματίαι, πτερυγώδεες" καὶ 
γυναῖκες οὕτω. τὸ μελαγχολικὸν καὶ ὕφαιμον" 
οἱ καῦσοι καὶ τὰ φρενιτικὰ καὶ τὰ δυσεντεριώδεα 
τούτων ἥπτετο. τειψεσμοὶ νέοισι φλεγματώδεσιν' 
αἱ μακραὶ διάρροιαι καὶ τὰ δριμέα διαχωρήματα 
καὶ λιπαρὰ πικροχόλοισιν. 

XV. Ἦν δὲ πᾶσι τοῖς ὑπογεγραμμένοις χαλε- 
πώτατον μὲν τὸ ἔαρ καὶ πλείστους ἀπέκτεινε, τὸ 
δὲ θέρος ῥήϊστον, καὶ ἐλάχιστοι ἀπώλλυντο. τοῦ 
δὲ φθινοπώρου καὶ ὑπὸ πληϊάδα πάλιν ἔθνῃσκον, 
οἱ πολλοὶ τεταρταῖοι. “ δοκεῖ δέ μοι προσωφε- 
λῆσαι κατὰ λόγον τὸ “γενόμενον θέρος. τὰς γὰρ 
θερινὰς νούσους χειμὼν ἐπιγενόμενος λύει, καὶ 
τὰς χειμερινὰς θέρος ἐπιγενόμενον μεθίστησι. 

1 φακῶδες most MSS.: ταραχῶδες R’: φλεγματῶδες Galen. 

2 From δοκεῖ δέ μοι to the end of the κατάστασις appears in 
the MSS. not here but at the end of the book. Most editors 
have transposed the passage to this place. 

1 It seems impossible to decide whether the adjective 
χαροπός refers here to the brightness of the eyes or to their 
colour (blue or grey). 


EPIDEMICS III, χπι.--χν. 

moist, frothy, which came from the head, were 
abundant. But by far the worst symptom that 
attended both these cases and the others was the 
distaste for food, as has been mentioned. They had 
no relish either for drink with nourishment, but they 
remained entirely without thirst. Heaviness in the 
body. Coma. In most of them there was swelling, 
which developed into dropsy. Shivering fits and 
delirium near death. 

XIV. The physical characteristics of the consump- 
tives were:—skin smooth, whitish, lentil-coloured, 
reddish ; bright eyes;! a leucophlegmatic ?  con- 
dition; shoulder-blades projecting like wings. Women 
too so. As to those with a melancholic? or a rather 
sanguine 2 complexion, they were attacked by ardent 
fevers, phrenitis and dysenteric troubles. Tenesmus 
affected young, phlegmatic? people; the chronic 
diarrhoea and acrid, greasy stools affected persons 
of a bilious? temperament. 

XV. In all the cases described spring was the 
worst enemy, and caused the most deaths; summer 
was the most favourable season, in which fewest 
died. In autumn and during the season of the 
Pleiades, on the other hand, there were again 
deaths, usually on the fourth day. And it seems 
to me natural that the coming on of summer should 
have been helpful. For the coming on of winter 
resolves the diseases of summer, and the coming on 
of summer removes those of winter. And yet in 

2 See General Introduction, p. xlvi-li, on the humours. 
‘Bitter bile” was the same as that sometimes called 
** vellow.” 

5. This brief phrase seems to mean that the same character- 
istics marked consumptive women as consumptive men. 







καίτοι AUTO γε ἐπὶ ἑωυτοῦ τὸ γενόμενον θέρος οὐκ 
εὐσταθὲς ἐγένετο" καὶ γὰρ ἐξαίφνης θερμὸν 
καὶ νότιον καὶ ἄπνοον: ἀλλ᾽ ὅμως πρὸς τὴν 
ἄλλην κατάστασιν μεταλλάξαν ὠφέλησε. 

XVI. Μέγα δὲ μέρος ἡγεῦμαι τῆς τέχνης εἶναι 
τὸ δύνασθαι “σκοπεῖν καὶ περὶ τῶν γεγραμμένων 
ὀρθῶς. ὁ γὰρ γνοὺς καὶ χρεώμενος τούτοις οὐκ 
ἄν μοι δοκεῖ μέγα σφάλλεσθαι ἐν τῇ τέχνη. δεῖ 
δὲ καταμανθάνειν τὴν κατάστασιν τῶν ὡρέων 
ἀκριβῶς ἑκάστην: καὶ τὸ νόσημα, ἀγαθὸν ὅ τι 

ae Sse ; ap inp ae I ‘ 
κοινὸν ἐν TH καταστάσει ἢ ἐν TH νούσῳ, κακὸν 
ὅ τι κοινὸν ἐν τῇ καταστάσει ἢ ἐν τῆ νούσῳ, 
μακρὸν ὅ τι νόσημα καὶ θανάσιμον, μακρὸν ὅ 
τι καὶ περιεστικόν, ὀξὺ ὅ τι θανάσιμον, ὀξὺ 6 
τι περιεστικόν' τάξιν τῶν κρισίμων ἐκ τούτων 
σκοπεῖσθαι καὶ προλέγειν ἐκ τούτων εὐπορεῖται. 
εἰδότι περὶ τούτων ἔστιν εἰδέναι οὺς καὶ ὅτε καὶ 
ὡς δεῖ διαιτᾶν. 

€ , ΕΣ 
Εκκαίδεκα ἄρρωστοι 

XVII. α΄. “Ev Θάσῳ τὸν Ἰ]άριον, ὃς κατέκειτο 
ὑπὲρ ᾿Αρτεμισίου, πυρετὸς ἔλαβεν ὀξύς, κατ᾽ ἀρ- 
χὰς συνεχής, καυσώδης" δίψος" ἀρχόμενος κωμα- 
τώδης καὶ πάλιν ἄγρυπνος" κοιλίη ταραχώδης 
ἐν ἀρχῇσιν, οὖρα λεπτά. ἕκτῃ οὔρησεν ἐλαιῶδες, 
παρέκρουσεν. ἑβδόμῃ παρωξύνθη πάντα, οὐδὲν 

1 One MS. reads ἑκάστης, perhaps rightly. 

1 «Of a good constitution.” 
2 This chapter does not fit in with the context, and occurs 


EPIDEMICS III, cu. xv.—casz 1. 

itself the summer in question was not healthful : 1 
in fact it was suddenly hot, southerly, and calm. 
But nevertheless the change from the other con- 
stitution proved beneficial. 

XVI. The power, too, to study correctly what has 
been written I consider to be an important part of 
the art of medicine. The man who has learnt these 
things and uses them will not, I think, make 
great mistakes in the art. And it is necessary to 
learn accurately each constitution of the seasons 
as well as the disease; what common element 
in the constitution or in the disease is good, and 
what common element in the constitution or in the 
disease is bad ; what malady is protracted and fatal, 
what is protracted and likely to end in recovery ; 
what acute illness is fatal, what acute illness is likely 
to end in recovery. With this knowledge it is easy 
to examine the order of the critical days, and to 
prognosticate therefrom. One who has knowledge 
of these matters can know whom he ought to treat, 
as well as the time and method of treatment.” 

CasE I 

XVII. In Thasos the Parian who lay sick beyond 
the temple of Artemis was seized with acute fever, 
which at the beginning was continuous and ardent. 
Thirst. At the beginning coma followed by sleep- 
lessness. Bowels disordered at the beginning ; urine 

Stxth day. Oily urine ; delirium. 

Seventh day. General exacerbation; no sleep ; 
again at the beginning of the book περὶ κρισίμων. Ermerins 
brackets it, 






ἐκοιμήθη, ἀλλὰ οὖρά τε ὅμοια καὶ τὰ τῆς 
γνώμης ταραχώδεα: ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης χολώδεα, 
λιπαρὰ διῆλθεν. ὀγδόῃ σμικρὸν ἀπὸ ῥινῶν 
ἔσταξεν, ἤμεσεν ἰώδεα ὀλίγα, σμικρὰ ἐκοιμήθη. 
ἐνάτῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν. δεκάτῃ πάντα συνέδωκεν. 
ἑνδεκάτῃ ἵδρωσε δι’ ὅλου: περιέψυξε, ταχὺ δὲ 
πάλιν ἀνεθερμάνθη. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ 1 arupe- 
τὸς ὀξύς. διαχωρήματα χολώδεα, λεπτά, πολλά, 
οὔροισιν ἐναιώρημα, παρέκρουσεν. ἑπτακαιδε- 
κάτῃ ἐπιπόνως" οὔτε γὰρ ὕπνοι, ὅ τε πυρετὸς 
ἐπέτεινεν. εἰκοστῇ ἵδρωσε δι’ ὅλου: ἄπυρος," 
διαχωρήματα χολώδεα, ἀπόσιτος, κωματώδης" 
εἰκοστῇ τετώρτῃ ὑπέστρεψε. τριηκοστῇ τετάρτῃ 

ἄπυρος, κοιλίη οὐ συνίστατο, καὶ πάλιν ἀνεθερ- 
μάνθη. τεσσαρακοστῇ ἄπυρος, κοιλίη συνέστη 
χρόνον οὐ πολύν, ἀπόσιτος, σμικρὰ πάλιν ἐπύρεξε 
καὶ διὰ παντὸς πεπλανημένως. ἄπυρος τὰ μέν, 
τὰ δ᾽ οὔ: εἰ γάρ τι διαλίποι καὶ διακουφύσαι; 
ταχὺ πάλιν ὑπέστρεφε. σιταρίοισί τε ὀλίγοισι 
καὶ φαύλοισι προσεχρῆτο. ὕπνοι κακοί, περὶ 
τὰς ὑποστροφὰς παρέκρουσεν. οὖρα πάχος μὲν 
ἔχοντα οὔρει τηνικαῦτα, ταραχώδεα δὲ καὶ 
πονηρά. καὶ τὰ κατὰ κοιλίην συνιστάμενα καὶ 
πάλιν διαλυόμενα. πυρέτια συνεχέα. διαχω- 
ρήματα λεπτά, πολλά. ἐν εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν 
ἔθανε. τούτῳ κοιλίη συνεχέως ἀπὸ τῆς πρώτης 
ὑγρὴ χολώδεσιν, ὑγροῖσι πολλοῖσιν ἣν ἢ συν- 

1 τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ Littré from Galen (WII 649): τρισκαι- 
δεκάτη V. (It is the 14th day which is important as a 
critical day. ) 

2 ἄπυρος Littré from Galen: ἄγρυπνος V. 

3 ὀλίγοισι Kiihlewein: πολλοῖσι MSS. 



urine similar and mind disordered ; stools bilious and 

Eighth day. Slight epistaxis; vomited scanty 
matters of the colour of verdigris ; snatches of sleep. 

Ninth day. Same symptoms. 

Tenth day. General improvement. 

Eleventh day. Sweated all over; grew chilly, but 
quickly recovered heat. 

Fourteenth day. Acute fever ; stools bilious, thin, 
copious ; substance floating in urine ; delirium. 

Seventeenth day. In pain; no sleep, while the fever 
grew worse. 

Twentieth day. Sweated all over; no fever ; stools 
bilious ; aversion to food ; coma. 

Twenty-fourth day. Relapse. 

Thirty-fourth day. No fever ; no constipation ; re- 
covered heat. 

Fortieth day, No fever; bowels constipated for a 
short time; aversion to food; became slightly 
feverish again, throughout irregularly, the fever being 
sometimes absent, sometimes present; for if the 
fever intermitted and was alleviated there was a 
relapse soon afterwards. He took little bits of 
food, and that of an unsuitable sort. Sleep bad ; 
delirium at the relapses. Urine at these times had 
consistency, but was troubled and bad. Bowels con- 
stipated, but afterwards relaxed. Continuous slight 
fevers. Stools thin and copious. 

Hundred and twentieth day, Death. 

In this case the bowels continuously from the 
first day loose with bilious, loose, copious stools, or 





ἱσταμένη ζέουσι καὶ ἀπέπτοισιν᾽ ovpa διὰ τέλεος 
κακά: κωματώδης τὰ πε τ; μετὰ πόνων ἄγρυτ- 
νος, ἀπόσιτος συνεχέωςἰ 

β΄. Ἔν Θάσῳ τὴν κατακειμένην παρὰ τὸ 
ψυχρὸν ὕδωρ ἐκ τόκου θυγατέρα τεκοῦσαν καθάρ- 
σιος οὐ γενομένης πυρετὸς ὀξὺς φρικώδης τρι- 
ταίην ἔλαβεν. ἐκ χρόνου δὲ πολλοῦ πρὸ τοῦ 
τόκου πυρετώδης ἦν, κατακλινής, ἀπόσιτος. 
μετὰ δὲ τὸ γενόμενον ῥῖγος συνεχέες, ὀξέες, 
φρικώδεες οἱ πυρετοί. ὀγδόῃ πολλὰ παρέκρουσε 
καὶ τὰς ἐχομένας καὶ ταχὺ πάλιν κατενόει" 
κοιλίη ταραχώδης πολλοῖσι λεπτοῖσιν, ὑδατο- 
χόλοις: ἄδιψος. ἑνδεκάτῃ κατενόει, κωμα- 
τώδης δ᾽ ἦν' οὖρα πολλὰ λεπτὰ καὶ μέλανα, 
ἄγρυπνος. εἰκοστῇ σμικρὰ περιέψυξε καὶ ταχὺ 
πάλιν ἀνεθερμάνθη, σμικρὰ παρέλεγεν, ἄγρυπνος" 
τὰ κατὰ κοιλίην. ἐπὶ τῶν αὐτῶν' οὖρα ὑδατώδεα 
πολλά. εἰκοστῇ ἑβδόμῃ ἄπυρος, κοιλίη συν- 
ἐστη, οὐ πολλῷ δὲ χρόνῳ ὕστερον ἰσχίου δεξιοῦ 
ὀδύνη ἰσχυρὴ χρόνον πολύν πυρετοὶ πάλιν 
παρείποντο" οὖρα ὑδατώδεα. τεσσαρακοστῇ τὰ 
μὲν περὶ τὸ ἰσχίον ἐπεκούφισε, βῆχες δὲ συν- 
εχέες ὑγραὶ TONAL, “κοιλίη συνέστη, ἀπόσι- 
τος" οὖρα ἐπὶ τῶν αὐτῶν. οἱ δὲ πυρετοὶ τὸ 
μὲν ὅλον οὐκ ἐκλείποντες, πεπλανημένως δὲ 

1 After συνεχέως the MSS. have καῦσος. 
* V has here WIT@AYTPKO. 

1 Lit. ‘‘seething ” or “ boiling.” The reference is possibly 
not so much to heat as to the steaming, frothy nature of the 


EPIDEMICS III, cases 1.-11. 

constipated with hot,! undigested stools. Urine 
throughout bad; mostly comatose; painful sleep- 
lessness ; 2 continued aversion to food. 

Cast II 

In Thasos the woman who lay sick by the Cold 
Water, on the third day after giving birth to a 
daughter without lochial discharge, was seized with 
acute fever accompanied by shivering. For a long 
time before her delivery she had suffered from fever, 
being confined to bed and averse to food. After the 
rigor that took place, the fevers were continuous, 
acute, and attended with shivering. 

Eighth and following days. Much delirium, quickly 
followed by recovery of reason; bowels disturbed 
with copious, thin, watery and bilious stools; no 

Eleventh day. Was rational, but comatose. Urine 
copious, thin and black ; no sleep. 

Twentieth day. Slight chills,? but heat quickly 
recovered ; slight wandering ; no sleep; bowels the 
same}; urine watery and copious, 

Twenty-seventh day, No fever; bowels constipated ; 
not long afterwards severe pain in the right hip for 
along time. Fevers again attended ; urine watery. 

Fortieth day, Pain in the hip relieved ; continuous 
coughing, with watery, copious sputa; bowels con- 
stipated ; aversion to food; urine the same. The 
fevers, without entirely intermitting, were exacer- 

* The meaning apparently is that the patient was generally 
in a state of coma; if not comatose, he was in pain and could 
not sleep. 

8 This sentence shows that περί in περιψύχω means not 

“very,” but ‘all over.” The phrase may mean “slight 





παροξυνόμενοι, τὰ μέν, τὰ δ᾽ οὔ. ἑξηκοστῇ αἱ 
μὲν βῆχες ἀσήμως ἐξέλιπον" οὔτε γάρ τις πτυά- 
λων πεπασμὸς ἐγένετο οὔτε ἄλλη τῶν εἰθισμένων 
ἀπόστασις: σιηγὼν δὲ ἡ ἐκ τῶν ἐπὶ δεξιὰ κατ- 
εσπάσθη: κωματώδης" παρέλεγε καὶ ταχὺ πάλιν 
κατενόει" πρὸς δὲ τὰ γεύματα ἀπονενοημένως elev 

σιηγὼν μὲν ἐπανῆκε, κοιλίη δὲ χολώδεα σμικρὰ 
διέδωκεν, ἐπύρεξεν ὀξυτέρως, φρικώδης" καὶ τὰς 
ἐχομένας ἄφωνος καὶ πάλιν διελέγετο." ὀγδοη- 
κοστῇ ἀπέθανε. ταύτῃ τὰ τῶν οὔρων διὰ τέλεος 
ἣν μέλανα καὶ λεπτὰ καὶ ὑδατώδεα. κῶμα 
παρείπετο, ἀπόσιτος, ἄθυμος, ἄγρυπνος, ὀργαί, 
δυσφορίαι, τὰ περὶ τὴν γνώμην μελαγχολικά." 

ve Ἔν Θάσῳ Πυθίωνα, ὃ ὃς κατέκειτο ὑπεράνω 
τοῦ Ἡρακλείου, ἐκ πόνων καὶ κόπων καὶ διαίτης 
γενομένης ἀμελέος piryos μέγα καὶ πυρετὸς ὀξὺς 
ἔλαβε. γλῶσσα ἐπίξηρος, διψώδης, χολώδης, 
οὐχ ὕπνωσεν, οὖρα ὑπομέλανα, ἐναιώρημα μετέ- 
wpov, οὐχ ἵδρυτο. δευτέρῃ περὶ μέσον ἡμέρης 
ψύξις ἀκρέων, τὰ περὶ χεῖρας καὶ κεφαλὴν μᾶλλον, 
ἄναυδος, ἄφωνος, βραχύπνοος ἐπὶ πολὺν χρόνον, 
ἀνεθερμάνθη, δίψα, νύκτα δι ἡσυχίης, ἵδρωσε 
περὶ κεφαλὴν σμικρά. τρίτῃ ἡμέρην δι᾿ ἡσυχίης, 
ὀψὲ δὲ περὶ ἡλίου δυσμὰς ὑπεψύχθη σμικρά, 
aon, ταραχή, νυκτὸς ἐπιπόνως, οὐδὲν ὕπνωσεν, 
ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης σμικρὰ συνεστηκότα κόπρανα 
διῆλθε. τετάρτῃ πρωὶ δι’ ἡσυχίης, περὶ δὲ 
μέσον ἡμέρης πάντα παρωξύνθη, γφψύξις, 

1 Before διελέγετο the MSS. except V have κατενόει καί. 

2 'V has here MIA AET®O. 
8 ἵδρυτο MSS.: ἱδρύετο Kiihlewein. 

1 For ‘‘melancholy ” see General Introduction, p. lviii. 

EPIDEMICS III, caszs 11-11. 

bated irregularly, sometimes increasing and some- 
times not doing so. 

Sixtieth day. The coughing ceased without any 
critical sign; there was no coction of the sputa, nor 
any of the usual abscessions ; jaw on the right side 
convulsed ; comatose ; wandering, but reason quickly 
recovered ; desperately averse to food; jaw relaxed ; 
passed small, bilious stools ; fever grew more acute, 
with shivering. On the succeeding days she lost 
power of speech, but would afterwards converse. 

Enghtieth day. Death. 

The urine of this patient was throughout black, 
thin and watery. Coma was present, aversion to 
food, despondency, sleeplessness, irritability, rest- 
lessness, the mind being affected by melancholy.1 

Case III 

In Thasos Pythion, who lay sick above the shrine 
of Heracles, after labour, fatigue and careless living, 
was seized by violent rigor and acute fever. Tongue 
dry; thirst; bilious; no sleep; urine rather black, 
with a substance suspended in it, which formed no 

Second day, About mid-day chill in the extremities, 
especially in the hands and head; could not speak 
or utter a sound; respiration short for a long time; 
recovered warmth; thirst; a quiet night; slight 
sweats about the head, 

Third day. A quiet day, but later, about sunset, 
grew rather chilly ; nausea; distress ; 2 painful night 
without sleep ; small, solid stools were passed. 

Fourth day, Early morning peaceful, but about 
mid-day all symptoms were exacerbated; chill; 

* Probably bowel trouble. See p. 250 





vy ” τ \ ἈΝ -“ > / 
ἄναυδος, ἄφωνος, ἐπὶ TO χεῖρον, ἀνεθερμάνθη 
μετὰ χρόνον, οὔρησε μέλανα ἐναιώρημα ἔχοντα, 
νύκτα δι’ ἡσυχίης, ἐκοιμήθη: πέμπτῃ ἔδοξε 
/ \ \ la / Ν 
κουφίσαι, κατὰ δὲ κοιλίην βάρος μετὰ πόνου, 
διψώδης, νύκτα ἐπιπόνως. ἕκτῃ πρωὶ μὲν Ov 
e / / \ € / / 7 
ἡσυχίης, δείλης δὲ οἱ πόνοι μέζους, παρωξύνθη, 
ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης ὀψὲ κλυσματίῳ καλῶς διῆλθε, 
νυκτὸς ἐκοιμήθη. ἑβδόμῃ ἡμέρῃ ἀσώδης, ὑπε- 
δυσφόρει, οὔρησεν ἐλαιῶδες, νυκτὸς ταραχὴ 
πολλή, παρέλεγεν, οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη. ὀγδόῃ πρωὶ 
\ > / , \ \ / 5 if 
μὲν ἐκοιμήθη σμικρά, ταχὺ δὲ ψύξις, ἀφωνίη, 
λεπτὸν πνεῦμα καὶ μινυθῶδες, ὀψὲ δὲ πάλιν 
ἀνεθερμάνθη, παρέκρουσεν, ἤδη δὲ πρὸς ἡμέρην 
σμικρὰ ἐκουφίσθη, διαχωρήματα ἄκρητα, σμικρὰ, 
χολώδεα. ἐνάτῃ κωματώδης, ἀσώδης, ὅτε διε- 
γείροιτο" οὐ λίην διψώδης" περὶ δὲ ἡλίου δυσμὰς 
ἐδυσφόρει, παρέλεγε, νύκτα κακήν. δεκάτῃ πρωὶ 
ἄφωνος, πολλὴ ψύξις, πυρετὸς ὀξύς, πολὺς ἱδρώς, 
ἔθανεν. ἐν ἀρτίῃσιν οἱ πόνοι τούτῳ." 
δ΄. Ὁ φρενιτικὸς τῇ πρώτῃ κατακλιθεὶς ἤμεσεν 
ἰώδεα πολλά, λεπτά, πυρετὸς φρικώδης πολύς, 
e ἊΝ \ > oo aA \ ΄ 
ἱδρὼς συνεχὴς δι᾿ ὅλου, κεφαλῆς καὶ τραχήλου 
βάρος pet ὀδύνης, οὖρα λεπτώ, ἐναιωρήματα 
σμικρά, διεσπασμένα, οὐχ ἵδρυτο. ἀπὸ δὲ 
/ 5 / >’ / 9 \ / 
κοιλίης ἐξεκόπρισεν ἀθρόα 5 πολλὰ, παρέκρουσεν, 

1 V has here ΠΙΤΙΠΑΘ. 
2 Littré punctuates ἀθρόα" πολλὰ παρέκρουσεν. 

1 Probably bowel trouble. See p. 250. 

EPIDEMICS III, cases u1.-1v. 

speechless and voiceless; grew worse; recovered 
warmth after a time; black urine with a substance 
Hoating in it; night peaceful ; slept. 

Fifth day. Seemed to be relieved, but there was 
heaviness in the bowels with pain; thirst; painful 

Stath day, Early morning peaceful ; towards even- 
ing the pains were greater ; exacerbation ; but later 
a little clyster caused a good movement of the 
bowels. Slept at night. 

Seventh day. Nausea; rather uneasy; urine oily ; 
much distress! at night ; wandering ; no sleep at all. 

Eighth day. Early in the morning snatches of 
sleep ; but quickly there was chill; loss of speech ; 
respiration thin and weak; in the evening he 
recovered warmth again; was delirious; towards 
morning slightly better; stools uncompounded, 
small, bilious. 

Ninth day, Comatose ; nausea whenever he woke 
up. Not over-thirsty. About sunset was uncom- 
fortable ; wandered ; a bad night. 

Tenth day, In the early morning was speechless ; 
great chill ; acute fever; much sweat; death. 

In this case the pains on even days. 

Case IV 

The patient suffering from phrenitis on the first 
day that he took to bed vomited copiously thin 
vomits of the colour of verdigris; much fever with 
shivering ; continuous sweating all over; painful 
heaviness of head and neck; urine thin, with small, 
scattered substances floating in it, which did not 
settle. Copious excreta at a single evacuation ; 
delirium ; no sleep. 





οὐδὲν ὕπνωσε. δευτέρῃ πρωὶ ἄφωνος, πυρετὸς 
ὀξύς, ἵδρωσεν, οὐ διέλιπε, παλμοὶ δι’ ὅλου τοῦ 
σώματος, νυκτὸς σπασμοί. τρίτῃ πάντα παρ- 
ωὠξύνθη. τετάρτῃ ἔθανεν." 

ε΄. “Ev Λαρίσῃ φαλακρὸς μηρὸν δεξιὸν ἐπόνησεν 
ἐξαίφνης: τῶν δὲ προσφερομένων οὐδὲν ὠφέλει. 
τῇ πρώτῃ πυρετὸς ὀξύς, καυσώδης, ἀτρεμέως 
εἶχεν, οἱ δὲ πόνοι παρείποντο. δευτέρῃ τοῦ μηροῦ 
μὲν ὑφίεσαν οἱ πόνοι, ὁ δὲ πυρετὸς ἐπέτεινεν, 
ὑπεδυσφόρει, οὐκ ἐκοιμᾶτο, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, οὔρων 
πλῆθος διήει οὐ χρηστῶν. τρίτῃ τοῦ μηροῦ μὲν ὁ 
πόνος ἐπαύσατο, παρακοπὴ δὲ τῆς γνώμης καὶ 
ταραχὴ καὶ πολὺς βληστρισμός. τετάρτῃ περὶ 
μέσον ἡμέρης ἔθανεν. 

ς΄. "Ev ᾿Αβδήροισι ἹΤερικλέα πυρετὸς ἔλαβεν 
ὀξύς, συνεχὴς μετὰ πονου, πολλὴ δίψα, ἄση, 
ποτὸν κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο" ἣν δὲ ὑπόσπληνός 
τε καὶ καρηβαρικός. τῇ πρώτῃ ἡμορράγησεν ἐξ 
ἀριστεροῦ: πολὺς μέντοι ὁ πυρετὸς ἐπέτεινεν" 
οὔρησε πολὺ θολερόν, λευκόν: κείμενον οὐ καθί- 
στατο. δευτέρῃ πάντα παρωξύνθη" τὰ μέντοι 
οὖρα παχέα μὲν ἣν, ἱδρυμένα δὲ μᾶλλον" καὶ τὰ 
περὶ τὴν ἄσην ἐκούφισεν, ἐκοιμήθη. τρίτῃ πυρε- 
τὸς ἐμαλάχθη, οὔρων πλῆθος, πέπονα, πολλὴν 
ὑπόστασιν ἔχοντα, νύκτα δι’ ἡσυχίης. τετάρτῃ 

1 VY has here ΠΙΡΩΘ. 
2 V has here MITAONIABIA®. 

1 Probably trouble in the bowels. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases τν.--ν]. 

Second day. In the early morning speechless ; acute 
fever ; sweating ; no intermission ; throbbing all over 
the body ; ; convulsions at night. 

Third day, General exacerbation. 

Fourth day, Death. 

CasE V 

In Larisa a bald man suddenly experienced pain 
in the right thigh. No remedy did any good. 

First day. Acute fever of the ardent type; the 
patient was quiet, but the pains persisted. 

Second day. The pains in the thigh subsided, but 
the fever grew worse ; the patient was rather un- 
comfortable and did not sleep; extremities cold ; 
copious and unfavourable urine was passed. 

Third day. The pain in the thigh ceased, but there 
was derangement of the intellect, with distress + and 
much tossing. 

Fourth day. Death about mid-day. 
Case VI 

In Abdera Pericles was seized with acute fever, 
continuous and painful; much thirst; nausea; could 
not retain what he drank. There was slight enlarge- 
ment of the spleen and heaviness in the head. 

First day. Epistaxis from the left nostril; the 
fever, however, increased greatly. Copious urine, 
turbid and white. On standing it did not settle. 

Second day, General exacerbation ; the urine, how- 
ever, had consistency, but there was some sediment ; 
the nausea was relieved and the patient slept. 

Third day. The fever went down ; abundance of 
urine, with concocted and copious sediment ; a quiet 






περὶ μέσον ἡμέρης ἵδρωσε πολλῷ θερμῷ δι’ ὅλου, 
” 5 (0 > e / 1 
ἄπυρος, ἐκρίθη, οὐχ ὑπέστρεψεν. 
> ’ \ , ἃ , 
ζ΄. “Ev ᾿Αβδήροισι τὴν παρθένον, ἣ κατέκειτο 
> δ an e n ς nr \ / o- a Ge 
ἐπὶ τῆς ἱρῆς ὁδοῦ, πυρετὸς Kavawdns ἔλαβεν" ἣν 
δὲ διψώδης καὶ ἄγρυπνος. κατέβη δὲ τὰ 
γυναικεῖα πρῶτον αὐτῇ. ἕκτῃ ἄση πολλή, 
’ \ lol 
ἔρευθος, φρικώδης, ἀλύουσα. ἑβδόμῃ διὰ τῶν 
n = \ 4 > \ 
αὐτῶν, οὖρα λεπτὰ μέν, εὔχρω δέ, TA περὶ τὴν 
’ > ’ / ’ / , Ν 
κοιλίην οὐκ ἠνώχλει. ὀγδόῃ κώφωσις, πυρετὸς 
Yes " Oh tee , , 5 
ὀξύς, ἄγρυπνος, ἀσώδης, φρικώδης, κατενόει, οὖρα 
ὅμοια. ἐνάτῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν' καὶ τὰς ἑπομένας 
οὕτως" ἡ κώφωσις παρέμενε. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ 
fol ς 
τὰ τῆς γνώμης ταραχώδεα, ὁ πυρετὸς συνέδωκεν. 
€ , SN «ς a“ > Ye VA {- , 
ETTAKALOEKATN διὰ ῥινῶν ἐρρύη πολύ, ἡ κώφωσις 
/ \ \ / 
σμικρὰ συνέδωκε. Kal Tas ἑπομένας aon, 
a Ψ' ’ “ lol 
κωφότης᾽ ἐνῆν Kal παράληρος. εἰκοστῇ ποδῶν 
50. 7 a , ᾽ ͵ ς ΄ 
ὀδύνη" κωφότης, παράληρος ἀπέλιπεν, ἡμορράγησε 
\ a 7 Y a 
σμικρὰ διὰ ῥινῶν, ispwoev, ἄπυρος. εἰκοστῇ 
« Ν ¢e / , 
τετάρτῃ ὁ πυρετὸς ὑπέστρεψε, κώφωσις πάλιν, 
an / , n 
ποδῶν ὀδύνη παρέμεινεν, παρακοπή. εἰκοστῇ 
lal ͵ 
ἑβδόμῃ ἵδρωσε πολλῷ, ἄπυρος, ἡ κώφωσις ἐξ- 
an lal / > 
έλιπεν, ἡ TOV ποδῶν ὑπέμενεν ὀδύνη, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα 
/ 5 / 2 
τελέως ἐκρίθη. 
η΄. Ἔν ᾿Αβδήροισιν ᾿Αναξίωνα, ὃς κατέκειτο 
“ / / 5 
παρὰ τὰς Θρηϊκίας πύλας, πυρετὸς ὀξὺς ἔλαβε" 

2 V has here WIOKZY. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases vi.—vut. 

Fourth day, About mid-day a hot, violent sweating 
all over; no fever; crisis; no relapse. 

Case VII 

In Abdera the maiden who lay sick by the Sacred 
Way was seized with a fever of the ardent type. She 
was thirsty and sleepless. Menstruation occurred 
for the first time. 

Stath day. Much nausea; redness; shivering; 

Seventh day, Same symptoms. Urine thin but of 
good colour ; no trouble in the bowels. 

Eighth day, Deafness; acute fever; sleeplessness ; 
nausea; shivering ; was rational; urine similar. 

Ninth day Same symptoms, and also on the 
following days. The deafness persisted. 

Fourteenth day. Reason disturbed; the fever 

Seventeenth day. Copious epistaxis; the deafness 
improved a little. On the following days nausea 
and deafness, while there was also delirium. 

Twentieth day. Pain in the feet; deafness; the 
delirium ceased; slight epistaxis; sweating; no 

Twenty-fourth day. The fever returned, with the 
deafness ; pain in the feet persisted ; delirium. 

Twenty-seventh day. Copious sweating; no fever; 
the deafness ceased ; the pain in the feet remained, 
but in other respects there was a perfect crisis. 

Casre VIII 

In Abdera Anaxion, who lay sick by the Thracian 
gate, was seized with acute fever. Continuous pain 





πλευροῦ δεξιοῦ ὀδύνη συνεχής, ἔβησσε ξηρά, οὐδ᾽ 
ἔπτυε τὰς πρώτας" διψώδης, ἄγρυπνος, οὖρα δὲ 
εὔχρω πολλὰ λεπτά. ἕκτῃ Tapadn pos” πρὸς δὲ 
τὰ θερμάσματα οὐδὲν ἐνεδίδου. ἑβδόμῃ ἐ ἐπιπόνως" 
ὁ γὰρ πυρετὸς ἐπέτεινεν, οἵ τε πόνοι οὐ συν- 
εδίδοσαν, αἵ τε βῆχες ἠνώχλεον, δύσπνοός τε ἣν. 
ὀγδόῃ ἀγκῶνα ἔταμον" ἐρρύη πολλὸν οἷον δεῖ" 
συνέδωκαν bev οἱ πόνοι, αἱ μέντοι βῆχες αἱ 
ξηραὶ παρείποντο. ἑνδεκάτῃ συνέδωκαν οἱ πυρετοί, 
σμικρὰ περὶ κεφαλὴν ἵδρωσεν, αἵ te! βῆχες καὶ 
τὰ ἀπὸ πνεύμονος ὑγρότερα. ἑπτακαιδεκάτῃ 
ἤρξατο σμικρὰ πέπονα πτύειν" ἐκουφίσθη. 
εἰκοστῇ ἵδρωσεν, ἄπυρος, μετὰ δὲ κρίσιν " δι- 
ψώδης τε ἣν καὶ τῶν ἀπὸ πνεύμονος οὐ χρησταὶ 
αἱ καθάρσιες. εἰκοστῇ ἑβδόμῃ ὁ πυρετὸς ὑπέ- 
στρεψεν, ἔβησσεν, ἀνῆγε πέπονα πολλά, οὔροισιν 
ὑπόστασις πολλὴ λευκή, ἄδιψος ἐγένετο, εὔπνοος. 
τριηκοστῇ τετάρτῃ ἵδρωσε δι’ ὅλου, ἄπυρος, 
ἐκρίθη πάντα. 

θ΄. ᾿Εν ᾿Αβδήροισιν Ἡρόπυθος κεφαλὴν ὀρθο- 

΄ ΕῚ , > > a \ 
στάδην ἐπιπόνως εἶχεν, οὐ πολλῷ δὲ χρόνῳ 

1 αἵτε Littré: ἔτι MSS. 

2 After κρίσιν the MSS. have ἐκουφίσθη. Omitted by 
3 V has here MIMAAAYT. 

1 T am conscious of a slight change in diction and method 
in this part of the Epidemics. I mention four points :-— 
(1) The frequent use of πυρετὸς in the plural, which is 
unusual when it simply means ‘‘feverishness ” (Cases 
(2) Romana is used of evacuations (Cases VII, IX οὖρα... 
κατέβαινεν, XII). 


EPIDEMICS III, cases vii.—x1. 

in the right side ; a dry cough, with no sputa on the 
first days. Thirst; sleeplessness; urine of good 
colour, copious and thin. 

Stath day. Delirium; warm applications gave no 

Seventh day. In pain, for the fever grew worse 
and the pains were not relieved, while the coughing 
was troublesome and there was difficulty in breathing. 

Eighth day. I bled him in the arm. There was 
an abundant, proper flow of blood; the pains were 
relieved, although the dry coughing persisted. 

Eleventh day. The fever went down; slight 
sweating about the head; the coughing and the 
sputa more moist. 

Seventeenth day. Began to expectorate small, 
concocted sputa; was relieved. 

Twentieth day. Sweated and was free from fever ; 
after a crisis was thirsty, and the cleansings from 
the lungs were not favourable. 

Twenty-seventh day. ‘The fever returned ; cough- 
ing, with copious, concocted sputa ; copious, white 
sediment in urine; thirst and difficulty in breathing 

Thirty-fourth day. Sweated all over; no fever; 
general crisis. 

Case [X 

In Abdera Heropythus had pain in the head 
without taking to bed, but shortly afterwards was 

(3) Treatment is mentioned (Case vitt, θερμάσματα, and 
ἀγκῶνα ἔταμον, where note the personal touch). 

(4) ἱδρύνομαι used of recovery of reason, = κατανοῶ (Case 
xv). The change is marked enough to lead one to 
suppose that these histories were composed at a 
different period in the writer’s life. 






ὕστερον κατεκλίθη. κει πλησίον THs ἄνω 
ἀγωγῆς; πυρετὸς ἔλαβε καυσώδης, ὀξύς" ἔμετοι 
τὸ κατ᾽ ἀρχὰς πολλῶν χολωδέων, διψώδης, πολλὴ 
δυσφορίη, οὖρα λεπτὰ μέλανα, ἐναιώρημα μετέ- 
ὡρον ὁτὲ μέν, ὁτὲ δ᾽ οὔ; νύκτα ἐπιπόνως, πυρετὸς 
ἄλλοτε ἀλλοίως παροξυνόμενος, τὰ πλεῖστα 
ἀτάκτως. περὶ δὲ τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτην κώφωσις, 
οἱ πυρετοὶ ἐπέτεινον," οὖρα διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν. εἰκο- 
στῇ πολλὰ παρέκρουσε καὶ τὰς ἑπομένας. 
τεσσαρακοστῇ διὰ ῥινῶν ἡμορράγησε πολὺ καὶ 
κατενόει μᾶλλον" ἡ κώφωσις ἐνῆν μέν, ἧσσον δέ 
οἱ πυρετοὶ συνέδωκαν. ἡμορράγει τὰς ἑπομένας 
πυκνὰ κατ᾽ ὀλίγον. περὶ δὲ ἑξηκοστὴν αἱ μὲν 
αἱμορραγίαι ἀπεπαύσαντο, ἰσχίου δὲ δεξιοῦ ὀδύνη 
ἰσχυρὴ καὶ οἱ πυρετοὶ ἐπέτεινον. οὐ πολλῷ δὲ 
χρόνῳ ὕστερον πόνοι τῶν κάτω πάντων" συν- 
έπιπτε δὲ ἢ τοὺς πυρετοὺς εἶναι μέξους καὶ τὴν 
κώφωσιν πολλὴν ἢ ταῦτα μὲν ὑφιέναι καὶ κου- 
φίξειν, τῶν δὲ κάτω περὶ ἰσχία μέζους εἶναι 
τοὺς πόνους. ἤδη δὲ περὶ ὀγδοηκοστὴν συνέδωκε 
μὲν πάντα, ἐξέλιπε δὲ οὐδέν" ovpa τε γὰρ εὔχρω 
καὶ πλείους ὑποστάσιας ἔχοντα, κατέβαιι εν, οἱ 
παράληροί τε μείους ἦσαν. περὶ δὲ ἑκατοστὴν 
κοιλίη πολλοῖσι χολώδεσιν ἐπεταράχθη, καὶ ἤει 
χρόνον οὐκ ὀλίγον πολλὰ τοιαῦτα, καὶ πάλιν 
δυσεντεριώδεα μετὰ πόνου, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ῥᾳστώνη. 
τὸ δὲ σύνολον οἵ τε πυρετοὶ ἐξέλιπον καὶ ἡ κώφωσις 
ἐπαύσατο. ἐν ἑκατοστῇ εἰκοστῇ τελέως ἐκρίθη. 

z ἀγωγῆς MSS.: ἀγορῆς Blass. 

2 ἐπέτεινον Ermerins: ἐξέτεινον MSS. (Perhapsrightly ; the 
diction in this part of Epidemics III. is sometimes unusual. ) 

8 VhasherelMIXAPKY. After ἐκρίθη the MSS. have καῦσος. 


EPIDEMICS III, case 1x. 

compelled to do so. He lived close to the Upper 
Road.! An acute, ardent fever seized him. Vomited 
at the beginning copious, bilious matters; thirst ; 
great discomfort ; urine thin and black, sometimes 
with, sometimes without, substances suspended in 
it. Painful night, with fever rising now in this 
way, now in that, but for the most part irregularly. 
About the fourteenth day, deafness ; the fever grew 
worse ; urine the same. 

Twentieth day. Much delirium, also on the 
following days. 

Fortieth day. Copious epistaxis; more rational ; 
some deafness, but less than before; the fever went 
down. Frequent, but slight, epistaxis on the 
following days. About the sixtieth day the bleed- 
ings from the nose ceased, but there was violent pain 
in the right hip and the fever increased. Not long 
afterwards, pains in all the lower parts. [Ὁ happened 
that either the fever was higher and the deafness 
great, or else, though these symptoms were relieved 
and less severe, yet the pains in the lower parts 
about the hips grew worse. But from about the 
eightieth day all the symptoms were relieved with- 
out any disappearing. The urine that was passed 
was of good colour and had greater deposits, while 
the delirious mutterings were less. About the hun- 
dredth day the bowels were disordered with copious, 
bilious stools, and copious evacuations of this nature 
were passed for a long time. Then followed painful 
symptoms of dysentery, with relief of the other 
symptoms. In brief, the fever disappeared and the 
deafness ceased. 

Hundred and twentieth day. Complete crisis. 

+ With Blass’ reading, ‘‘ Upper Market-place.” 




Ul ’ / 
U. Ἔν ᾿Αβδήροισι Νικόδημον ἐξ ἀφροδισίων 
\ / fal 57. » , 1 @ > , 
καὶ πότων πῦρ ἔλαβεν. ἀρχόμενος δὲ ἣν ἀσώδης 
καὶ καρδιαλγικός, διψώδης, γλῶσσα ἐπεκαύθη, 
\ ς 
οὖρα λεπτὰ μέλανα. δευτέρῃ ὁ πυρετὸς πα- 
ρωξύνθη, φρικώδης, ἀσώδης, οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη, 
” , ΄ > ev ΄ , 
ἤμεσε χολώδεα ξανθά, οὖρα ὅμοια, νύκτα δι 
, ° a : 
ἡσυχίης, ὕπνωσε. τρίτῃ ὑφῆκε πάντα, ῥᾳστώνη: 
\ \ 4 / \ / e , sf 
περὶ δὲ ἡλίου δυσμὰς πάλιν ὑπεδυσφόρει, νύκτα 
/ rc 
ἐπιπόνως. τετάρτῃ ῥῖγος, πυρετὸς πολύς, πόνοι 
πάντων, οὖρα λεπτά, ἐναιώρημα: νύκτα πάλιν bv 
ἡσυχίης. πέμπτῃ ἐνῆν μὲν πάντα, ῥᾳστώνη δὲ 
ἣν. ἕκτῃ τῶν αὐτῶν πόνοι πάντων, οὔροισιν 
, ΄ 
ἐναιώρημα, παρέκρουσε πολλά. ἑβδόμῃ ῥᾳστώνη. 
> 60 ἊΝ ” 1 LS / ὃ ἢ; Δ 
oyoon τὰ ἄλλα συνέδωκε πάντα. εκάτῃ καὶ 
τὰς ἑπομένας ἐνῆσαν μὲν οἱ πόνοι, ἧσσον δὲ 
πάντες: οἱ δὲ παροξυσμοὶ καὶ οἱ πόνοι τούτῳ 
διὰ τέλεος ἐν ἀρτίῃσιν ἦσαν μᾶλλον. εἰκοστῇ 
οὔρησε λευκόν, πάχος εἶχε, κείμενον οὐ καθίστατο: 
ἵδρωσε πολλῷ, ἔδοξεν ἄπυρος γενέσθαι, δείλης 
\ / > ΄ \ a > a / / 
δὲ πάλιν ἐθερμάνθη, Kal τῶν αὐτῶν πόνοι, φρίκη, 
δίψα, σμικρὰ παρέκρουσεν. εἰκοστῇ τετάρτῃ 
” \ , \ ig , “ 
οὔρησε πολὺ λευκὸν, πολλὴν ὑποστασιν ἔχον. 
Uy fd a ο Y / 
ἵδρωσε πολλῷ θερμῷ Sv ὅλου, ἄπυρος expiOn.* 
1 ὀγδόῃ τὰ ἄλλα most MSS.: ὀγδόῃ τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα. I suggest 

that a μὲν-οἸαιιβα has fallen out after ὀγδόῃ. 
2 V has here WIXAIKAY. 

1 What other symptoms? It is clear that some symptoms 
are excepted, but there is no hint what these are. As V has 
τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα, ‘but all the other symptoms were relieved,” I 


Cask X 

In Abdera Nicodemus after venery and drunken- 
ness was seized with fever. At the beginning he 
had nausea and cardialgia; thirst; tongue parched ; 
urine thin and black. 

Second day. The fever increased; shivering; 
nausea; no sleep; bilious, yellow vomits; urine the 
same; a quiet night; sleep. 

Third day. All symptoms less severe; relief. 
But about sunset he was again somewhat un- 
comfortable ; painful night. 

Fourth day. Rigor; much fever; pains every- 
where; urine thin, with floating substance in it; 
the night, on the other hand, was quiet. 

Fifth day. All symptoms present, but relieved. 

Stath day. Same pains everywhere; substance 
floating in urine ; much delirium, 

Seventh day. Relief. 

Eighth day. ΑἸ] the other! symptoms less severe. 

Tenth day and following days. The pains were 
present, but all less severe. The exacerbations and 
the pains in the case of this patient tended through- 
out to occur on the even days. 

Twentieth day. Urine white, having consistency ; 
no sediment on standing. Copious sweating ; 
seemed to lose his fever, but towards evening grew 
hot again, with pains in the same parts ; shivering; 
thirst ; slight delirium. 

Twenty-fourth day. Much white urine, with much 
sediment. Hot sweating all over; the fever passed 
away in a crisis. 

believe that after ὀγδόῃ has fallen out a phrase containing the 
symptoms which were not relieved. 





ια΄. Ἐν Θάσῳ γυνὴ δυσάνιος ἐκ λύπης μετὰ 
/ ? », 3 / ” la \ 
προφάσιος ὀρθοστάδην ἐγένετο ἄγρυπνός τε καὶ 
3 / \ , i \ » t » Ν 
ἀπόσιτος καὶ διψώδης ἣν καὶ ἀσώδης. ᾧκει δὲ 
πλησίον τῶν Πυλάδου ἐπὶ τοῦ λείου. τῇ πρώτῃ 
ἀρχομένης νυκτὸς φόβοι, λόγοι πολλοί, δυσθυμίη, 
/ , \ \ / Ὁ \ 
πυρέτιον λεπτόν. πρωὶ σπασμοὶ πολλοί: ὅτε δὲ 
διαλίποιεν of σπασμοὶ of πολλοί, παρέλεγεν, 
᾿ 4 \ / / / 
ἠσχρομύθει: πολλοὶ πόνοι, μεγάλοι, συνεχέες. 
δευτέρῃ διὰ τῶν αὐτῶν, οὐδὲν ἐκοιμᾶτο, 
πυρετὸς ὀξύτερος. τρίτῃ οἱ μὲν σπασμοὶ ἀπέ- 
lal \ \ \ \\ / » 
λίπον, κῶμα δὲ καὶ καταφορὴ καὶ πάλιν ἔγερσις" 
= 7. / > > / 7 / 
ἀνήϊσσε, κατέχειν οὐκ ἠδύνατο, παρέλεγε πολλά, 
πυρετὸς ὀξύς, ἐς νύκτα δὲ ταύτην ἵδρωσε πολλῷ 
θερμῷ δι’ ὅλου: ἄπυρος, ὕπνωσε, πάντα κατενόει, 
> / \ X / e / φ / 
ἐκρίθη. περὶ δὲ τρίτην ἡμέρην οὖρα μέλανα 
, 5 4 \ > \ \ ΄ 
λεπτά, ἐναιώρημα δὲ ἐπὶ πολὺ στρογγύλον, 
> ε ΄ \ \ , = κ᾿ 
οὐχ ἱδρύετο, περὶ δὲ κρίσιν γυναικεία πολλὰ 
ιβ΄. Ἔν Λαρίσῃ παρθένον πυρετὸς ἔλαβε 
> a 
καυσώδης, ὀξύς: ἄγρυπνος, διψώδης, γλῶσσα 
λιγνυώδης, Enpy οὖρα εὔχρω μέν, λεπτὰ δέ. 
΄, Ss 
δευτέρῃ ἐπιπόνως, οὐχ ὕπνωσε. τρίτῃ πολλὰ 
a \ 
διῆλθεν ἀπὸ κοιλίης ὑδατόχλοα, καὶ τὰς ἑπομένας 

Μ fo) > , / ” Ν 
ἤει τοιαῦτα εὐφόρως. τετάρτῃ οὔρησε λεπτὸν 

1 V has here ΠΙΠΙΛΕΓῪ. 

EPIDEMICS III, cases x1,-x11. 
Case XI 

In Thasos a woman of gloomy temperament, after 
a grief with a reason for it, without taking to bed 
lost sleep and appetite, and suffered thirst and 
nausea. She lived near the place of Pylades on the 

First day. As night began there were fears, much 
rambling, depression and slight feverishness. Early 
in the morning frequent convulsions ; whenever these 
frequent convulsions intermitted, she wandered 
and uttered obscenities; many pains, severe and 

Second day. Same symptoms; no sleep; fever 
more acute. 

Third day. The convulsions ceased, but were 
succeeded by coma and oppression, followed in turn 
by wakefulness. She would jump up; could not 
restrain herself; wandered a great deal; fever 
acute; on this night a copious, hot sweating all 
over; no fever; slept, was perfectly rational, and 
had a crisis. About the third day urine black and 
thin, with particles mostly round floating in it, 
which did not settle. Near the crisis copious 

Case XII 

In Larisa a maiden was seized with an acute fever 
of the ardent type. Sleeplessness; thirst ; tongue 
sooty and parched ; urine of good colour, but thin. 

Second day. In pain; no sleep. 

Third day. Copious stools, watery and of a 
yellowish green; similar stools on the following 
days, passed without distress, 

Fourth day, Scanty, thin urine, with a substance 






ὀλίγον, εἶχεν ἐναιώρημα μετέωρον, οὐχ ἱδρύετο, 
παρέκρουσεν ἐς νύκτα. ἕκτῃ διὰ ῥινῶν λάβρον 
ἐρρύη πολύ' φρίξασα ἵδρωσε πολλῷ θερμῷ δι᾽ 
ὅλου" ἄπυρος" ἐκρίθη. ἐν δὲ τοῖσι πυρετοῖσι καὶ 
ἤδη κεκριμένων γυναικεῖα κατέβη πρῶτον τότε' 
παρθένος γὰρ ἣν. ἣν δὲ διὰ παντὸς ἀσώδης, 
φρικώδης, ἔρευθος προσώπου, ὀμμάτων ὀδύνη: 
καρηβαρική. ταύτῃ οὐχ ὑπέστρεψεν, ἀλλ᾽ 
ἐκρίθη. οἱ πόνοι ἐν ἀρτίῃσιν. 

uy’. ᾿Απολλώνιος ἐν ᾿Αβδήροισιν ὀρθοστάδην 
ὑπεφέρετο χρόνον πολύν. ἦν δὲ μεγαλόσπλαγ- 
χνος, καὶ περὶ ἧπαρ συνήθης ὀδύνη χρόνον 
πολὺν παρείπετο, καὶ δὴ τότε καὶ ἰκτερώδης 
ἐγένετο, φυσώδης, χροιῆς τῆς ὑπολεύκου. φαγὼν 
δὲ καὶ πιὼν ἀκαιρότερον βόειον ἐθερμάνθη σμικρὰ 
τὸ πρῶτον, κατεκλίθη. γάλαξι δὲ “χρησάμενος 
ἐφθοῖσι καὶ ὠμοῖσι πολλοῖσιν, αἰγείοισι καὶ 
μηλείοισι, καὶ διαίτῃ κακῇ πάντων, βλάβαι 
μεγάλαι: οἵ τε γὰρ πυρετοὶ παρωξύνθησαν, κοιλίη 
τε τῶν προσενεχθέντων οὐδὲν διέδωκεν ἄξιον 
λόγου, οὖρά τε λεπτὰ καὶ ὀλίγα διήει: ὕπνοι οὐκ 
ἐνῆσαν" ἐμφύσημα κακόν, πολὺ δίψος, κωματώδης, 
ὑποχονδρίου δεξιοῦ ἔπαρμα σὺν ὀδύνῃ, ἄκρεα 
πάντοθεν ὑπόψυχρα, σμικρὰ παρέλεγε, λήθη 
πάντων ὅ τι λέγοι, παρεφέρετο. περὶ δὲ τεσσα- 

1 φαγὼν according to this translation has no expressed 
object. Furthermore, βόειον is more naturally ‘‘ beef.” As 
the words stand the above version is the natural one, but 1 
suspect that either βόειον should be transposed to between δὲ 
and καί, or else it is used ἀπὸ κοινοῦ and zeugmatically with 
both φαγὼν and my, ‘‘after eating beef and drinking cow’s 
milk.” So Littré and, apparently, from his translation, 



suspended in it which did not settle; delirium at 

Sixth day. Violent and abundant epistaxis; after 
a shivering fit followed a hot, copious sweating all 
over ; no fever ; acrisis. In the fever and after the 
crisis menstruation for the first time, for she was a 
young maiden. Throughout she suffered nausea and 
shivering ; redness of the face; pain in the eyes ; 
heaviness in the head. In this case there was no 
relapse, but a definite crisis. The pains on the even 

Case XIII 

Apollonius in Abdera was ailing for a long time 
without being confined to bed. He had a swollen 
abdomen, and a continual pain in the region of the 
liver had been present for a long time; moreover, 
he became during this period jaundiced and flatulent ; 
his complexion was whitish. After dining and 
drinking unseasonably cow’s milk+ he at first grew 
rather hot; he took to his bed. Having drunk 
copiously of milk, boiled and raw, both goat’s and 
sheep’s, and adopting a thoroughly bad regimen,? 
he suffered much therefrom. For there were 
exacerbations of the fever; the bowels passed 
practically nothing of the food taken; the urine was 
thin and scanty. No sleep. Grievous distension ; 
much thirst; coma; painful swelling of the right 
hypochondrium ; extremities all round rather cold; 
slight delirious mutterings ; forgetfulness of every- 
thing he said; he was not himself. About the 

* Or, changing the comma at πάντων to κακῇ, ‘ adopting a 
bad regimen, he suffered great harm in every way.” 






ρεσκαιδεκάτην, 1 ἀφ’ ἧς κατεκλίθη, ῥιγώσας 
ἐπεθερμάνθη:" ἐξεμάνη: βοή, ταραχή, λόγοι πολ- 
λοί, καὶ πάλιν ἵδρυσις, καὶ τὸ κῶμα τηνικαῦτα 
προσῆλθε. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα κοιλίη ταραχώδης 
πολλοῖσι χολώδεσιν, ἀκρήτοισιν, ὠμοῖσιν' οὖρα 
μέλανα, σμικρά, λεπτά" πολλὴ δυσφορίη" τὰ 
τῶν διαχωρημάτων ποικίλως: ἢ γὰρ μέλανα καὶ 
σμικρὰ καὶ ἰώδεα ἢ λιπαρὰ καὶ ὠμὰ καὶ δακνώδεα" 
κατὰ δὲ χρόνους ἐδόκει καὶ γαλακτώδεα διδόναι. 
περὶ δὲ εἰκοστὴν τετάρτην διὰ “αρηγορίης" τὰ 
μὲν ἄλλα ἐπὶ τῶν αὐτῶν, σμικρὰ δὲ κατενόησεν' 
ἐξ οὗ δὲ κατεκλίθη, οὐδενὸς ἐμνήσθη: πάλιν δὲ 
ταχὺ παρενόει, ὥρμητο πάντα ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον. 
περὶ δὲ τριηκοστὴν πυρετὸς ὀξύς, διαχωρήματα 
πολλὰ λεπτά, παράληρος, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, ἄφωνος. 
τριηκοστῇ τετάρτῃ ἔθανε. τούτῳ διὰ τέλεος, 
ἐξ οὗ καὶ ἐγὼ οἶδα, κοιλίη ταραχώδης, οὖρα λεπτὰ 
μέλανα, κωματώδης, ἄγρυπνος, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, 
παράληρος διὰ τέλεος.3 

ιδ΄. “Ev Κυζίκῳ γυναικὶ θυγατέρας τεκούσῃ δι- 
δύμας καὶ δυστοκησάσῃ καὶ οὐ πάνυ καθαρθείσῃ 
τῇ πρώτῃ πυρετὸς φρικώδης ὀξύς, κεφαλῆς καὶ 
τραχήλου βάρος μετ᾽ ὀδύνης" ἄγρυπνος ἐξ a ἀρχῆς, 
σιγῶσα δὲ καὶ σκυθρωπὴ καὶ οὐ πειθομένη" οὗρα 
λεπτὰ καὶ ἄχρω: διψώδης, ἀσώδης τὸ πολύ, 
κοιλίη πεπλανημένως ταραχώδης καὶ πάλιν 
συνισταμένη. ἕκτῃ ἐς νύκτα πολλὰ παρέλεγε, 

1 So Reinhold. MSS. have ἀφ᾽ ἧς ῥιγώσας ἀπεθερμάνθη καὶ 
κατεκλίθη ἐξεμάνη. 
2 MSS. after τέλεος have φρενιτικός. 

1 Here perhaps not bowel trouble. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases ΧΙΙ.--χιν, 

fourteenth day from his taking to bed, after a rigor, 
he grew hot; wildly delirious ; shouting, distress,! 
much rambling, followed by calme the coma came 
on at this time. Afterwards the bowels were dis- 
ordered with copious stools, bilious, uncompounded 
and crude; urine black, scanty and thin. Great 
discomfort. The evacuations showed varying symp- 
toms; they were either black, scanty and verdigris- 
coloured, or else greasy, crude and smarting ; at 
times they seemed actually to be like milk. About 
the twenty-fourth day comfortable ; in other respects 
the same, but he had lucid intervals. He remembered 
nothing since he took to bed. But he quickly was 
again delirious, and all symptoms took a sharp turn 
for the worse. About the thirtieth day acute fever ; 
copious, thin stools; wandering ; cold extremities ; 

Thirty-fourth day. Death. 

This patient throughout, from the time I had 
knowledge of the case, suffered from disordered 
bowels ; ane thin and black ; coma; sleeplessness ; 
extremities cold ; delirious throughout. 


In Cyzicus a woman gave birth with difficult 
labour to twin daughters, and the lochial discharge 
was far from good. 

First day. Acute fever with shivering; painful 
heaviness of head and neck. Sleepless from the 
first, but silent, sulky and refractory. Urine thin 
and of no colour; thirsty ; nausea generally ; bowels 
irregularly disturbed with constipation following. 

Sixth day. Much wandering at night; no sleep. 

VOL. I. M 281 




οὐδὲν ἐκοιμήθη. περὶ δὲ ἑνδεκάτην ἐοῦσα ἐξεμάνη 
καὶ πάλιν κατενόει: οὖρα μέλανα, λεπτὰ καὶ 
πάλιν διαλείποντα ἐλαιώδεα' κοιλίη πολλοῖσι, 
λεπτοῖσι, ταραχώδεσι. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ σπα- 
σμοὶ πολλοί, ἄκρεα ψυχρά, οὐδὲν ἔτι κατενόει, 
οὖρα ἐπέστη. ἑξκαιδεκάτῃ ἄφωνος" ἑπτακαι- 
δεκάτῃ ἀπέθανε." 

te. Ἔν Θάσῳ Δελεάρκεος 2 γυναῖκα, ἣ κατέ- 
κειτο ἐπὶ τοῦ λείου, πυρετὸς φρικώδης, ὀξὺς ἐκ 
λύπης ἔλαβεν. ἐξ “ἀρχῆς δὲ περιεστέλλετο καὶ 
διὰ τέλεος αἰεὶ σιγῶσα ἐψηλάφα, ἔτιλλεν, ἔγλυ- 
φεν, ἐτριχολόγει, δάκρυα καὶ πάλιν γέλως, οὐκ 
ἐκοιμᾶτο" ἀπὸ κοιλίης ἐρεθισμῷ ὃ οὐδὲν διήει" 
σμικρὰ ὑπομιμνῃσκόντων ἔπινεν" οὖρα λεπτὰ 
σμικρά: πυρετοὶ πρὸς χεῖρα Ae Tot" ἀκρέων 
ψύξις. ἐνάτῃ πολλὰ παρέλεγε καὶ πάλιν ἱδρύνθη" 
σιγῶσα. τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτῃ πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα 
διὰ χρόνου καὶ πάλιν βραχύπνοος. ἑπτακαιδε- 
κάτῃ ἀπὸ κοιλίης ἐρεθισμῷ ταραχώδεα, ἔπειτα 
δὲ αὐτὰ τὰ ποτὰ διήει, οὐδὲν συνίστατο" ἀναι- 
σθήτως εἶχε πάντων" δέρματος περίτασις καρφα- 
λέου. εἰκοστῇ λόγοι πολλοὶ καὶ πάλιν ἱδρύνθη; 
ἄφωνος, βραχύπνοος. εἰκοστῇ πρώτῃ ἀπέθανε. 
ταύτῃ διὰ τέλεος πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα' ἀναι- 

1 Vhas here ΠΙΜΓῚΖΘ. MSS. after ἀπέθανε have φρενῖτις. 

2 Δελεάρκεος. See p. 222. 

3 ἐρεθισμῷ Ermerins: ἐρεθισμὸς MSS. and Galen: ἐρεθισμοὶ 

1 T take this, in spite of Galen, to mean ‘‘ with extra long 
intervals between each breath.” The phrase is rather care- 
less but scarcely tautological. ‘At intervals” or ‘‘after a 
long interval” are possible meanings, but inconsistent with 
διὰ τέλεος later on. 


EPIDEMICS III, cases χιν.--χν. 

About the eleventh day she went out of her mind 
and then was rational again; urine black, thin, and 
then, after an interval, oily ; copious, thin, disordered 

Fourteenth day. Many convulsions; extremities 
cold; no further recovery of reason; urine 

Sixteenth day. Speechless. 

Seventeenth day. Death. 

Case XV 

In Thasos the wife of Delearces, who lay sick on 
the plain, was seized after a grief with an acute fever 
with shivering. From the beginning she would 
wrap herself up, and throughout, without speaking 
a word, she would fumble, pluck, scratch, pick hairs, 
weep and then laugh, but she did not sleep ; though 
stimulated, the bowels passed nothing. She drank 
a little when the attendants suggested it. Urine 
thin and scanty ; fever slight to the touch ; coldness 
of the extremities. 

Ninth day. Much wandering followed by return 
of reason ; silent. 

Fourteenth day. Respiration rare and large with 
long intervals,t becoming afterwards short. 

Seventeenth day. Bowels under a stimulus passed 
disordered matters, then her very drink passed 
unchanged; nothing coagulated. The patient 
noticed nothing ; the skin tense and dry. 

Twentieth day. Much rambling followed by re- 
covery of reason ; speechless ; respiration short. 

Twenty-first day. Death. 

The respiration of this patient throughout was 




΄ a 3 oN , x a 
σθήτως πάντων εἶχεν: αἰεὶ περιεστέλλετο; ἢ 

λόγοι πολλοὶ ἢ σιγῶσα διᾶ πέλεος.ἷ 

ts. Ἔν Μελιβοίῃ νεηνίσκος ἐκ πότων καὶ 
ἀφροδισίων πολλῶν πολὺν χρόνον θερμανθεὶς 
κατεκλίθη: φρικώδης δὲ καὶ ἀσώδης ἦν καὶ 
Ψ \ ” > \ \ la A , 
ἄγρυπνος καὶ Adios. ἀπὸ δὲ κοιλίης τῇ πρώτῃ 
πολλὰ κόπρανα διῆλθε σὺν περιρρόῳ πολλῷ, καὶ 
\ € s ε , rN ῃ ᾿ 
τὰς ἑπομένας ὑδατόχλοα πολλὰ διήει: οὖρα 
λεπτά, ὀλίγα, ἄχρω: πνεῦμα ἀραιόν, μέγα διὰ 
χρόνου" ὑποχονδρίου ἔντασις ὑπολάπαρος, παρα- 

, ’ > / A δί \ ὃ Ni , 
μήκης ἐξ ἀμφοτέρων" καρδίης παλμὸς διὰ τέλεος 
συνεχής" οὔρησεν ἐλαιῶδες. δεκάτῃ παρέκρουσεν 
ἀτρεμέως, ἣν δὲ 3 κόσμιός τε καὶ σιγῶν: δέρμα 
καρφαλέον καὶ περιτεταμένον. διωχωρήματα ἢ 
πολλὰ καὶ λεπτὰ ἢ χολώδεα, λιπαρά. τεσσαρεσ- 

1 After τέλεος MSS. have ¢peviris. 

2 δεκάτῃ omitted by extant MSS., but was in two MSS. 
known to Foes Τύ is in Galen. 

3 ἣν δὲ Littré from Galen: omitted by MSS. 

1 In many ways this case, though one of the most 
picturesque, is also one of the most carelessly written. 
Galen points out that διὰ χρόνου is ambiguous, and that its 
possible meanings are inconsistent with the rest of the 
description. How can the respiration be ἀραιόν throughout, 
when on both the fourteenth and the twentieth days the 
patient was Bpaxvmvoos? It is strange that the writer 
specifies the fourteenth day as the day when the respiration 
was rare and large, seeing that it had these characteristics 
throughout. A similar remark applies to ἀναισθήτως εἶχε 
πάντων of the seventeenth day. Further, ἀεὶ σιγῶσα of the 
second sentence becomes strangely ἢ λόγοι πολλοὶ ἢ σιγῶσα 


EPIDEMICS III, cases xv.—xv1. 

rare and large; took no notice of anything; she 
constantly wrapped herself up ; either much rambling 
or silence throughout.! 

Case XVI 

In Meliboea a youth took to his bed after being 
for a long time heated by drunkenness and sexual 
indulgence. He had shivering fits, nausea, sleepless- 
ness, but no thirst. 

Furst day. . Copious, solid stools passed in abundance 
of fluid, and on the following days the excreta were 
copious, watery and of a greenish yellow. Urine 
thin, scanty and of no colour; respiration rare and 
large with long intervals; tension, soft underneath, 
of the hypochondrium,? extending out to either 
side ; continual throbbing throughout of the epigas- 
trium ;? urine oily. 

Tenth day. Delirious but quiet, for he was orderly 
and silent;# skin dry and tense; stools either 
copious and thin or bilious and greasy. 

διὰ τέλεος in the last. I conclude that this medical history 
was hastily written and never revised. A slight revision 
could easily have cleared away the inconsistencies, which 
are, as Galen seems to have seen, more apparent than real. 

2 See note, p. 188. 

3 So Littré, following Galen. Perhaps, however, it means 
‘theart,” ὁ. δ. there was violent palpitation. 

* Said by Galen, followed by Littré (who reads ἥσυχος for 
σιγῶν), to refer to the character of the young man when well, 
which interpretation to modern minds is rather inconsistent 
with the first sentence. They would paraphrase, ‘the 
delirium was really serious, but appeared slight because the 
patient was naturally self-controlled and calm.” TI take the 
meaning to be that though delirious he remained quiet and 
comparatively silent. 



ὃ f f Uy, θ ΄ 1 
350 καιδεκατΏ TAVTA παρωξύνθη, παρέκρουσεν, 
πολλὰ παρέλεγεν. εἰκοστῇ ἐξεμάνη, πολὺς 
βληστρισμός, οὐδὲν οὔρει, σμικρὰ ποτὰ κατείχετο. 
353 εἰκοστῇ τετάρτῃ ἀπέθανε. 
1 παρέκρουσεν Blass: παρεκρούσθη most MSS.: omitted 
by V. 
2 After ἀπέθανε MSS. have φρενῖτις. 


EPIDEMICS III, case xvi. 

Fourteenth day. General exacerbation; delirious 
with much wandering talk. 

Twentieth day. Wildly out of his mind; much 
tossing ; urine suppressed ; slight quantities of drink 
were retained. 

Twenty-fourth day. Death, 


‘hit _nriibaley 7 ἀρθϑθμρδία ἦν 
ει απ, rt — ~ ins 

dross ΠΝ αἰ: a sind ies gery, o 

fiat ΤΗΝ a als ia m iaaee ive 

Jy wos rabsarathg i ale 



Or all the Hippocratic writings the Oath, in spite 
of its shortness, is perhaps the most interesting to 
the general reader and also to the modern medical 
man. Whatever its origin, it is a landmark in the 
ethics of medicine. 

Yet its exact relationship to the history of 
medicine is unknown, and apparently, in our present 
state of knowledge, unknowable. The student must, 
at every stage of the inquiry, confess his ignorance. 
What is the date of the Oath? Is it mutilated or 
interpolated?) Who took the oath, all practitioners 
or only those belonging to a guild? What binding 
force had it beyond its moral sanction? Above all, 
was it ever a reality or merely a “counsel of per- 
fection”? To all these questions the honest in- 
quirer can only say that for certain he knows 

Such being the case it is most important to 
realize clearly what actually is known. In the 
first place, the Oath was admitted to be genuinely 
Hippocratic by Erotian. 

As to internal evidence, the Oath, besides binding 
all who take it to certain moral rules of practice, 
makes them also promise to act in a certain manner 
towards co-practitioners. 

The taker of the oath— 

(1) Will treat the children of his teacher as 
though they were his brothers ; 



(2) Will “share his livelihood” with his teacher, 
and, in case of necessity, relieve his financial 
distress ; 

(3) Will teach his teacher’s children “ without fee 
or indenture ”’ ; 

(4) Will give full instruction to his own children, 
to those of his teacher, to students who have taken 
the oath and signed the indenture, and to no others. 

We cannot be sure what this indenture (συγγραφή) 
was. The word occurs again in the very first 
sentence, “I will carry out this oath and this in- 
denture.” One might suppose from these two 
occurrences of συγγραφή that they both refer to the 
same document, and that the document is what we 
call the Oath. If this view be taken, our present docu- 
ment must be a composite piece, consisting of both 
oath and indenture, and that it is the second com- 
ponent that the students paying no fee are excused 
from signing, for nobody would suppose that these 
had not to take the oath to uphold a high moral 

It must be confessed that to separate συγγραφή 
from ὅρκος would not be difficult, as the former 
would include merely those articles which concerned 
master and pupil,z. 6. the latter's promise of financial 
aid to his teacher and of instruction to his teacher's 

The difficulty in this view is that the vague 
promises βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καὶ χρεῶν χρηΐζοντι μετάδοσιν 
ποιήσεσθαι, do not read like ἃ legal συγγραφή, such as 
is implied in the words ἄνευ μισθοῦ καὶ συγγραφῆς. 
They are not definite enough, and there is no 
mention of a specific μισθός. Indeed, such clauses 



could never be enforced; if they could have been, 
and if a physician had one or two rich pupils, his 
financial position would have been enviable. <A 
share in the livelihood of rich men, relief when in 
need of money, free education for children—these 
advantages would make it superfluous, not to say 
unjust, to require any μισθός in addition. 

It may well be that the συγγραφή of ἄνευ μισθοῦ 
Kal συγγραφῆς was a private agreement between 
teacher and taught, quite distinct from the present 
document, in which case συγγραφὴν τήνδε will refer 
either to such an agreement appended to the Oath, 
or more probably to the Oath itself, which might be 
called ἃ συγγραφή. in the wider and vaguer sense 
of that term, though it is not precise enough for 
the legal indenture. 

Some scholars regard the Oath as the test required 
by the Asclepiad Guild. The document, however, 
does not contain a single word which supports this 
contention. It binds the student to his master and 
his master’s family, not to a guild or corporation. 
But if the Hippocratic oath ever was a real force 
in the history of medicine, it must have had the 
united support of the most influential physicians. 
Whether this union was that of something approxi- 
mating to a guild we cannot say. 

The Oath contains a sentence which has long 
proved a stumbling-block. It is:—oi τεμέω δὲ οὐδὲ 
μὴν λιθιῶντας, ἐκχωρήσω δὲ ἐργάτῃσιν ἀνδράσι πρήξιος 
τῆσδε. If these words are the genuine reading, they 
can only mean that the taker of the oath promises 
not to operate even for stone, but to leave operations 
for such as are craftsmen therein. It has seemed 
an insuperable difficulty that nowhere in the Hippo- 



cratic collection is it implied that the physician must 
not operate, nor is any mention made of ἐργάται 
ἄνδρες who made a profession of operating. On the 
contrary, as Littré points out in his introduction 
to the Oath, the Hippocratic writers appear to per- 
form operations without fear or scruple. Gomperz, 
in a note to the first volume of Greek Thinkers, 
suggests that the words hide a reference to castra- 
tion. A glance at Littré’s introduction shows that 
the suggestion is by no means new, and a belief in 
its truth underlies Reinhold’s unhappy emendation 
to οὐδὲ μὴ ἐν ἡλικίῃ ἐόντας. A reference to castration 
would clear away the difficulty that a promise not to 
operate is out of place between two promises to 
abstain from moral offences, for castration was 
always an abomination to a Greek. But to leave 
the abominable thing to the ἐργάται is condoning a 
felony or worse, and, moreover, the qualification is 
quite uncalled for. The whole tone of the Oath 
would require “I will not castrate” without 

One might be tempted to say that the promise 
not to operate was intended to hold only during the 
noviciate of the learner were there anything in the 
text to support this view. But although the oath 
would have been stultified if it had not been taken 
at the beginning of the medical course,! there is 
nothing in the text implying that any of its clauses 
were only temporarily binding. So the historian is 

1 Of course an ancient physician did not graduate in the 
modern sense of the term. ‘The distinction between a quali- 
fied practitioner and one unqualified was not a well-detined 
line. A man was an ἰητρός as soon as he had learnt enough 
to be of any use at all. 



forced back upon the view that the clause, even if 
not strictly speaking an interpolation, applied only 
to a section of the medical world, or only to a 
particular period, when it was considered degrading 
to a master physician to operate with his own 
hands, and the correct course was to leave the use 
of the knife to inferior assistants acting under 

Knowing as little as we do, it is perhaps per- 
missible to use the constructive imagination to frame 
an hypothesis which in broad outline at least is not 
inconsistent with the dala before us. 

From the Protagoras we learn that Hippocrates 
himself was ready to train physicians for a fee, and 
there is no reason to suppose that the practice was 
unusual. Some sort of bond between teacher and 
taught would naturally be drawn up, and a set form 
of words would evolve itself embodying those clauses 
which had as their object the maintenance of medi- 
cal probity and honour. These might well contain 
promises to the teacher couched in extravagant 
language if taken literally, but which were intended 
to be interpreted in the spirit rather than in the 
letter.! Such may have been the nucleus of the 
Hippocratic Oath, and a copy would not unnaturally 
be found in the library of the medical school at Cos. 
But there is nothing in the evidence to lead us to 
suppose that a stereotyped form was universal, or 
that clauses were not added or taken away at various 
places and at various times. One writer in the 
Corpus, the author of the work Nature of the Child, 
unblushingly violates the spirit, if not the letter, of 
the Oath by attempting to produce abortion in a 

1 Compare modern interpretations of marriage vows. 



singular and disgusting manner.!_ So some physi- 
cians did not feel bound by all the clauses, and 
some may not have felt bound by any. We may 
suppose, however, that no respectable physician 
would act contrary to most of the Oath, even if he 
were ignorant of its existence. The clause for- 
bidding operative surgery may be an addition of late 
but uncertain date.? 

But the interest of the Oath does not lie in its 
baffling problems. These may never be solved, but 
the little document is nevertheless a priceless pos- 
session. Here we have committed to writing those 
noble rules, loyal obedience to which has raised the 
calling of a physician to be the highest of all the 
professions. The writer, like other Hippocratics, 
uses to describe the profession a word which, in 
Greek philosophy, and especially in Plato, has a 
rather derogatory meaning. Medicine is “my art”’ 
(τέχνη) in the Oath; élsewhere, with glorious arrog- 
ance, it is “the art.” “The art is long; life is 
short,” says the first Aphorism. Many years later, 
the writer of Precepts declared that ‘‘ where the love 
of man is, there is the love of the art.” That 
medicine is an art (the thesis of The Art), a diffi- 
cult art, and one inseparable from the highest 
morality and the love of humanity, is the great 
lesson to us of the Hippocratic writings. The true 
physician is vir bonus sanandi peritus. 

The chief MSS. containing the Oath are V and M. 

1 § 13, Littré, vii. 490. 

2 It is possible that the degradation of surgery did not 
take place until Christian times (see Galen x. 454, 455), 
and the sentence of the Oath may well be very late indeed. 
The μὴν in οὐδὲ μὴν λιθιῶντας will strike scholars as strange. 



The chief editions are— 

Serment d’Hippocrate précédé d'une notice sur les 
serments en médecine. J. ἢ. Duval. Paris, 1818. 

Hippocrate: Le Serment, ete. Ch. V. Daremberg. 
Paris, 1843. 

See also— 

Super locum Hippocratis in Llureiurando maxime 
veratum meditationes. Fr. Boerner, Lips. 1751. 





Uj , \ ᾽ Ν 
Ὄμνυμι ᾿Απόλλωνα ἰητρὸν καὶ ᾿Ασκληπιὸν 
καὶ “Ὑγείαν καὶ ἸΤανάκειαν καὶ θεοὺς πάντας τε 
καὶ πάσας, ἵστορας ποιεύμενος, ἐπιτελέα ποιήσειν 
Ψ, oe / 
κατὰ δύναμιν Kal κρίσιν ἐμὴν ὅρκον τόνδε Kai 
\ / € / \ Ν / it? 
συγγραφὴν τήνδε: ἡγήσεσθαι μὲν τὸν διδάξαντά 
\ / / lal 
pe τὴν τέχνην ταύτην ἴσα γενέτῃσιν ἐμοῖς, 
/ an oh 
καὶ βίου κοινώσεσθαι, καὶ χρεῶν χρηΐζοντι 
μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι, καὶ γένος τὸ ἐξ αὐτοῦ 
> a » > a ya \ / 
ἀδελφοῖς ἴσον ἐπικρινεῖν ἄρρεσι, καὶ διδάξειν 
τὴν τέχνην ταύτην, ἢν χρηΐζωσι μανθάνειν, ἄνευ 
lal a / 
μισθοῦ καὶ συγγραφῆς, παραγγελίης τε Kai 
ἀκροήσιος καὶ τῆς λοίπης ἁπάσης μαθήσιος 
μετάδοσιν ποιήσεσθαι υἱοῖς τε ἐμοῖς καὶ τοῖς τοῦ 
ἐμὲ διδάξαντος, καὶ μαθητῇσι συγγεγραμμένοις 
΄ [ an 
TE καὶ ὡρκισμένοις νόμῳ ἰητρικῷ, AAW δὲ οὐδενί. 
΄ / 
διαιτήμασί τε χρήσομαι ἐπ᾽ ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων 
΄ , 
κατὰ δύναμιν καὶ κρίσιν ἐμήν, ἐπὶ δηλήσει δὲ 
\ > / 4 ᾽ , \ > A ἣν, 
καὶ ἀδικίῃ εἴρξειν. οὐ δώσω δὲ οὐδὲ φάρμακον 
> \ \ f Ε] Nene: / 
οὐδενὶ αὐτηθεὶς θανάσιμον, οὐδὲ ὑφηγήσομαι συμ- 
βουλίην τοιήνδε: ὁμοίως δὲ οὐδὲ γυναικὶ πεσσὸν 
φθόριον δώσω. ἁγνῶς δὲ καὶ ὁσίως διατηρήσω 
βίον τὸν ἐμὸν καὶ τέχνην τὴν ἐμήν. οὐ τεμέω 
δὲ οὐδὲ μὴν λιθιῶντας,; ἐκχωρήσω δὲ ἐργάτῃσιν 


1 Littré suggests αἰτέοντας, Reinhold οὐδὲ μὴ ἐν ἡλικίῃ ἐόντας. 



1 swear by Apollo Physician, by Asclepius, by 
Health, by Panacea and by all the gods and god- 
desses, making them my witnesses, that I will carry 
out, according to my ability and judgment, this oath 
and this indenture. To hold my teacher in this art 
equal to my Own parents; to make him partner in 
my livelihood; when he is in need of money to 
share mine with him; to consider his family as my 
own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they 
want to learn it, without fee or indenture; to 
impart precept,! oral instruction, and all other 
instruction? to my own sons, the sons of my 
teacher, and to indentured pupils who have taken 
the physician’s oath, but to nobody else. I _will-use 
treatment to help the sick—aecording to my ability 
and judgment, but_never with a view to injury and 
wrong-doing. Neither will Tadminister a poison to 
anybody when asked to do so, nor will I suggest 
such a course. Similarly I will not give to a woman 
a pessary to cause abortion. But I will keep pure 
and holy both my life and my art. I will not use 
the knife, not even, verily, on sufferers from stone, 
but I will give place to such as are craftsmen 

1 Apparently the written rules of the art, examples of 
which are to be found in several Hippocratic treatises. 
These books were not published in the strict sense of the 
word, but copies would be circulated among the members of 
the ‘‘ physicians’ union.”’ 

2 Probably, in modern English, ‘‘ instruction, written, oral 
and practical.” 



>? / / A >) a2 ἢ \ e , XK 
ἀνδράσι πρήξιος τῆσδε. ἐς οἰκίας δὲ ὁκόσας ἂν 
ty 9 ΄ a9! 25) , ͵ ᾿ \ 
ἐσίω, ἐσελεύσομαι ET ὠφελείῃ καμνόντων, ἐκτὸς 
»\ / ’ lA ε 7 Ὁ / a 
ἐὼν πάσης ἀδικίης ἑκουσίης καὶ POopins, τῆς τε 
” \ > I y 2) , , 
ἄλλης Kal ἀφροδισίων ἔργων ἐπί τε γυναικείων 
΄, NO) ͵ > , \ ΄ 
σωμάτων καὶ ἀνδρῴων, ἐλευθέρων τε καὶ δούλων. 
a 3. oe > / a δὴ x > / x \ x 
a δ᾽ ἂν ἐν θεραπείῃ ἢ ἴδω ἢ ἀκούσω, ἢ Kal ἄνευ 
7 \ , 5 ’, ἃ \ ΄ 
80 θεραπείης κατὰ βίον ἀνθρώπων, ἃ μὴ χρή ποτε 
᾽ rn »” ΄ ” e iA 
ἐκλαλεῖσθαι ἔξω, σιγήσομαι, ἄρρητα ἡγεύμενος 
3 Ν n « , 
εἶναι τὰ τοιαῦτα. ὅρκον μὲν οὖν μοι τόνδε ἐπι- 
f / \ / 4 
TENEA TOLEOVTL, καὶ μὴ συγχέοντι, εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι 
\ / nt ͵ὔ / \ “ 
καὶ βίου καὶ τέχνης δοξαζομένῳ παρὰ πᾶσιν 
i) , 5) \ / 
ἀνθρώποις ἐς τὸν αἰεὶ Ypovov' παραβαίνοντι δὲ 

\ / / / 
36 Kal ἐπιορκέοντι, τἀναντία τούτων. 



therein. Into whatsoever houses I enter, I will 
enter to help the sick, and I will abstain from all 
intentional wrong-doing and harm, especially from 
abusing the bodies of man or woman, bond or free. 
And whatsoever I shall see or hear in the course of 
my profession, as well as outside my profession in 
my intercourse with men,! if it be what should not 
be published abroad, I will never divulge, holding 
such things to be holy secrets. Now if I carry out 
this oath, and break it not, may I gain for ever 
reputation among all men for my life and for my 
art; but if I transgress it and forswear myself, may 
the opposite befall me. 

1 This remarkable addition is worthy of a passing notice. 
The physician must not gossip, no matter how or where the 

subject-matter for gossip may have been acquired ; whether 
it be in practice or in private life makes no difference. 


οὐ "δι ‘log’ ἔστενε, υὐ ον Wes 

is tiga ΤΗΣ Κα eka is ona 
a pon Ἢ ee ett Ek ae i ky 

᾽ z ὙΠ, ake z Rr ἢ ha Eda 
penis = ἧνει ΡΣ ΠΧ Ὶ 

Ἐπ Πππ|ν τ: τ 




pW Oy 5 00 3S i 


Ir is with considerable misgiving that I have 
included this work as a kind of appendix to the first 
volume of the Hippocratic collection. In the first 
place there is not yet available the material neces- 
sary for a really satisfactory restoration of the text. 
Furthermore, the editors have generally neglected 
it. Littré reserved it for his ninth and last volume 
of text and translation, and by the time he reached 
it even his untiring energy was beginning to flag ; 
his edition is hasty, erratic and in places unintel- 
ligible. Ermerins gives over the task in despair, and 
leaves whole chapters untranslated. 

In spite of all these things I have determined to 
include Precepts, because it illustrates so well the 
characteristics of many parts of the Hippocratic 
collection, and the problems that face both editors 
and translators. It forms also a complete contrast 
to the nucleus of Hippocratic writings composing 
the rest of the first volume. 

(1) Like Humours and Nutriment, it is obscure to a 

(2) It is, like so many Hippocratic works, a cento. 
Beginning and end are quite unconnected with 
the main portion of the book, and the main 
portion itself is a series of rather disconnected 



(3) It has, like Ancient Medicine, Nutriment, Nature 
of Man, Airs, Regimen I., a close relationship 
to philosophy. 

(4) It shows, I think conclusively, the wide period 
covered by the Hippocratic collection. 

No reader can fail to notice that, short as it is, the 
work is a cento with three main divisions. 

(1) Chapters I and II defend the principle that 
medicine must be based upon observed fact 
and not on any plausible but fallacious hypo- 
thesis (ἐκ πιθανῆς ἀναπλάσιος λόγου). The writer 
uses language remarkably similar to that 
attributed to Epicurus by Diogenes Laertius. 
I must quote two passages from the latter. 

Ν Ν ND 4 nA > Ν cal > , 
(a) καὶ yap καὶ ἐπίνοιαι πᾶσαι ἀπὸ τῶν αἰσθήσεων 
γεγόνασι κατά τε περίπτωσιν καὶ ἀναλογίαν καὶ 
τ , / cal 
ὁμοιότητα καὶ σύνθεσιν, συμβαλλομένου τι καὶ TOD 
λογισμοῦ. ... τὴν δὲ πρόληψιν λέγουσιν οἱονεὶ 
,ὔ Ἃ , > ΄ Rog Xv Ν 
κατάληψιν, ἢ δόξαν ὀρθήν, ἢ ἔννοιαν, ἢ καθολικὴν 
, a? A 
νόησιν ἐναποκειμένην, TOUT ἐστι μνήμην τοῦ πολ- 
λάκις ἔξωθεν φανέντος. 

D. L., X. 20, 21, §§ 32, 33. 

(ὁ) ἀλλὰ μὴν ὑποληπτέον καὶ τὴν TOV ἀνθρώπων 
φύσιν πολλὰ καὶ παντοῖα ὑπὸ τῶν αὐτὴν περιεστώ- 
των πραγμάτων διδαχθῆναί τε καὶ ἀναγκασθῆναι" τὸν 
δὲ λογισμὸν τὰ ὑπὸ ταύτης παρεγγυηθέντα καὶ 
ὕστερον ἐπακριβοῦν. 

D. L., X. 24, § 75. 

There are also several occurrences of the Epicurean 
word ἐναργής. The similarities are far too close to 
be accidental. 



(2) Chapters III-XIII contain remarks on medica! 
etiquette, fees, patients’ whims, quacks, con- 
sultants, lecturing to large audiences, late 
learners. These remarks are sometimes con- 
nected, but follow no plan. 

(3) Chapter XIV contains a few disconnected re- 
marks on illnesses and invalids. 

So the work as a whole shows no signs of a pre- 
arranged plan. It is disjointed and formless. As 
far as subject-matter is concerned, the three parts 
distinguished above ought to be classed under 
separate branches of medicine :-— 

(1) This belongs to the theory of medicine, or 
rather to the theory of science generally. 

(2) This belongs on the whole to etiquette 

(3) This consists merely of a few disconnected 
hints. Littré justly says of it (IX. 248): “J’y 
vois done une de ces intercalations que les 
copistes se permettaient quelquefois ἃ la fin 
d'un traité, soit, comme dit Galien, pour gros- 
sir le volume, soit pour placer quelque fragment 
qu’on ne savait ol mettre, et qui, autrement, 
s’en allait perdu.” 

Yet it is remarkable that there is a certain style 
common to all three parts which points to the con- 
clusion that the compiler, whoever he was, was no 
mere “ paste-and-scissors ’? man, but an author who 
stamped his characteristics even on his borrowings. 
This style is marked by a studied aphoristic brevity 
combined with a genius for choosing out-of-the-way 
terms and expressions. It so happens that in ad- 
dition the author appears to have been an imperfect 



Greek scholar. It is indeed hard to believe that he 
was writing his mother tongue. 

I am ready to admit that a more perfect recension 
of the MSS. will prove that certain of these vagaries 
are merely errors of the copyists, but when con- 
sidered together they are too numerous and too 
strange to be explained in this way. A few examples 
only shall be chosen. 

Chapter I. ἣν τὰ ἐπίχειρα ἐκομίζοντο. 
55 Il. μὴ εἴη ἐπαύρασθαι, “perhaps it is im- 
possible to gain” (see Oath, p. 300, 
1. 33). 
5 IV. παραινέσιος δ᾽ ἂν καὶ τοῦτο ἐπιδεηθείη τῆς 
νούσου γὰρ ταχυτὴς καιρὸν μὴ διδοῦσα 
τ VI. ἣν δὲ καιρὸς εἴη. 
ησθημένοι τὸ πάθος μὴ ἐὸν ἐν ἀσφαλείῃ. 
rs VII. μὴ ἐγκεχειρικότες, “because they have 

not entrusted.” 
δεόμενοι τὴν ὑγιεινὴν διάθεσιν. 
» VIII. ἐπινέμησιν κέχρηνται [an emendation 

of Coray]. 
a nN Pye we 
O av ερέεω. 
τὸ IX. σὺν τῇ οὐσίῃ = τῆς οὐσίης. 
οὐ διαμαρτήσει (3rd person singular). 
a XIII. ὅποι ἂν καὶ ἐπιστατήσαιμι. 

Notice in particular that μή is ousting ov. This is a 
sure sign of late date. 

Words and expressions that occur only in late 
Greek, or are used in a strange sense, are fairly 
common, and there appear to be a few ἅπαξ λεγόμενα. 



Chapter I. καταφορή = deducing. 
oa II. περὶ ταῦτα γίγνεσθαι = to be occupied 
IV. προμύσσειν. 
ὅν Ν. ἠδελφισμένος. 
μι VI. εὐδοκίη. 
5 VII. ἐκ ποδός. 
ἐν ΨΠΠΠ. κατασιλλαίνω 
a IX. μινύθημα. 
" Χ, εὐχαρίη (if this reading be correct), 

or εὐχαριστίη. 
es XII. ἱστοριευμένην. 
5, ἈΠΕ: φιχαλυστῆς. 
» XIV. συμπάθησις. 
ὑποπαραίτησις (if this reading be 

The aphoristie style, which appears to have been 
popular among medical writers (Coan Prenotions, 
Prorrhetic I., Aphorisms, Nutriment) tended to become 
oracular and obscure. The writer of Precepts seems 
to have gone out of his way to wrap up his meaning 
in unusual diction, which is often almost unintel- 
ligible. He is fond of allusive, metaphorical language, 
which savours sometimes of the lyric poets. 

In spite of his weaknesses as an author, and they 
are many, he is a man of sound common sense, I 
would note in particular his insisting upon reasoning 



from accurately observed facts only, and upon the 
necessity of not worrying the patient about fees, 
and his pungent criticisms of quacks, their dupes, 
and all “ late-learners.” 

There is something about the style which is 
reminiscent of Latin, particularly παραινέσιος τοῦτο 
in Chapter IV, meaning “this piece of advice,” and 
perhaps the future in Chapter V with imperatival 
sense.t_ The perfect tense too is commonly used for 
the aorist. One would be tempted to regard the 
author as a Roman who wrote in Greek an essay, 
compiled from Epicurean literature and fairly sound 
medical sources, were it not for two scholia, one 
discovered by Daremberg and the other in the MS. 
Vaticanus gr. 277. The latter quotes a great part 
of Erotian’s explanation of φλεδονώδεα as a comment 
upon Precepts VII.,where our MSS. now have φθογγώδεα 
or φθεγγώδεα. In other words, the treatise appears 
to have been known to Erotian, or to the authorities 
used by Erotian, as an Hippocratic work. Darem- 
berg? discovered in a Vatican MS. a gloss from 
which it appears that Galen commented on Precepts, 
and that Archigenes (a physician of the early second 
century A.p.) and Chrysippus the Stoic commented 
on the distinction between καιρός and χρόνος with 
which Precepts opens. 

Even if we allow full weight to this evidence of 

1 Since I wrote the above my attention has been called to 
στενῶν ἔνδοσιν in Chapter VII. The word στενῶν looks like 

2 See Notices et extraits des manuscrits médicaux grecs, latins 
et francais des principales bibliothéeques de [ Europe, pp. 200- 



early authorship, we need conclude no more than 
that Chrysippus knew the originals from which the 
compilation was made—indeed he must have been 
well acquainted with the Epicurean original of 
Chapters [and II. There is nothing in the evidence 
to prevent our taking Precepts to be a cento from 
good sources made by a late writer not perfectly 
familiar with Greek. Somehow it became incor- 
porated in a collection of Hippocratic writings, 
probably a little-known one, as none of the ancient 
*‘lists”” of Hippocratic works includes Precepts. 
There was no generally accepted canon, and a work 
of unknown or uncertain authorship might easily 
find its way into the Hippocratic collection in one 
or other of the great libraries. 

Although linguistic difficulties obscure the details, 
the reader will be interested in the picture of medical 
practice in antiquity. The “late-learner” covering 
up his mistakes in a flood of medical jargon will 
suggest the doctors of Moliere. The public lectures, 
with quotations from poetry, are the exact counter- 
part of modern advertisements of patent medicines. 

MSS. anv Epirions, 

Precepts is found in several of the Paris manu- 
scripts and in M.! There have been so far as I know 
no separate editions and no translations into English. 

1 There is no good apparatus criticus. I have tried to 
infer from Littré’s ‘‘vulgate” and Ermerins’ text what is 
the reading of the majority of the manuscripts, and it is 
generally this reading which I denote by ‘‘ MSS.” Only 
more careful examination of the actual manuscripts can 
show how far I am justified in so doing. 





I. Χρόνος ἐστὶν ἐν ᾧ καιρός, καὶ καιρὸς ἐν ᾧ 
χρόνος οὐ πολύς" ἄκεσις χρόνῳ, ἔστι δὲ ἡνίκα 
καὶ καιρῷ. δεῖ γε μὴν ταῦτα εἰδότα μὴ λογισμῷ 
προτερον πιθανῷ προσέχοντα ἰητρεύειν, ἀλλὰ 
τριβῇ μετὰ λόγου. ὁ γὰρ λογισμὸς μνήμη τίς 
ἐστι συνθετικὴ τῶν μετ᾽ αἰσθήσιος ληφθέντων. 
ἐφαντασιώθη γὰρ ἐναργέως ἡ αἴσθησις προπαθὴς 
καὶ ἀναπομπὸς ἐοῦσα ἐς διάνοιαν τῶν ὑποκει- 
μένων, ἡ δὲ παραδεξαμένη πολλάκις, οἷς ὅτε 
ὁκοίως  τηρήσασα, καὶ ἐς ἑωυτὴν καταθεμένη, 
ἐμνημόνευσεν. συγκαταινέω μὲν οὖν καὶ τὸν 
λογισμόν, ἤνπερ ἐκ περιπτώσιος ποιῆται τὴν 
ἀρχήν, καὶ τὴν “καταφορὴν ἐκ τῶν φαινομένων 
μεθοδεύῃ. ἐκ γὰρ τῶν ἐναργέως ἐπιτελεομένων 
ἢν τὴν ἀρχὴν ποιήσηται ὁ λογισμός, ἐν διανοίης 
δυνάμει ὑπάρχων εὑρίσκεται, παραδεχομένης 
αὐτῆς ἕκαστα παρ᾽ ἄλλων. ὑποληπτέον οὖν "τὴν 
φύσιν ὑπὸ τῶν πολλῶν καὶ παντοίων πρηγμάτων 
κινηθῆναί τε καὶ διδαχθῆναι, βίης ὑπεούσης: ἡ 
δὲ διάνοια παρ᾽ αὐτῆς λαβοῦσα, ὡς προεῖπον, 
ὕστερον ἐς ἀληθείην ἤγαγεν. εἰ δὲ μὴ ἐξ ἐναργέος 

1 Ermerins would delete moAAd«is . . . δκοίως. 

1 The definition shows that in this passage λογισμός is a 
generalisation, like the πρόληψις of Epicurus, whose language 
is borrowed. But whereas πρόληψις corresponds to a general 
term (e.g. ‘‘man’”’), λογισμός here seems to mean a general 



I, Time is that wherein there is opportunity, and 
opportunity is that wherein there is no great time. 
Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes 
also a matter of opportunity. However, knowing 
this, one must attend in medical practice not 
primarily to plausible theories,! but to experi- 
ence combined with reason. For a theory is a 
composite memory of things apprehended with 
sense-perception. For the sense-perception, coming 
first in experience and conveying to the intellect 
the things subjected to it, is clearly imaged, and 
the intellect, receiving these things many times, 
noting the occasion, the time and the manner, stores 
them up in itself and remembers. Now I approve 
of theorising also if it lays its foundation in incident, 
and deduces its conclusions in accordance with phe- 
nomena. For if theorising lays its foundation in 
clear fact, it is found to exist in the domain of in- 
tellect, which itself receives from other sources each 
of itsimpressions. So we must conceive of our nature 
as being stirred and instructed under compulsion 
by the great variety of things; and the intellect, as 
1 have said, taking over from nature the impres- 
sions, leads us afterwards into truth. But if it 

proposition (e.g. ‘‘man is mortal”). Later on it means the 
use of λογισμοί in making συλλογισμοί, that is, deduction. 
‘‘Theory” and ‘‘ theorising” are the nearest equivalents I 
can think of. 

VOL, 1. ν 313 





ἐφόδου, ἐκ δὲ πιθανῆς ἀναπλάσιος λόγου, πολ- 
λάκις βαρείην καὶ ἀνιηρὴν ἐπήνεγκε διάθεσιν. 
οὗτοι δὲ ἀνοδίην χειρίζουσι. τί γὰρ ἂν ἣν κακόν, 
iv τὰ ἐπίχειρα ἐκομίζοντο οἱ τὰ τῆς ἰητρικῆς 
ἔργα κακῶς δημιουργέοντες ; ; νῦν δὲ τοῖς ἀναιτίοις 
ἐοῦσι τῶν καμνόντων, ὁκόσοις οὐχ ἱκανὴ ἐφαίνετο 
ἐοῦσα τοῦ νοσεῖν βίη, εἰ μὴ συνέλθοι τῇ τοῦ 
ἰητροῦ ἀπειρίῃ. περὶ μὲν οὖν τούτων ἅλις ἔστω 

11. Τῶν δ᾽ ὡς λόγου μόνου συμπεραινομένων 
μὴ εἴη 5 ἐπαύρασθαι, τῶν δὲ ὡς ἔργου ἐνδείξιος" 
σφαλερὴ γὰρ καὶ εὔπταιστος ἡ μετ᾽ ἀδολεσχίης 
ἰσχύρισις. διὸ καὶ καθόλου δεῖ ἔχεσθαι τῶν 
γινομένων, καὶ περὶ ταῦτα μὴ ἐλαχίστως ryive- 
σθαι, ἢν μέλλῃ ἕξειν ῥηϊδίην καὶ ἀναμάρτητον 
ἕξιν ἣν δὴ ἰητρικὴν προσαγορεύομεν. κάρτα γὰρ 
μεγάλην ὠφελίην περιποιήσει τοῖς γε νοσέουσι 
καὶ τοῖς τούτων on ημιουργοῖς. μὴ ὀκνεῖν δὲ παρὰ 
ἰδιωτέων ἱστορεῖν, ἤν τι δοκῇ συνοίσειν ἐς καιρὸν 
θεραπείης. οὕτω γὰρ δοκέω τὴν σύμπασαν 
τέχνην ἀναδειχθῆναι, διὰ τὸ ἐξ ἑκάστου τιϑ τοῦ 
τέλους τηρηθῆναι καὶ ἐς ταὐτὸ συναλισθῆναι. 
προσέχειν οὖν δεῖ τῇ περιπτώσει τῇ ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ 
πολύ, καὶ μετ᾽ ὠφελίης καὶ ἠρεμαιότητος μᾶλλον 
ἢ ἐπαγγελίης καὶ ἀπολογίης τῆς μετ᾽ ἀπρηξίης." 

1 So apparently the MSS. and editions except Ermerins, 
who emends to ei. I retain it (doubtfully) as a mistake due 
to ignorance. 2 See p. 308. 

3 τοῦ MSS.: τι another hand in M. I have inserted τι 
and kept τοῦ because of the sense. There is one τέλος, but 
ey, observations contribute to the completion of it. 

4 μετὰ πρήξιος MSS.: μετ᾽ ἀπρήξιος another hand in M: 
μετὰ πρήξιας Littré: μετ᾽ ἀπρηξίης is my conjecture. I find 



begins, not from a clear impression, but from a 
plausible fiction,’ it often induces a grievous and 
troublesome condition. All who so act are lost in a 
blind alley. Now no harm would be done if bad 
practitioners received their due wages. But as it is 
their innocent patients suffer, for whom the violence 
of their disorder did not appear sufficient without 
the addition of their physician’s inexperience. I 
must now pass on to another subject. 

II. But conclusions which are merely verbal cannot 
bear fruit, only those do which are based on demon- 
strated fact. For affirmation and talk are deceptive 
and treacherous. Wherefore one must hold fast to 
facts in generalisations also,? and occupy oneself with 
facts persistently, if one is to acquire that ready and 
infallible habit which we call “the art of medicine.” 
For so to do will bestow a very great advantage 
upon sick folk and medical practitioners. Do not 
hesitate to inquire of laymen, if thereby there 
seems likely to result any improvement in treat- 
ment. For so I think the whole art has been set 
forth, by observing some part of the final end in 
each of many particulars, and then combining all 
into a single whole. So one must pay attention to 
generalities in incidents, with help and quietness 
rather than with professions and the excuses that 
accompany ill-success. 

1 7,e., if the general statement from which we deduce 
conclusions be a plausible but untrue hypothesis. Conclu- 
sions drawn from such hypotheses lead to nowhere. 

2 Or, possibly, ‘‘even from beginning to end.” 

that I have been anticipated by Ermerins, who also reads 
μετ᾽ ἀπρηξίης-. 





11]: Χρήσιμος δὲ καὶ ποικίλος τῶν προσφερο- 
μένων τῷ νοσέοντι καὶ ὁ προορισμός, ὅτιϊ μόνον 
τί προσενεχθὲν ὠφελήσει" οὐ γὰρ ἰσχυρίσιος δεῖ: 
πάντα γὰρ τὰ πάθη διὰ πολλὰς περιστάσιας καὶ 
μεταβολὰς μονῇ τινι προσκαθίξει. 

IV. Παραινέσιος δ᾽ ἂν καὶ τοῦτο ἐπιδεηθείη 
τῆς θεωρίης" συμβάλλει γάρ τι τῷ σύμπαντι" 
εἰ γὰρ ἄρξαιο περὶ μισθαρίων τῷ μὲν ἀλγέοντι 
τοιαύτην διανόησιν ἐ ἐμποιήσεις τὴν ὅτι 3 ἀπολιπὼν 
αὐτὸν πορεύσει μὴ συνθέμενος, ἢ ἢ" ὅτι ἀμελήσεις 
καὶ οὐχ ὑποθήσει τινὰ τῷ παρεόντι. ἐπιμε- 
λεῖσ θαι οὖν οὐδ δεῖ περὶ στάσιος μισθοῦ" ἄχρηστον 
γὰρ ἡγεύμεθα ἐνθύμησιν ὀχλεομένῳ τὴν τοιαύτην, 
πολὺ δὲ μᾶλλον ἐν ὀξεῖ νοσήματι" νούσου γὰρ 
ταχυτὴς καιρὸν μὴ διδοῦσα ἐς ἀναστροφὴν οὐκ 
ἐποτρύνει τὸν καλῶς ἰητρεύοντα ζητεῖν τὸ λυσι- 
τελές, ἔχεσθαι δὲ δόξης μᾶλλον. κρέσσον οὖν 
σῳζομένοις ὀνειδίζειν ἢ ὀλεθρίως ἔχοντας προ- 

V. Kai τοι ἔνιοι νοσέοντες ἀξιοῦσι τὸ ξενο- 
πρεπὲς καὶ τὸ ἄδηλον ὃ προκρίνοντες, ἄξιοι μὲν 
ἀμελείης, οὐ μέντοι γε κολάσιος. διὸ τούτοις 
ἀντιτάξει εἰκότως μεταβολῆς ἐπὶ σάλου πορευο- 


1 Ermerins here inserts οὐ. 

2 In the MSS. this sentence occurs after μισθαρίων. It 
was transposed by Coray. 

3 Here the MSS. have οὐκ, which is omitted by Coray, 
Littré and Ermerins. 4 ἢ Littré: καὶ MSS. 

5 ὑποθήσεις MSS. : Coray emended to the middle. 

6 Dhe negative is added by Littré 

7 προμύσσειν MSS. : προσνύσσειν Coray: προσμύσσειν Er- 

8 ἀξιοῦσι MSS. : ἀλλάσσουσι Littré. 

9 εὔδηλον MSS. : ἄδηλον Littré. 


PRECEPTS, 111.-v. 

ΠΙ. Early determination of the patient’s treat- 
ment—since only what has actually been admin- 
istered will benefit ; emphatic assertion is of no 
use—is beneficial but complicated. For it is through 
many turns and changes that all diseases settle into 
some sort of permanence.! 

IV. This piece of advice also will need our con- 
sideration, as it contributes somewhat to the whole. 
For should you begin by discussing fees, you will 
suggest to the patient either that you will go away 
and leave him if no agreement be reached, or that 
you will neglect him and not prescribe any immediate 
treatment. So one must not be anxious about fixing 
a fee. For I consider such a worry to be harmful 
to a troubled patient, particularly if the disease be 
acute. For the quickness of the disease, offering no 
opportunity for turning back,? spurs on the good 
physician not to seek his profit but rather to lay 
hold on reputation. Therefore it is better to reproach 
a patient you have saved than to extort money from® 
those who are at death’s door. 

V. And yet some patients ask for what is out of 
the way and doubtful, through prejudice, deserving 
indeed to be disregarded, but not to be punished. 
Wherefore you must reasonably oppose them, as 
they are embarked upon a stormy sea of change. 

1 Because changes and turns are common in the early 
stages, to fix the proper treatment early is a complicated 

* J. 6. from missed opportunities that have passed away 
while haggling over fees. It is possible that ἀναστροφή has 
here the sense of ἀναστρέφειν καρίδαν in Thucydides II. 49, 
‘to upset.” An acute disease is not the time to upset a 
patient with financial worries. 

3 Or, if Coray’s emendation be adopted, ‘‘ to tease.” 






μένοις. τίς γάρ, ὦ πρὸς Διός, ἠδελφισμένος 
ἰητρὸς ἰητρεύει τοσαύτῃ " ἀτεραμνίῃ ὥστε ἐν ἀρχῇ 
ἀνακρίνοντα 5. πᾶν πάθος μὴ οὐχ΄ ὑποθέσθαι 
τινὰ συμφέροντα ἐς θεραπείην, ἀποθεραπεῦσαί τε 
τὸν νοσέοντα καὶ μὴ παριδεῖν τὴν ἐπικαρπίην, 
ἄνευ ὃ τῆς ἐπισκευαζούσης ἐς μάθησιν ἐπιθυμίης ; 
VI. Παρακελεύομαι δὲ μὴ λίην ἀπανθρωπίην 
ἐσάγειν, ἀλλ᾽ ἀποβλέπειν ἔς τε περιουσίην καὶ 
οὐσίην" ὁτὲ δὲ προῖκα, ἀναφέρων μνήμην εὐχα- 
ριστίης προτέρην © ἢ παρεοῦσαν evdoxinn.” ἦν" 
δὲ καιρὸς εἴη χορηγίης ξένῳ τε ἐόντι καὶ ἀπο- 
ρέοντι, μάλιστα ἐπαρκεῖν τοῖς τοιούτοις" ἢν γὰρ 
παρῇ φιλανθρωπίη, πάρεστι καὶ φιλοτεχνίη. 
ἔνιοι γὰρ νοσέοντες ἢσθημένοι τὸ περὶ ἑωυτοὺς 
πάθος μὴ ἐὸν ἐν ἀσφαλείῃ, καὶ τῇ τοῦ ἰητροῦ 
ἐπιεικείῃ EVOOKEOUGL,® μεταλλάσσοντες ἐς ὑγιείην. 
εὖ δ᾽ ἔχει νοσεόντων μὲν ἐπιστατεῖν, ἕνεκεν 
ὑγιείης, ὑγιαινόντων δὲ φροντίζειν, ἕνεκεν ἀνοσίης" 
φροντίζειν καὶ ἑωυτῶν 10 ἕνεκεν εὐσχημοσύνης. 
VII. Οἱ μὲν οὖν ἐόντες ἐν βυθῷ ἀτεχνίης τῶν 
προλελεγμένων οὐκ ἂν αἰσθάνοιντο. καὶ γὰρ οὗτοι 
ἀνίητροι ἐόντες ἐλέγχοιντ᾽ ἂν 11 ἐκ ποδὸς ὑψεύ- 

1 τοσαύτῃ my conjecture: πίστει ἢ MSS.: πιστεύοι Er- 
merins: πεισθείη Littré (with ἰητρεύειν). 

2 ἀνακρίνοντα Littré: ἀνακρίναντα Ermerins: ἀνακρινέοντας 

3° Ermerins inserts τό. 

4 μὴ ovx M: py most MSS. : δεῖ many early commentators. 
The Souitiort of the negative is abnormal, and the reading 
is uncertain. 

5 So Ermerins: τῆς ἐπικαρπίης μὴ ἄνευ MSS. Most editors 
punctuate at παριδεῖν. But then τῆς ἐπικαρπίης depends on 

6 προτέρην MSS. : πρότερον Ermerins, 

7 εὐδοκίην M: εὐδοκιμίην most MSS. 


PRECEPTS, v.-vu. 

For, in heaven’s name, who that is a brotherly! phy- 
sician practises with such hardness of heart as not at 
the beginning to conduct a preliminary examination 
of every illness? and prescribe what will help towards 
a cure, to heal the patient and not to overlook the 
reward, to say nothing of the desire that makes a 
man ready to learn ? 

VI. I urge you not to be too unkind, but to con- 
sider carefully your patient's superabundance or 
means. Sometimes give your services for nothing, 
calling to mind a previous benefaction or present 
satisfaction.? And if there be an opportunity of 
serving one who is a stranger in financial straits, 
give full assistance to all such. For where there is 
love of man, there is also love of the art. For some 
patients, though conscious that their condition is 
perilous, recover their health simply through their 
contentment with the goodness of the physician. 
And it is well to superintend the sick to make them 
well, to care for the healthy to keep them well, but 
also to care for one’s own self, so as to observe what 
is seemly, 

VII. Now those who are buried in deep ignorance 
of the art cannot appreciate what has been said. 
In fact such men will be shown up as ignorant of 

1 The word so translated is fairly common in the Corpus in 
the sense of ‘‘related.” Here it evidently means ‘‘a loyal 
member of the family of physicians.” 

2 With Ermerins’ reading, ‘‘all the illness.” 

3 Or, with εὐδοκιμίην, ‘‘ your present reputation.” 

8 ἣν MSS.: εἰ Ermerins. But see Chapter I, p. 314, note 1. 

9. MSS. εὐδοκιμέουσι. Littré suggests εὐδοκέουσι but reads 
εὐδοκέοντες and μεταλλάσσονται. 

10 ἑωυτῶν Ermerins: ὑγιαινόντων MSS. 

1 ἐχλέγχοιντ᾽ ἂν Ermerins: ἔλεγχοι MSS. : ἐλέγχη Littré. 





μενοι, τύχης γε μὴν δεόμενοι. ὑπὸ γάρ τινων 
εὐπόρων, καὶ στενῶν τ ἀναλαμβανόντων, 
ἑκατέρῃ ἐπὴν eMLTUX OTL! εὐδοκιμέουσι, Kal δια- 
πιπτόντων ἐπὶ τὸ χεῖρον καταχλιδεῦσι, teeta 
μεμεληκότες τὰ τῆς τέχνης ἀνυπεύθυνα, ἐφ᾽ οἷς 
ἂν ἰητρὸς ἀγαθὸς ἀκμάζοι ὁ ὁμότεχνος καλεόμενος. 
ὁ δὲ τὰς ἀκέσιας ἀναμαρτήτους ῥηϊδίως ἐπιτελέων 
οὐδὲν a ἂν τούτων παραβαίη σπάνει 2 τοῦ δύνασθαι: 
οὐ γὰρ ἄπιστός ἐστιν ὡς ἐν ἀδικίῃ. πρὸς γὰρ 
θεραπείην οὐ γίνονται σκοπέοντες διάθεσιν φλε- 
βονώδεα, 5 φυλασσόμενοι ἑτέρων ἰητρῶν ἐπεσ- 
αγωγήν, ἐνόντες ἃ ἐν μεσοπονηρίῃ βοηθήσιος." 

οἵ TE νοσέοντες ἀνιώμενοι ὃ νήχονται ἐπὶ ἑκατέρῃ 
μοχθηρίῃ μὴ ἐγκεχειρικότες ἑωυτοὺς ἕως τέλεος 
τῇ ἐν τῇ πέχνῃ πλείονι θεραπείῃ" ἄνεσις γὰρ 
νούσου τινὸς κάμνοντι παρέχει μεγάλην ἀλεωρήν" 
διὸ δεόμενοι τὴν ὑγιεινὴν διάθεσιν οὐκ ἐθέλουσι 
τὴν αὐτὴν χρῆσιν αἰεὶ προσδέχεσθαι, ὁ ὁμονοέοντες 
ἰητροῦ ποικιλίῃ. tT πολυτελείης tT γὰρ ἀπορέουσιν 

1 So Ermerins. Most MSS. have ἀναλαμβάνονται or ἄνα- 
λαμβάνοντες, ἑκάτεροι ἐπὶ τεύχεσι and εὐδοκιμέοντες. 

2. σπάνι (sic) Ermerins: οὐ παντὶ σπάνει most MSS.: 
παντὶ σπάνει M (dittography) : οὐ πάντη σπάνει Littré. 

* So apparently some ancient commentators. See Erotian 
fr. 7 Nachmanson. φθεγγώδεα or φθογγώδεα MSS. : φθινώδεα 
Ibittres : φονώδεα Ermerins. 

* ἐνόντες M, Littré: αἰνοῦντες most MSS. I suggest 
μένοντες, as we Should have expected ἐνεόντες. See p. 248. 
5 αἰνέοντες μισοπονηρίην βοηθήσιος Ermerins. 
ἀνιώμενοι MSS. : ἀνιέμενοι Littré after Matthiae. 

* So Ermerins: ὁμοιοῦντες ἰητροῦ ποικιλίῃ vulgate: μὴ 

νοέοντες ἰητροῦ ποικιλίην : Littré. 

1 He is trusted, and socan do as he likes. Therefore want 
of power to influence a patient never compels him to trans- 
gress the medical code. 



medicine, suddenly exalted yet needing good luck. 
For should wealthy men gain some remission of their 
trouble, these quacks win reputation through a 
double good fortune, and if a relapse occurs 
they stand upon their dignity, having neglected 
the irreproachable methods of the art, wherewith 
a good physician, a ‘brother of the art” as he is 
called, would be at his best. But he who accom- 
plishes his cures easily without making a mistake 
would transgress none of these methods through want 
of power ;1 for he is not distrusted on the ground of 
wickedness. For quacks do not attempt treatment 
when they see an alarming? condition, and avoid 
calling in other physicians, because they wickedly 
hate help. And the patients in their pain drift on a 
sea of twofold wretchedness for not having intrusted 
themselves to the end to the fuller treatment that 
is given by the art. For a remission of a disease 
affords a sick man much relief. Wherefore wanting 
a healthy condition they do not wish always to sub- 
mit to the same treatment, therein being in accord 
with a physician’s versatility. For the patients 

5 It is quite uncertain whether φλεβονώδεα is the correct 
reading, and equally uncertain what it means if it be correct. 
Erotian’s note recognises two ancient readings, φλεδονώδεα, 
explained as τὰ μετὰ φλυαρίας καὶ πνευματώδους ταραχῆς 
ἐκκρινόμενα, and φλεβονώδεα, explained as τὰ μετ᾽ ἀλγήματος 
οἰδήματα. But the general meaning must be ‘‘serious,” 

3 The reader must suspect that in the words ἰητροῦ ποικιλίη 
is concealed an allusion to frequent changes of the medical 
attendant. ‘Changing their doctor every day.” The 
version in the text means that the patients frequently 
change their minds as do quacks, or as doctors must be ready 
to change their treatment at a moment’s notice. 





e , \ 
οἱ νοσέοντες, ' κακοτροπίῃ προσκυνέοντες 5 καὶ 
ἀχαριστέοντες συντυχεῖν. δυνατοὶ ἐόντες εὐπο- 
ρεῖν, διαντλίξονται ὃ περὶ μισθαρίων, ἀτρεκέως 
ἐθέλοντες ὑγιέες Εἶν ΩΝ elvexev ..... ἐργασίης 
τόκων ἢ γεωργίης, ἀφροντιστέοντες περὶ ὃ αὐτῶν 

Vii: Περὶ ΄σημασίης τοιαύτης ἅλις ἔστω" 
ἄνεσις γὰρ καὶ ἐπίτασις νοσέοντος ἐπινέμησιν 
ἰητρικὴν κέχρηνται." οὐκ ἀσχήμων © δέ, οὐδ᾽ 
ἣν τις ἰητρὸς στενοχωρέων τῷ παρεόντι ? ἐπί τινι 
νοσέοντι καὶ “ἐπισκοτεόμενος τῇ ἀπειρίῃ κελεύῃ 
καὶ ἑτέρους ἐσάγειν, εἵνεκα τοῦ ἐκ κοινολογίης 
ἱστορῆσαι τὰ περὶ τὸν νοσέοντα, καὶ συνεργοὺς 

γενέσθαι ἐς εὐπορίην βοηθήσιος. ἐν γὰρ κακο- 
παθείης παρεδρίῃ ἐπιτείνοντος τοῦ πάθεος, dv 
ἀπορίην τὰ πλεῖστα ἐκκλίνουσι τῷ παρέοντι" ἴ 

= a \ 
θαρρητέον ὃ οὖν ἐν καιρῷ τοιούτῳ" οὐδέποτε γὰρ 
a La Ὁ lal ¢ / 
ἐγὼ TO τοιοῦτο ὁριεῦμαι, STL ἡ τέχνη κέκριται 

1 So apparently all MSS.: πολυτελεῖς γὰρ ἀπορέουσιν ἐόντες 
Littré. Perhaps πολυτελείῃ should be read. 

2 προσκυνεῦντες MSS.: προσκυρεῦντες Littré. I suggest 
that οὐκ has fallen out after καί. 

3 διαντλίζονται (apparently) MSS.: διισχυρίζονται Cor- 
narius: διαλογίζονται Ermerins. 

4 περί MSS. : μὴ ὑπὲρ Littré. 
κέκτηνται MSS. : κέχρηνται Coray. 
ἀσχήμων MSS. : ἄσχημον Littré. 
τῷ παρέοντι omitted by Ermerins. 

θαρρητέον MSS. : μὴ θαρρητέον (sic) Martinus quoted by 
Foes. Perhaps οὐ θαρρητέον. 

oar Φ σι 

1 These patients ἀπορέουσιν, and so can scarcely be the same 
as the εὔποροι of the earlier part of the chapter. Perhaps 
οὐκ should be read before ἀχαριστέοντες, and the sense would 
then be, ‘they become poor by showing gratitude to quacks, 
when they might be well off by employing qualified men.” 


PRECEPTS, vit.-vut. 

are in need through heavy expenditure, worshipping 
incompetence and showing no gratitude when they 
meet it ;1 when they have the power to be well off, 
they exhaust themselves about fees, really wishing 
to be well for the sake of managing their investments 
or farms, yet without a thought in these matters to 
receive anything.” 

VIII. So much for such recommendations. For 
remission and aggravation of a disease require re- 
spectively less or more medical assistance. A 
physician does not violate etiquette even if, being 
in difficulties on occasion over a patient and in the 
dark through inexperience, he should urge the calling 
in of others, in order to learn by consultation the 
truth about the case, and in order that there may 
be fellow-workers to afford abundant help. For 
when a diseased condition is stubborn and the evil 
grows, in the perplexity of the moment most things 
go wrong. So on such occasions one must be bold.® 
For never will I lay it down that the art has been 

2 The greater part of this chapter is hopeless. There 
seems to be no connexion between the quack doctors of the 
first part and the wayward patients of the latter part. I 
suspect that an incongruous passage has been inserted here 
by some compiler, just as chapter fourteen was so inserted. 
Perhaps there are gaps in the text, the filling up of which 
would clear away the difficulty. Probably there is one after 
εἵνεκεν. If the latter part be not an interpolation, the 
general meaning seems to be that when patients grow worse 
under quack treatment, they change their doctor and hire 
another quack. So they both grow worse and lose money. 
They really want to get well to look after their business, 
but do not think of the right way to return to work again, 
ἃ. ὁ. of employing a qualified medical man, 

8. Or (reading οὐ) ‘fon such occasions one must not be 





περὶ τούτου. μηδέποτε φιλονεικεῖν προσ κυρέουτας 
ἑωυτοῖσι. καὶ  κατασιλλαίνειν" 3 ὃ γὰρ ἂν 8 μεθ᾽ 
ὅρκου ἐρέω, οὐδέποτε ἐ ἰητροῦ λογισμὸς φθονήσειεν 
ἂν ἑτέρῳ" ἀκιδνὸς γὰρ ἂν φανείη: ἀλλὰ μᾶλλον 
οἱ ἀγχιστεύοντες ἀγοραίης ἐργασίης πρήσσουσι 
ταῦτα εὐμαρέως. καίτοι γε οὐδὲ ψευδέως κατα- 
νενόηται' πάσῃ γὰρ εὐπορίῃ ἀπορίη ἔνεστι. 

ΙΧ. Μετὰ τούτων δὲ πάντων μέγα ἂν τεκμήριον 
φανείη σὺν τῇ οὐσίῃ τῆς τέχνης, εἴ τίς καλῶς 
ἰητρεύων προσαγορεύσιος τοιαύτης μὴ ἀποσταίη, 
κελεύων τοῖσι νοσέουσι μηδὲν ὀχλεῖσθαι κατὰ 

διάνοιαν ἐν τῷ σπεύδειν ἀφικέσθαι = καιρὸν 

σωτηρίης" ἡγεύμεθα γὰρ ἃ χρὴ ἐς τὴν ὃ ὑγιείην. 
καὶ προστασσόμενός ye? οὐ ιαμαρτήσει" αὐτοὶ 
μὲν γὰρ οἱ νοσέοντες διὰ τὴν ἀλγεινὴν διάθεσιν 
ἀπαυδέοντες ἑωυτούς ΕΣ 08 μεταλλάσσουσι 
τῆς ζωῆς" ὁ δ᾽ ἐγκεχειρισμένος τὸν νοσέοντα, ἢν 
ἀποδείξῃ τὰ τῆς τέχνης ἐξευρήματα, σῴζων 
οὐκ ὃ ἀλλοιῶν φύσιν, ἀποίσει τὴν “παρεοῦσαν 
«ἀθυμίην: 10 ἢ τὴν παραυτίκα ἀπιστίην. ἡ γὰρ 
τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εὐεξίη φύσις τίς ἐστι φύσει περιπε- 
ποιημένη κίνησιν οὐκ ἀλλοτρίην, ἀλλὰ λίην yel! 

1 καὶ omitted in MSS.: inserted first by Littré, who also 
reads ἀλλήλοισι instead of ἑωυτοῖσι. 
2 κατασιλλαίνειν MSS. : Kata σιλλαίνειν Ermerins. 

3 This ἂν is very strange with épéw. Perhaps it is a 
repetition of the Bee two letters. But see p. 308. See 
also additional note, p. 332. 

4 One MS. has ἀσθενής. 

5 σὺν MSS. : omitted by Ermerins. See p. 308. 

ὁ ἃ χρὴ és τὴν Littré: ἀχρηστίην MSS. 

7 So most MSS.: προστάσσων μὲν Ermerins. 

8 Littré, supposing that a participle is wanted, adds 


PRECEPTS, vitt.-1x. 

condemned in this matter.t Physicians who meet 
in consultation must never quarrel, or jeer at one 
another. For I will assert upon oath, a physician’s 
reasoning should never be jealous of another. To 
be so will be a sign of weakness. Those who act 
thus lightly are rather those connected with the 
business of the market-place. Yet it is no mistaken 
idea to call in a consultant. For in all abundance 
there is lack.? 

IX. With all these things it will appear strong 
evidence for the reality of the art if a physician, 
while skilfully treating the patient, does not refrain 
from exhortations not to worry in mind in the 
eagerness to reach the hour of recovery. For we 
physicians take the lead in what is necessary for 
health. And if he be under orders the patient will 
not go far astray. For left to themselves patients 
sink through their painful condition, give up the 
struggle and depart this life. But he who has taken 
the sick man in hand, if he display the discoveries 
of the art, preserving nature, not trying to alter it, 
will sweep away the present depression or the dis- 
trust of the moment. For the healthy condition of 
a human being is a nature that has naturaily attained 
a movement, not alien but perfectly adapted, having 

1 7. 4. that because a consultant is necessary the fault lies 
with the art of medicine. 

2 No matter how much help you have you can never have 

8 οὐκ MSS: ἢ Martinus in Foes. 

10 ἐπικαρπίην vulgate: πικρίην Littré. The true reading is 
probably a word with the meaning of ἀθυμία. 

11 λίην ye Littré: λίην re MSS. : ἰδίην Ermerins. 




εὐαρμοστεῦσαν, πνεύματί τε Kal θερμασίῃ καὶ 
χυμῶν κατεργασίῃ, πάντη τε καὶ πάσῃ διαίτῃ 
καὶ τοῖσι σύμπασι δεδημιουργημένη, ἢν μή τι ἐκ 
γενετῆς ἢ ἀπ᾽ ἀρχῆς ἔλλειμα ἢ" ἢν δὲ γένηταί τι, 
ἐξιτήλου ἐόντος, πειρᾶσθαι ἐξομοιοῦν τῇ ὑπο- 
κειμένῃ" παρὰ γὰρ φύσιν τὸ μινύθημα καὶ διὰ 

X. Φευκτέη δὲ καὶ θρύψις 1 ἐπικρατίδων διὰ 
προσκύρησιν ἀκέσιος, ὀδμή τε περίεργος" διὰ γὰρ 
ἱκανὴν ἀσυνηθείην 5 διαβολὴν κεκτήσει, διὰ δὲ 
ὀλίγην, εὐσχημοσύνην" ἐν yap μέρει πόνος ὀλίγος, 
ἐν πᾶσι ἱκανός. εὐχαρίην * δὲ οὐ περιαιρέω" 
ἀξίη γὰρ ἰητρικῆς προστασίης. 

ΠΠροσθέσιος δὲ δι’ ὀργάνων καὶ σημαντι- 
κῶν ἐπιδείξιος, καὶ τῶν τοιουτοτρόπων μνήμην 

XII. Ἤν δὲ καὶ εἵνεκεν ὁμίλου θέλῃς ἀκρόασιν 
ποιήσασθαι, οὐκ ἀγακλεῶς ἐπιθυμεῖς, μὴ μέντοι 
γε μετὰ μαρτυρίης OILS S ἀδυναμίην γὰρ 
ἐμφαίνει φιλοπονίης "ὃ ἀπαρνέομαι γὰρ ἐς χρῆσιν 
ἑτέρην φιλοπονίην μετὰ πόνου ἱστοριευμένην," διὸ 
ἐν ἑωυτῇ μούνῃ αἵρεσιν ἔχουσαν * χαρίεσσαν' 
περιποιήσει γὰρ κηφῆνος μετὰ παραπομπῆς 

1 θρύψις conjecture of Triller: τρίψις vulgate. 

2 ἀξυνεσίην MSS. : ξεινοσύνην or ξενίην Triller : ἀσυνηθείην 
Kiihn and Littré. 

8 κεκτήσει My emendation: κέκτησαι Littré, without 

4 εὐχαρίην M: εὐχαριστίην other MSS. (apparently) and 

Littré, The dictionaries do not recognise εὐχαρία. 

5 φιλοπονίης MSS. : φιλοπονίη Littré, 


PRECEPTS, 1x.—x11. 

produced it by means of breath, warmth and coction 
of humours, in every way, by complete regimen and 
by everything combined, unless there be some con- 
genital or early deficiency. Should there be such a 
thing in a patient who is wasting, try to assimilate 
to the fundamental nature.t For the wasting, even 
of long standing, is unnatural. 

X. You must also avoid adopting, in order to gain a 
patient,? luxurious headgear and elaborate perfume. 
For excess of strangeness will win you ill-repute, but 
a little will be considered in good taste, just as pain 
in one part is a trifle, while in every part it is serious. 
Yet I do not forbid your trying to please, for it is 
not unworthy of a physician’s dignity. 

XI. Bear in mind the employment of instruments 
and the pointing out of significant symptoms, and 
so forth. 

XII. And if for the sake of a crowded audience 
you do wish to hold a lecture, your ambition is no 
laudable one, and at least avoid all citations from 
the poets, for to quote them argues feeble industry. 
For I forbid in medical practice an industry not 
pertinent to the art, and laboriously far-fetched,* 
and which therefore has in itself alone an attractive 
grace. For you will achieve the empty toil of a 
drone and a drone’s spoils.4 

17. 6. try to bring the patient back to his normal condition. 

2 Apparently, in order to increase your practice by 
fastidiousness in the matter of dress. But the expression 

is very strange, and should mean, ‘‘in order to effect a cure.” 
3 See p. 308. 4 See p. 308. 

Be AOS ae ee ae a ee ee ees 
6 T suspect the form of this word, to which I can find 
no parallel. The meaning is that of ἱστορῶ. 
7 ἔχουσαν Littré : ἐοῦσαν MSS. 
8 So Littré after Weigel: MSS. apparently ἑτοιμοκοπίην. 




XII. Εὐκτέη δὲ καὶ διάθεσις ἐκτὸς ἐοῦσα 
ὀψιμαθίης: παρεόντων μὲν οὐδὲν ἐπιτελεῖ" ἀπεόν- 
των δὲ μνήμη ἀνεκτή. γίνεται τοίνυν πάμμαχος 
ἀτυχίη, μετὰ λύμης * νεαρῆς, ἀφροντιστεῦσα 
εὐπρεπίης, ὁρισμοῖς τε καὶ ἐπαγγελίῃσιν, ὃ ὅρκοις 
τε παμμεγέθεσιν θεῶν εἵνεκεν, ἰητροῦ προ- 
στατέοντος νούσου, ἀναγνώσιος συνεχείης κατ- 
ηχήσιός τε ἰδιωτέων φιλαλυστέων “λόγους ἐκ 
μεταφορῆς διαζηλευομένων," καὶ πρὶν ἢ νούσῳ 
καταπορέωσιν ἠθροισμένων. 3. τῶν μὲν οὖν ταιού- 
των ὅποι ἂν καὶ ἐπιστατήσαιμι, οὐκ ἂν ἐπὶ 
θεραπείης συλλόγου αἰτήσαιμι ἂν θαρσαλέως 
βοηθείην"" ἱστορίης γὰρ εὐσχήμονος σύνεσις ἐν 
τούτοις διεσπασμένη. τούτων ov bv ἀνάγκην 
ἀσυνέτων ἐόντων, παρακελεύομαι χρησίμην εἶναι 
τὴν τρίβην, μεθυστέρησιν © δογμάτων ἱ ἱστορίης. 
τίς γὰρ ἐπιθυμεῖ δογμάτων μὲν πολυσχιδίην 
ἀτρεκέως ἐθέλων Ἷ ἱστορεῖν, μετὰ δὲ 8 χειροτριβίης 
ἀτρεμεότητα ; ὃ διὸ παραινέω τούτοις λέγουσι 
μὲν προσέχειν, ποιέουσι δὲ ἐγκόπτειν 0 

XIV. Συνεσταλμένης διαίτης μὴ μακρὴν 

1 λύμης Littré: λυμίης M: λοιμίης most MSS. 

2 διαζηλευομένων Zwinger : διαζηλευόμενον MSS. : διαζηλευο- 
μένου Littré. 

3 καταπορέω ξυνηθροισμένοι most MSS., the second hand of 
M having ξυνηθροισμένων : καταπορέωσιν ἠθροισμένοι Littré. 

The text is a combination of Littré’s emendation and the 
reading of M. 

Ἔ βοηθείην my emendation (anticipated by Foes) : βοηθεῖν 
Littré: βούσθην MSS. 

5 διεσπασμένη Ermerins: διεσπαρμένη MSS.: διεφθαρμένη 

8 ue? ὑστέρησιν MSS.: μὴ τὴν τήρησιν Littré. The 

dictionaries do not recognise μεθυστέρησις, but the present 
work is full of strange words. 


PRECEPTS, xu.-x1v. 

XIII. A condition too is desirable free from the 
late-learner’s faults. For his state accomplishes 
nothing that is immediate, and its remembrance 
of what is not before the eyes is but tolerable. So 
there arises a quarrelsome inefficiency, with head- 
strong outrage, that has no thought for what is 
seemly, while definitions, professions, oaths, great as 
far as the gods invoked are concerned,! come from 
the physician in charge of the disease, bewildered 
laymen being lost in admiration of flowery language 
spoken in continuous reading and _ instruction, 
crowding together even before they are troubled by 
a disease.2, Wherever I may be in charge of a case, 
with no confidence should I call in such men to 
help as consultants. For in them comprehension of 
seemly learning is far to seek. Seeing then that they 
cannot but be unintelligent, I urge that experience 
is useful, the learning of opinions coming far after. 
For who is desirous and ambitious of learning truly 
subtle diversities of opinion, to the neglect of calm 
and practised skill? Wherefore I advise you to 
listen to their words but to oppose their acts. 

XIV. When regimen has been restricted you must 

1 That is, the oaths frantically appeal to all the great gods. 
2 The construction and translation are uncertain. I believe 
that δρισμοῖς and the other datives are a Roman’s efforts at 
rendering into Greek ‘‘ablatives of attendant circumstances,” 
but ἐκ μεταφορῆς is puzzling, and can hardly be taken with 
λόγους. Perhapsit isa Latinism. Cf. ‘‘ pastor ab Amphryso.” 

7 ἐθέλων Krmerins: ἐθέλειν MSS. 

8 μετὰ δὲ my emendation: μήτε most MSS: μετὰ M: μή 
γε Littré. : 

9. ἀτρεμεότητα my emendation: ἀτρεμεότητι most MSS. : 
ἀτρεμεώτατον K,. 

10 ἐγκόπτειν MSS. : ἐγκύπτειν Mack and Ermerins, 




a nr , 
t ἐγχειρεῖν t τοῦ κάμνοντος ypoviny émOupinv: 1 
7 ΄ὔ 
ἀνίστησι καὶ συγχωρίη ἐν xpovin νούσῳ, ἤν 
΄ A \ ,ὔ « / 4 
τίς προσέχῃ τυφλῷ τὸ δέον. ὡς μέγας φόβος 
φυλακτέος, καὶ χαρᾶς δεινότης. ἠέρος αἰφνιδίη 
Ν / 2 » AN « / if Μ 
ταραχὴ φυλακτέη.323 ἀκμὴ ἡλικίης πάντα ἔχει 
/ ] / \ > / ᾽ / \ 
χαρίεντα, ἀπόληξις δὲ τοὐναντίον. acadin δὲ 
, » x ὃ \ (0 x ὃ iN; \ 5 Ἃ 3 
γλώσσης γίνεται ἢ διὰ πάθος, ἢ διὰ τὰ ὦτα, ἢ 
\ \ 4 , ’ ° (4 b] lal 
πρὶν τὰ ὦ πρότερα ἐξαγγεῖλαι ἕτερα ἐπιλαλεῖν, 
ἢ πρὶν τὸ διανενοημένον εἰπεῖν ἕτερα ἐπιδιανοεῖ- 
fal 5 7 n 
σθαι: τοῦτοῦ μὲν ovv® ἄνευ πάθους ὁρατοῦ 
λελεγμένου μάλιστα συμβαίνει φιλοτεχνοῦσιν, 
ἡλικίης, σμικροῦ ἐόντος τοῦ ὑποκειμένου, δύναμις 
ἐνίοτε παμπολλή. νούσου ἀταξίη8 μῆκος 
σημαίνει" κρίσις δὲ ἀπόλυσις νούσου. σμικρὴ 
΄, ᾿ 
αἰτίη ἄκεσις γίνεται,), ἢν μή τι περὶ τόπον 
καίριον πάθῃ. διότι συμπάθησις ὑπὸ λύπης 
ἐοῦσα ὀχλεῖ, ἐξ ἑτέρου συμπαθείης τινὲς 

1 The reading and punctuation of this passage are hopeless. 
The vulgate joins the end of XIII with the beginning of XIV, 
and punctuates at ἀνίστησι, νούσῳ and φυλακτέος. ἐγχειρεῖν 
can scarcely be correct. 

2 So Littré: καὶ χάριν (χάρα second hand in M) & ἧς 
ἑνότης ἀέρος (or ἠέροΞ) αἰφνιδίῃ ταραχῇ φυλακτέη most MSS. 

ἢ added by Ermerins. 

4 τὰ Ermerins: te MSS. 

5 τρῦτο Ermerins: τὸ MSS. 



οὖν second hand in M. 
ἡλικίης Littré : ἡλικίη vulgate. 
8 ἀταξίη Littré: ἀταραξίη MSS. Perhaps the scribe un- 
consciously wrote an Epicurean word. See p. 306. 
® So second hand in M: ἄκεσι many MSS. : λύεται Littré 
and apparently Μ, 



not suppress for long a long-standing desire of the 
patient.1_ In a chronic disease indulgence too helps 
to set a man on his feet again, if one pay the 
necessary attention to one who is blind.2 As great 
fear is to be guarded against, so is excessive joy. 
A sudden disturbance of the air is also to be guarded 
against.2 The prime of life has everything lovely, 
the decline has the opposite. Incoherence of speech 
comes from an affection, or from the ears, or from 
the speaker’s talking of something fresh before he 
has uttered what was in his mind before, or from 
his thinking of fresh things before he has expressed 
what was in his thoughts before. Now this is a thing 
that happens without any “visible affection” so- 
called, mostly to those who are in love with their 
art. The power of youth, when the matter is 
trifling,4 is sometimes supremely great. Irregularity 
in a disease signifies that it will be along one. A 
crisis is the riddance of a disease. A slight cause 
turns into a cure unless the affection be in a vital 
part. Because® fellow-feeling at grief causes dis- 
tress, some are distressed through the fellow-feeling 

1 Too strict a regimen may do harm by the patient’s using 
up his strength in conquering his appetites. Some such verb 
as κατέχειν must be substituted for ἐγχειρεῖν. 

2 7.6. the patient does not know what is good for him, 

8.7.2. either (a) a draught or (Ὁ) a sudden change in 
the weather. 

4 Possibly, ‘‘ when the patient is not a big man.”” ὑποκείμε- 
νον, can mean ‘“‘ patient” in Jater Greek. 

5 Possibly, ‘‘ for the same reason that.” 




ὀχλεῦνται. καταύδησις λυπεῖ. φιλοπονίης κρα- 
ταιῆς ὑποπαραίτησις Ὁ {1 ἀλυώδης 73 τόπος 

1 The textis here uncertain. Littré has φιλοπονίης κρατερῆς 
ὕπυ, παραίνεσις, ἀλέα, Gdn, τόπος ὀνησιφόρος, ‘‘ pour l’excés de 
travail, encouragement, chaleur du soleil, chant, lieu salu- 
taire,” a not very plausible restoration, and could only mean 
“excess of diligence causes advice, etc.” 

2 Foes apparently translated ἀλσώδης, perhaps rightly. 


Chapter VIII, ll. 14-16, p. 324: ὃ yap... ἑτέρῳ. I 
should like to suggest (although I am not confident enough 
to print it in the text) that the right reading is :— 

οὐδέποτε ἰητρὸς λογισμὸν φθονήσειεν ἄν. 
‘a physician will never grudge giving his reasoned opinion.” 

Such a reading fits in very well with the next sentence but 

one. It is only in the world of business that each man is 
for himself. 


PRECEPTS,, χιν. 

of another. Loud talking is painful. Overwork 
calls for gentle dissuasion.! A wooded? district 

1 ὑποπαραίτησις is not found in the dictionaries, but may be 

2 ἀλυώδης is unmeaning, and 1 translate as though ἀλσώδης 
were in the text. 


᾿ a ys a : A en ae Area ; 

ean vay, te eth ἧς ὩΣ sage 
é ταν ἀμ ον vers 
a eu Ce ait tees δῦ ἣν bins ΣΤ 5 

re aS eae μι να ἢ ae ΑἙ 
a ah IN wah eet ries Bah anil ἐξ Sats. 

; ἔν a see Ἦν" fain Pars a ere, Bk 
ong Py ΣΝ muy ee Ἐν ia jou ig 



Ὧν ι 
a : 
/ im ἢ j 
: * 




Tue treatise Nutriment is unique. It deals with 
an interesting subject in an unusual manner, and, in 
spite of the limitations of Greek physiology, many 
valuable and interesting views are set forth. 

Heraclitus held that matter is, like a stream, in a 
state of continuous change. His system contained 
other hypotheses,t but this was the most fruitful, 
and the one which commended itself most to his 
followers and to his successors. 

A later Heraclitean, whether a professional doctor 
or not is uncertain, applied the theory of perpetual 
change to the assimilation of food by a living 
organism, and Nutriment is the result. He has 
copied the aphoristic? style and manner of his 
master, as well as the obscurity, with considerable 
success, and whole paragraphs might well be genuine 
fragments of Heraclitus. 

The author’s idea of digestion is far from easy to 

Apparently nutritive food is supposed to be dis- 
solved in moisture, and thus to be carried to every part 
of the body, assimilating itself to bone, flesh, and so 

1 Some perhaps (e.g. the union of opposites) being more 

* It is interesting to note that the aphoristic style, which 
isa great aid to memory, came into vogue at a time when 
text-books first became necessary. It has its modern analogue 
in the ““ crammer’s” analysis. 



on,as it comes into contact with them. Air (breath) 
also is regarded as food, passing through the arteries 
from the heart, while the blood passes through the 
veins from the liver. But the function of blood is 
not understood ; blood is, like milk, “ what is left 
over” (w\eovacjos) when nourishment has taken 
place. Neither is the function of the heart under- 
stood, and its relation to the lungs is never 

The aspect of nutrition which appeals most to the 
writer is the combination of unity and multiplicity 
which it exhibits. Food is one; yet it has the 
power of becoming many things. Similarly the 
animal organism is one, with many parts vitally 
connected with the whole, so that they act in 
complete sympathy with it and with one another. 

Food, says the writer, has “ power” (δύναμις), and 
sohasthe body. This “ power”’ seems to be the sum 
total of its properties, although these are not yet 
regarded as abstractions. It is one and many ; one 
in its essence, many in its manifestations. But 
“power” in its various forms is manifested only in 
relationship to other things; it is not independent, 
being latent until called into action by a suitable 
environment. In modern language, the author feels 
that qualities are relations. Wine is good (or bad) 
in certain circumstances; so is milk and all other 
foods. All things are good or bad πρός τι (Chapters 
XIX and XLIV). 

This theory of δύναμις with its insistence upon 
relativity helps in assigning a date to the document. 
A similar account of δύναμις is given in Ancient 
Medicine, the date of which is approximately 420 B.c. 
The theory of relativity, implied in the doctrine of 



Heraclitus, was fully developed in one direction by 
Protagoras, who regarded knowledge as conditioned 
by (te. relative to) the percipient being. In 
Nutriment relativity is made to apply, not merely to 
the knowledge of properties, but to the properties 
themselves. Such an extension of the doctrine 
would probably be made somewhat later than the 
time of Protagoras,and we may with some confidence 
suppose that the author wrote about 400 B.c. 

The first chapter of Nutriment distinguishes γένος 
from εἶδος after the Aristotelian manner. A similar 
distinction occurs in the Parmenides of Plato, and it 
need not prevent us from assigning a date as early as 
the end of the fifth century B.c. 

In Chapter XLVIII mention is made of pulses, 
supposed to be the first occasion of such mention in 
Greek literature.1 This fact, again, is no argument 
against an early date. The reference is quite 
general, and amounts to no more than the know- 
ledge, to be found in several places in the Hippo- 
cratic Corpus? that violent pulsations (of the 
temples and so forth) are characteristic of certain 
acute diseases. 

It should be noticed that the doctrine of δύναμις 
described above is inconsistent with a_post-Aris- 
totelian date. Aristotle’s doctrine is obviously a 
development of it, and it is clear how the earlier 
doctrine prepares the way for the later. 

The Heraclitean love of anthithesis results in 

1 See Sir Clifford Allbutt, Greek Medicine in Rome, Chapter 
XIII, for the ancient doctrines about pulses. It is most 
remarkable that before about 340 B.c. their great importance 
was not realised. 

2 See Littré’s index, s.v. battements. 



many purely verbal contrasts, which render more 
obscure the natural obscurities of this little tract. 
Indeed the reader is often forced to the conclusion 
that the writer wished so to express himself that 
more than one interpretation might legitimately be 
put upon his words. In my paraphrase I have tried 
to give the most obvious meaning, although I have 
often felt that other meanings are almost equally 

Nutriment is more important as a_ philosophical 
than as a medical document. The teaching of 
Heraclitus did not die out with his death; he had 
followers who emended and developed his theories, 
and one of these wrote Nutriment to bring a branch 
of physiology into the domain of philosophy. The 
tract is a striking proof of the difficulty of uniting 
philosophy and science, and of pursuing the latter 
on the methods of the former. Incidentally one may 
notice that it belongs to the period of eclecticism 
and reaction which followed the development of 

Nutriment was accepted as a genuine work of 
Hippocrates by Erotian, and a mutilated commentary 
on it passes under the name of Galen. Aulus 
Gellius (III. xvi), quotes it as a work of Hippocrates. 
There was another tradition in antiquity, referred to 
in two Paris MSS., that Nutriment was the work of 
Thessalus or of Herophilus. It is easy to under- 
stand how some found a difficulty in ascribing to the 

1 T wish to point out that Chapters I, III, V and VI are 
up to the present unsolved mysteries. Incidentally, I should 
like to mention that Chapter I shows that the history of the 
word εἶδος is not so simple as Professor A. E. Taylor makes 

out in Varia Socratica. 
* See Burnet, Harly Greek Philosophy, Chapter X. 



author of Epidemics such a dissimilar book ; indeed 
it is likely that the chief reason for assigning it to 
Hippocrates was its superficial likeness to Aphorisms. 

MSS. anv EpirTIons. 

The chief MSS. are A and M. WNutriment was 
edited several times in the sixteenth century, and 
interesting remarks on it are to be found in the 
following : 

J. Bernays, Heraklitische Briefe. 

A. Patin, Quellenstudien zu Heraklit. 

See also Mewaldt in Hermes, xliv. 121, and, 
for Heracliteanism in the Corpus, C. Fredrich, 
Hippokratische Untersuchungen. 



\ a 5 

i Τροφὴ καὶ τροφῆς εἶδος μία καὶ πολλαί: 
μία μὲν 7 “γένος ἕν, εἶδος δὲ ὑ ὑγρότητι καὶ ξηρότητι" 
καὶ ἐν τούτοις ἰδέαι καὶ πόσον ἐστὶ καὶ ἔς τινα 
καὶ ἐς τοσαῦτα. 

I]. Αὔξει δὲ καὶ ῥώννυσι καὶ σαρκοῖ καὶ ὁμοιοῖ 
καὶ ἀνομοιοῖ τὰ ἐν ἑκάστοις κατὰ φύσιν τὴν 
ἑκάστου καὶ τὴν ἐξ ἀρχῆς δύναμιν. 

TIT. ὋὉμοιοῖ δὲ ἐς δύναμιν, ὅταν κρατήσῃ ἡ 
ἐπεισιοῦσα, καὶ ὅταν ἐπικρατῆται ἡ προῦ- 

IV. Τίύγνεται δὲ καὶ ἐξίτηλος, ὁ ὁτὲ μὲν ἡ προτέρη 
ἐν χρόνῳ ἀπολυθεῖσα ἢ ἢ ἐπιπροστεθεῖσα, ὁ ὁτὲ δὲ ἡ 
ὑστέρη ἐν χρόνῳ ἀπολυθεῖσα ἢ ἐπιπροστεθεῖσα. 

1 This is practically the reading of A, the spelling only 
being emended. Littré has ὁμοιοῖ δὲ ἐς (φύσιν καὶ) δύναμιν, 
ὁκόταν κρατέῃ μὲν ἣ ἐπεισιοῦσα, ἐπικρατέῃ δὲ ἡ προὔπάρχουσα. 
The explanation of Galen scarcely helps matters: 7 μὲν οὖν 
φύσις ὁμοιοῖ, ὅταν κρατέῃ καὶ πέττῃ Thy τροφὴν Thy ἐπεισιοῦσαν" 
καὶ δύναμις ἣ προὔπάρχουσα ἐπικρατέει καὶ κατεργάζεται καὶ 

ἀλλοιοῖ καὶ ὁμοιοῖ καὶ τὸ τέλος τρέφει. It makes 7 ἐπεισιοῦσα 
the object of κρατέῃ ; our texts make it the subject. 

(i) Nutriment is generically one, but it has many varieties, 
which differ according to the amount of moisture in them. 
These varieties have forms of their own and differ, the 
differences depending on quantity, the parts to be nourished 
and the number of parts to be nourished. 

(ii) It produces increase, strength, flesh, similarity, dis- 
similarity, among the several parts of the body, according to 



I. Nurriment and form of nutriment, one and 
many. One, inasmuch as its kind is one; form 
varies with moistness or dryness. These foods too 
have their forms! and quantities; they are for 
certain things, and for a certain number of things. 

II, It increases, strengthens, clothes with flesh, 
makes like, makes unlike, what is in the several 
parts, according to the nature of each part and its 
original power. 

III. It makes into the likeness of a power, when 
the nutriment that comes in has the mastery, and 
when that is mastered which was there to begin 

IV. It also loses its qualities: sometimes the 
earlier nutriment, when in time it has been liberated 
or added, sometimes the later, when in time it has 
been liberated or added. 

1 Or “ figures.” 

(a) the nature of each part and (6) the power it had to begin 

(iii) It assimilates into this power when the new nutriment 
has the mastery and the substance already in the part is 
overcome. (In this case, apparently, the part changes or 

(iv) Nutriment, in both the stages of nutrition, the earlier 
and the later, may lose its power to nourish, either because 
it is evacuated or because it is incorporated. 



V. ᾿Αμαυροῖ δὲ ἑκατέρας ἐν χρόνῳ καὶ μετὰ 
χρόνον ἡ ἔξωθεν συνεχὴς ἐπεισκριθεῖσα καὶ ἐπὶ 
πολλὸν χρόνον στερεμνίως πᾶσι τοῖς μέλεσι 

VI. Καὶ τὴν μὲν ἰδίην ἰδέην ἐξέβλαστησε:" 
«μεταβάλλει τε τὴν ἀρχαίην καὶ καταφέρεται" 
τρέφει δὲ πεττομένη": τὴν δὲ προτέρην «ἰδέην 
ἐξαλλάσσει;: ἔστιν ὅτε καὶ τὰς προτέρας ἐξη- 

VII. Δύναμις δὲ τροφῆς ἀφικνεῖται καὶ ἐς 
ὀστέον καὶ πάντα τὰ μέρεα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἐς νεῦρον 
καὶ ἐς φλέβα καὶ ἐς ἀρτηρίην καὶ ἐς μῦν καὶ ἐς 
ὑμένα καὶ σάρκα καὶ πιμελὴν καὶ αἷμα καὶ 
φλέγμα καὶ μυελὸν καὶ ἐγκέφαλον καὶ νωτιαῖον 
καὶ τὰ ἐντοσθίδια καὶ πάντα τὰ μέρεα αὐτῶν, 
καὶ δὴ καὶ ἐς θερμασίην καὶ πνεῦμα καὶ 

VIII. Τροφὴ δὲ τὸ τρέφον, τροφὴ δὲ τὸ οἷον, 
τροφὴ δὲ τὸ μέλλον. 

ΙΧ. ᾿Αρχὴ δὲ πάντων μία καὶ τελευτὴ πάντων 
μία, καὶ ἡ αὐτὴ τελευτὴ καὶ ἀρχή. 

1 The parts within brackets are omitted in MSS. but 
restored by Littré from Galen. It is far from certain that 
this restoration is right, as the inserted clauses read like 
glosses and break the thread of the thought. Littré too has 
ἀρχαίαν and ἐξαλλάττει. 

(v) Nutriment in both stages cannot hold out long against 
nutriment which has firmly established itself in all the limbs 
by constant reinforcement from without, 7. 6. after middle- 
age nutrition gradually fails. Another possible explanation 
is that there is a contrast between permanent tissues and 
temporary fuel, which is the source of heat and energy. 


NUTRIMENT, v.-1x. 

V. Both are weakened in time and after a time by 
the nutriment from without which has continuously 
entered in, and for a long time firmly has interwoven 
itself with all the limbs. 

VI. And it sends forth shoots of its own proper 
form. It changes the old form and descends ; it 

nourishes as it is digested. Sometimes it alters 
the earlier form, and completely obscures the former 

VII. Power of nutriment reaches to bone and to 
all the parts of bone, to sinew, to vein, to artery, 
to muscle, to membrane, to flesh, fat, blood, phlegm, 
marrow, brain, spinal marrow, the intestines and all 
their parts; it reaches also to heat, breath, and 

VIII. Nutriment is that which is nourishing ; 
nutriment is that which is fit to nourish ; nutriment 
is that which is about to nourish. 

IX. The beginning of all things is one and the 
end of all things is one, and the end and beginning 
are the same. 

(vi) Fat in nutriment produces fat in the various parts, 
and soon. As nutriment descends it changes its form, and 
nourishes as digestion goeson. Sometimes nutriment changes 
the form or forms that were before it, 6. g. excess of moisture 
in nutriment might diminish the dryness in any part. The 
meaning of this chapter is very doubtful. 

(vii) Nutriment pervades the whole system. 

(viii) It is used in three senses, representing three stages 
in the process of assimilation. 

(ix) Yet strictly speaking there are no separate stages. 
Nourishing is a continuous process; the end of nourishment 
is the beginning of e.g. flesh or bone. 

VOL. 1. O 345 


\ a - 

X. Καὶ ὅσα κατὰ μέρος ἐν τροφῇ καλῶς καὶ 

κακῶς διοικεῖται, καλῶς μὲν ὅσα προείρηται, 
8 κακῶς δὲ ὅσα τούτοις τὴν ἐναντίην ἔχει τάξιν. 
ΧΙ. Χυλοὶ ποικίλοι καὶ χρώμασι καὶ δυνάμεσι 
καὶ ἐς βχλαβὴν καὶ ἐς ὠφελίην, καὶ οὔτε βλάπτειν 
» > lad \ / \ e a \ 
οὔτε ὠφελεῖν, καὶ πλήθει Kal ὑπερβολῇ καὶ 
> / \ an / Ἂν \ yA 
4 ἐλλείψει καὶ διαπλοκῇ ὧν μέν, ὧν δὲ οὔ. 
XII. Καὶ πάντων ἐς θερμασίην βλάπτει καὶ 
lal / a 
ὠφελεῖ, ἐς ψύξιν βλάπτει καὶ ὠφελεῖ, és δύναμιν 
χὰ A a 
3 βλάπτει καὶ ὠφελεῖ. 
XIII. Δυνάμιος δὲ ποικίλαι φύσιες. 
XIV. Χυμοὶ φθείροντες καὶ ὅλον καὶ μέρος καὶ 
» ’ 
ἔξωθεν καὶ ἔνδοθεν, αὐτόματοι οὐκ αὐτόματοι, 
rn la 
ἡμῖν μὲν αὐτόματοι αἰτίῃ δὲ οὐκ αὐτόματοι. 
WES. \ \ \ δῆ \ δὲ 10 \ \ \ 
αἰτίης δὲ Ta μὲν δῆλα τὰ δὲ ἄδηλα, Kal τὰ μὲν 
ὅ δυνατὰ τὰ δὲ ἀδύνατα. 

ΧΥ. Φύσις ἐξαρκεῖ πάντα πᾶσι. 

XVI. Ἐς δὲ ταύτην, ἔξωθεν μὲν κατάπλασμα, 
κατάχρισμα, ἄλειμμα, γυμνότης ὅλου καὶ μέρεος 
καὶ σκέπη ὅλου καὶ μέρεος, θερμασίη καὶ ψύξις 
κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον, καὶ στύψις καὶ ἕλκωσις 
καὶ δηγμὸς καὶ λίπασμα:" ἔνδοθεν δὲ τινά τε τῶν 
εἰρημένων, καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις αἰτίη ἄδηλος καὶ μέρει 

7 καὶ ὅχῳ, τινί τε καὶ οὔ τινι. 

(x) What has been said of the whole body applies also to 
individual parts. 

(xi) The health of the body depends upon the combination 
of its various juices. 

(xii) Nutriment affects the temperature of the body, for 
well or ill, as well as the body’s power. 

(xiii) 8 power has many different natures as its factors, 
i.e. it is the sum total of a thing’s properties. 

(xiv) Diseases, local or general, depend upon the humours. 


NUTRIMENT, χ.- νι. 

X. And all the particular details in nourishment 
are managed well or ill; well if as aforesaid, ill if 
ordered in the opposite way to these. 

XI. Juices varied in colours and in powers, to 
harm or to help, or neither to harm nor to help, 
varied in amount, excess or defect, in combination of 
some but not of others. 

XII. And to the warming of all it harms or helps, 
to the cooling it harms or helps, to the power it 
harms or helps. 

XIII. Of power varied natures. 

XIV. Humours corrupting whole, part, from with- 
out, from within, spontaneous, not spontaneous ; 
spontaneous for us, not spontaneous for the cause. 
Of the cause, part is clear, part is obscure, part is 
within our power and part is not. 

XV. Nature is sufficient in all for all. 

XVI. To deal with nature from without: plaster, 
anointing, salve, uncovering of whole or part, 
covering of whole or part, warming or cooling 
similarly, astriction, ulceration, biting,’ grease ; from 
within: some of the aforesaid, and in addition an 
obscure cause in part or whole, in some cases but not 
in all. 

1 Apparently, such things as a mustard plaster. 

They have a definite cause, but as far as we are concerned 
they are spontaneous. As to this cause, part is known, 
part is unknown ; partly we can prevent disease, partly we 

(xv) Nature is powerful enough to be supreme in both 
physiological and pathological processes. 

(xvi) There are various ways of assisting Nature in her 
efforts to expel disease. 



ΧΙ ᾿Αποκρίσιες κατὰ φύσιν, κοιλίης, οὔρων, 
ἱδρῶτος, πτυάλου, μύξης, ὑστέρης, καθ᾽ αἷμορ- 
ροΐδα, θύμον, λέπρην, φῦμα, καρκίνωμα, ἐκ ῥινῶν, 
ἐκ πλεύμονος, ἐκ κοιλίης, ἐξ ἜΡΝΟΣ ἐκ καυλοῦ, 
κατὰ φύσιν καὶ παρὰ φύσιν. ἱ διακρίσιες 
τούτων ἄλλοισι πρὸς ἄλλον ibn ἄλλοτε καὶ 
ἀλλοίως. μία φύσις ἐστὶ ταῦτα πάντα καὶ οὐ 
μία: πολλαὶ φύσιές εἰσι ταῦτα πάντα καὶ μία. 

XVIII. Φαρμακείη ἄνω καὶ κάτω, οὔτε ἄνω 
οὔτε κάτω. 

XIX. “Ev τροφῇ φαρμακείη ἄριστον, ἐν τροφῇ 
φαρμακείη φλαῦρον, φλαῦρον καὶ ἄριστον 
πρός τι. 

0: ‘EXkos, ἐσχάρη, αἷμα, πτύον, ἰχώρ, λέπρη, 
πίτυρον, ἄχωρ, λειχήν, ἀλφός, ἔφηλις, ὁτὲ μὲν 
βλάπτει, ὁτὲ δὲ ὠφελεῖ, ὁτὲ δὲ οὔτε βλάπτει 
οὔτε ὠφελεῖ. 

Χ ΧΙ: Τροφὴ οὐ “τροφή, ἢν μὴ δύνηται" μὴ 
τροφὴ τροφή, ἢν οἷόν τε ἡ τρέφεσθαι: οὔνομα 
τροφή, ἔργον δὲ οὐχί: ἔργον τροφή, οὔνομα δὲ 

XXII. *Es τρίχας καὶ ἐς ὄνυχας καὶ ἐς τὴν 
ἐσχάτην ἐπιφανείην ἔνδοθεν ἀφικνεῖται" ἔξωθεν 
τροφὴ ἐκ τῆς ἐσχάτης ἐπιφανείης ἐνδοτάτω 

1 The text is Littré’s, being a combination of A and the 

(xvil) The various secretions from the various parts of 
the body. 

(xvill) Purging may be carried out by purges in the 
ordinary sense, “by emetics, or by any other means of 
expulsion from the body. 


NUTRIMENT, χνιι.--ΧΧτι. 

XVII. Secretions in accordance with nature, by 
the bowels, urine, sweat, sputum, mucus, womb, 
through hemorrhoid, wart, leprosy, tumour, carci- 
noma, from nostrils, lungs, bowels, seat, penis, in 
accordance with nature or contrary to nature. The 
peculiar differences in these things depend on 
differences in the individual, on times and on 
methods. All these things are one nature and not 
one. All these things are many natures and one 

XVIII. Purging upward or downward, neither 
upward nor downward. 

XIX. In nutriment purging excellent, in nutri- 
ment purging bad; bad or excellent according to 

XX. Ulceration, burn-scab, blood, pus, lymph, 
leprosy, scurf, dandruff, scurvy, white leprosy, 
freckles, sometimes harm and sometimes help, and 
sometimes neither harm nor help. 

XXI. Nutriment not nutriment if it have not its 
power. Not nutriment nutriment if it ean nourish. 
Nutriment in name, not in deed ; nutriment in deed, 
not in name. 

XXII. It travels from within to hair, nails, and to 
the extreme surface; from without nutriment travels 
from the extreme surface to the innermost parts. 

(xix) The value of purging depends upon circumstances, 

(xx) The extraordinary means of evacuating morbid 
humours (abscessions) may do good, harm, or neither. 

(xxi) The only test of nutriment is power of nourishing. 

(xxii) There is a circulation of nutriment from within 
outwards and vice versa. 




XXIII. Σύρροια μία, σύμπνοια μία, συμπαθέα 
πάντα. κατὰ μὲν ᾿οὐλομελίην πάντα, κατὰ μέρος 
δὲ τὰ ἐν ἑκάστῳ μέρει μέρεα πρὸς τὸ ἔργον. 

ΟΝ ΤΥ. ᾿Αρχὴ μεγάλη ἐς ἔσχατον μέρος 
ἀφικνεῖται" ἐξ ἐσχάτου μέρεος ἐς ἀρχὴν μεγάλην 
ἀφικνεῖται: μία φύσις εἶναι καὶ μὴ εἰναι. 

XXV. Νούσων δὲ διαφοραὶ ἐν τροφῇ, ἐν 
πνεύματι, ἐν θερμασίῃ, ἐν αἵματι, ἐν φλέγματι, 
ἐν χολῇ, ἐν χυμοῖσιν, ἐν σαρκί, ἐν πιμελῇ, ἐν 
φλεβί, ἐν ἀρτηρίῃ, ἐν νεύρῳ, μυί, ὑμένι, ὀστέῳ, 
ἐγκεφάλῳ, νωτιαίῳ μυελῷ, στόματι, γλώσσῃ, 
στομάχῳ, κοιλίῃ, ἐντέροισι, φρεσί, περιτοναίῳ, 
ἥπατι, σπληνί, νεφροῖς, κύστει, μήτρῃ, δέρματι. 
ταῦτα πάντα καὶ καθ᾽ ἕν καὶ κατὰ μέρος. μέγεθος 
αὐτῶν μέγα καὶ οὐ μέγα. 

ea Τεκμήρια, γαργαλισμόύς, ὀδύνη, ῥῆξις, 
γνώμη, ἱδρώς, οὔρων ὑπόστασις, ἡσυχίη, 
ῥιπτασμός, ὄψιος στάσιες, φαντασίαι, ἴκτερος, 
λυγμοί, ἐπιληψίη, αἷμα ὁλοσχερές," ὕπνος, καὶ 
ἐκ τούτων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων τῶν κατὰ φύσιν, καὶ 
ὅσα ἄλλα τοιουτότροπα ἐς βλάβην καὶ ἐς ὠφελίην 
ὁρμᾷ: πόνοι ὅλου καὶ μέρεος μεγέθους σημεῖα, 
τοῦ μὲν ἐς τὸ μᾶλλον, τοῦ δὲ ἐς τὸ ἧσσον, καὶ 
ἀπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων ἐς τὸ μᾶλλον καὶ ἀπ᾽ ἀμφοτέρων 
ἐς τὸ ἧσσον. 

ΤΑ reads γνώμης, which must be taken with pjtis—an 
unusual phrase for delirium. 

2 ὁλοσχερές : Ἰὼ has ὁλοσχερής, Which must be taken with 
ὕπνος, ‘‘unbroken sleep.” 

(xxiii) All parts of the body are in sympathy ; the body is 
an organism. 
(xxiv) The various forms of nutriment when in the body 


NUTRIMENT, xxim.—xxv1. 

XXIII. Conflux one, conspiration one, all things 
in sympathy ; all the parts as forming a whole, and 
severally the parts in each part, with reference to 
the work. 

XXIV. The great beginning travels to the 
extreme part; from the extreme part there is 
travelling to the great beginning. One nature to 
be and not to be. 

XXV. Differences of diseases depend on nutri- 
ment, on breath, on heat, on blood, on phlegm, on 
bile, on humours, on flesh, on fat, on vein, on 
artery, on sinew, muscle, membrane, bone, brain, 
spinal marrow, mouth, tongue, oesophagus, stomach, 
bowels, midriff, peritoneum, liver, spleen, kidneys, 
bladder, womb, skin. All these things both as a 
whole and severally. Their greatness great and not 

XXVI. Signs: tickling, ache, rupture, mind, sweat, 
sediment in urine, rest, tossing, condition! of the eyes, 
imaginations, jaundice, hiccoughs, epilepsy, blood 
entire, sleep, from both these and all other things in 
accordance with nature, and everything else of a 
similar nature that tends to harm or help. Pains of 
the whole or of a part, indications of severity: of the 
one, greater severity, of the other, less, and from 
both come signs of greater severity, and from both 
come signs of less. 


Σ Or, ‘‘ staring. 

are merely stages in the process of perpetual change. Being 
and not-being are one and the same. 

(xxv) Differences in diseases depend upon the various 
constituents and parts of the body, whether the disease is 
general or local. The importance of organs in this respect is 
not proportional to their size. 

(xxvi) Where the physician is to look for symptoms. 



ΧΧΥΙ]. Γλυκύ οὐ γλυκύ, γλυκὺ ἐς δύναμιν 
οἷον ὕδωρ, γλυκὺ ἐς γεῦσιν οἷον μέλι" σημεῖα 
ἑκατέρων, ἕλκεα, ὀφθαλμοὶ καὶ γεύσιες, καὶ ἐν 
τούτοις τὸ μᾶλλον καὶ τὸ ἧσσον" γλυκὺ ἐς τὴν 
ὄψιν καὶ ἐν χρώμασι καὶ ἐν ἄλλῃσι μίξεσι, γλυκὺ 

6 μᾶλλον καὶ ἧττον. 

ΧΧΥΠΙ. ᾿Αραιότης σώματος ἐς διαπνοίην οἷς 
πλέον ἀφαιρεῖται ὑγιεινόν" πυκνότης σώματος ἐς 
διαπνοίην οἷς ἔλασσον ἀφαιρεῖται νοσηλόν' οἱ 
διαπνεόμενοι καλῶς ἀσθενέστεροι καὶ ὑγιεινότεροι 
καὶ εὐανάσφαλτοι, οἱ διαπνεόμενοι κακῶς πρὶν ἢ 
νοσεῖν ἰσχυρότεροι, νοσήσαντες δὲ δυσανά- 

7 σφαλτοι: ταῦτα δὲ καὶ ὅλῳ καὶ μέρει. 
ΧΧΙΧ. Πλεύμων ἐναντίην σώματος τροφὴν 
2 ἕλκει, τὰ δ᾽ ἄλλα πάντα τὴν αὐτήν. 

XXX. ᾿Αρχὴ τροφῆς πνεύματος, ῥῖνες, στόμα, 
βρόγχος, πλεύμων, καὶ ἡ ἄλλη διαπνοίη" ἀρχὴ 
τροφῆς καὶ ὑγρῆς καὶ ξηρῆς, στόμα, στόμαχος, 
κοιλίη. ἡ δὲ ἀρχαιοτέρη τροφὴ διὰ τοῦ ἐπι- 

5 γαστρίου, 7 ὁ ὀμφαλός. 

XXXII. “Pifwous φλεβῶν ἧπαρ, ῥίξωσις ἀρτη- 

ριῶν καρδίη" ἐκ τούτων ἀποπλανᾶται ἐς πάντα 
8 αἷμα καὶ πνεῦμα, καὶ θερμασίη διὰ τούτων φοιτᾷ. 

1 Most MSS. read ὀμφαλός : A prefixes 7, and Littré alters 
to 7. Ermerins adds 6, as in the text. 

(xxvii) Sweetness is relative, whether it be the potentially 
sweet, like water, or that which is sweet to taste, lke 
honey. Kither kind of sweetness can be tested by the effects 
of a substance on sores, the eyes, and the sense of taste, 
which can also distinguish degrees. Sweetness, in varying 
degrees, can appeal to the sense of sight, being aroused by 
colours and other beautiful combinations. 


NUTRIMENT, χχνιι.- ΧΧΧι. 

XXVII. Sweet, not sweet; sweet in power, like 
water, sweet to the taste, like honey. Signs of 
either are sores, eyes and tastings, which can also 
distinguish degrees. Sweet to sight, in colours and 
in combinations generally, sweet to a greater or 
less degree. 

XXVIII. Porousness of a body for transpiration 
healthy for those from whom more is taken; dense- 
ness of body for transpiration unhealthy for those 
from whom less is taken. Those who transpire 
freely are weaker, healthier, and recover easily ; 
those who transpire hardly are stronger before they 
are sick, but on falling sick they make difficult 
recovery. These for both whole and part. 

XXIX. The lungs draw a nourishment which is 
the opposite of that of the body, all other parts draw 
the same. 

XXX. Beginning of nutriment of breath, nostrils, 
mouth, throat, lungs, and the transpiratory system 
generally. Beginning of nutriment, both wet and 
dry, mouth, oesophagus, stomach. The more ancient 
nutriment, through the epigastrium, where the 
navel is, 

XXXI. Root of veins, liver; root of arteries, heart. 
Out of these travel to all parts blood and breath, and 
heat passes through them. 

(xxvili) The effects upon health of the porousness of the 

(xxix) The lungs only are fed by air. 

(xxx) The doors by which breath and other food enter 
the body. 

(xxxi) The veins, starting from the liver, carry blood and 
heat ; the arteries, starting from the heart, carry breath and 



XXXII. Δύναμις μία καὶ οὐ μία, ἣ πάντα 
ταῦτα καὶ τὰ ἑτεροῖα διοικεῖται, ἡ μὲν ἐς ζωὴν 
ὅλου καὶ μέρεος, ἡ δὲ ἐς αἴσθησιν ὅλου καὶ 

ΧΧΧΠΙ. Γάλα τροφή, οἷς γάλα τροφὴ κατὰ 
φύσιν, ἄλλοισι δὲ «οὐχί, ἄλλοισι δὲ οἶνος τροφή, 
καὶ ἄλλοισιν οὐχί, καὶ σάρκες καὶ ἄλλαι ἰδέαι 
τροφῆς πολλαί, καὶ κατὰ χώρην καὶ κατ᾽ 

XXXIV. Τρέφεται δὲ τὰ μὲν ἐς αὔξησιν καὶ 
ἐς τὸ εἶναι, τὰ δὲ ἐς τὸ εἶναι μοῦνον, οἷον γέροντες, 
τὰ δὲ πρὸς τούτῳ καὶ ἐς ῥώμην. διάθεσις 
ἀθλητικὴ οὐ φύσει: ἕξις ὑγιεινὴ κρείσσων ἐν 

XXXV. Μέγα τὸ πόσον εὐστόχως ἐς δύναμιν 

XXXVI. Γάλα καὶ αἷμα τροφῆς πλεονασμός. 

ΧΧΧΥΙ͂Ι Περίοδοι ἐς πολλὰ σύμφωνοι, ἐς 
ἔμβρυον ἐς τὴν τούτου τροφήν. αὗτις δ᾽ ἄνω 
ῥέπει ἐς γάλα καὶ ἐς τροφὴν βρέφεος. 

XXXVIII. Ζωοῦται τὰ μὴ ζῷα, ζωοῦται τὰ 
ζῷα, ζωοῦται τὰ μέρεα τῶν ζῴων. 

1 ἡ to μέρεος omitted by A, probably because οὗ μέρεος 

2 κατ᾽ before ἐθισμόν added by Ermerins. The text of this 
chapter is mainly Littré’s, the MSS. showing some confusion 

in the arrangement of the words. 
3 πρὸς obra ἈΠ ΙΕ πρὺς τούτῳ Krmerins. 

(xxxii) The power of life is one; but there are many 
powers of sensation—the power of feeling generally and the 
powers of the sense organs. 

(xxxiii) Foods do, or do not, nourish according to the 
differences between individuals, their habits, and their homes. 


NUTRIMENT, xxxu.—xxxvitt. 

XXXII. Power one, and not one, by which all 
these things and those of a different sort are 
managed ; one for the life of whole and part, not 
one for the sensation of whole and part. 

XXXIITI. Milk nutriment, for those to whom milk 
is a natural nutriment, but for others it is not. For 
some wine is nutriment, for others not. So with 
meats and the other many forms of nutriment, the 
differences being due to place and habit. 

XXXIV. Nourishment is sometimes into growth 
and being, sometimes into being only, as is the case 
with old men; sometimes in addition it is into 
strength. The condition of the athlete is not natural. 
A healthy state is superior in all. 

XXXV. It is a great thing successfully to adapt 
quantity to power. 

XXXVI. Milk and blood are what is left over 
from nutriment. 

XXXVII. Periods generally harmonise tor the 
embryo and its nutriment; and again nutriment 
tends upwards to milk and the nourishment of 
the baby. 

XXXVIII. Inanimates get life, animates get life, 
the parts of animates get life. 

(xxxiv) Nutriment may give (a) being (Ὁ) increase (ὁ) 
strength. The condition of an athlete is unnatural, but a 
healthy habit of body (constitution 7?) is in every way superior. 

(xxxv) It is important to harmonise amount of food with 
power of digestion. 

(xxxvi) What is left over after nourishment is complete 
forms milk or blood. 

(xxxvii) At the proper season, a mother forms nutriment 
for (a) embryo (0) child. 

(xxxviii) Life is something which can come to inanimate 
matter, to animals, or to the limbs of animals. It is, in fact, 
a force which can invade any matter. 



XXXIX. Φύσιες πάντων ἀδίδακτοι. 

XL. Aiwa ἀλλότριον ὠφέλιμον, αἷμα ἴδιον 
ὠφέλιμον, αἷμα ἀλλότριον βλαβερόν, αἷμα ἴδιον 
βλαβερόν, χυμοὶ ἴδιοι BraBepoi, χυμοὶ ἀλλότριοι 

, \ > , , \ 
BraBepot, χυμοὶ ἀλλότριοι συμφέροντες, χυμοὶ 
ΕΣ / Ἂν ΄ 4 Ν 
ἴδιοι συμφέροντες, τὸ σύμφωνον διάφωνον, τὸ 
ΠῚ ΄ , ΄ > , by na 
olapwvov σύμφωνον, γάλα ἀλλότριον ἀστεῖον, 
γάλα ἴδιον φλαῦρον, γάλα ἀλλότριον βλαβερόν, 
γάλα ἴδιον ὠφέλεμον. 

ΧΙ]. Σιτίον νέοις ἀκροσαπές, γέρουσιν ἐς τέλος 
μεταβεβλημένον, ἀκμάζουσιν ἀμετάβλητον. 

XLII. Ἐς τύπωσιν λε΄ ἠέλιοι, ἐς κίνησιν οἵ, 
> , / »,΄ > > / / > » 
ἐς τελειότητα aL ἄλλοι, ἐς ἰδέην με΄, ἐς κίνησιν 
ον ae Ἂν MR. ΕΙΣ ) a 
ς΄, ἐς ἔξοδον co: ἄλλοι, ν΄ és ἰδέην, ἐς πρῶτον 
«“ , > / , >’ fe , b] 
ἅλμα ρ΄, ἐς τελειότητα τ΄. ἐς διάκρισιν μ', ἐς 
μετάβασιν π΄, ἐς ἔκπτωσιν σμ΄. οὐκ ἔστι καὶ 
y / \ 9 vA \ ’ὔ Wee) / 
ἔστι. γίνεται δὲ ἐν τούτοις καὶ πλείω καὶ ἐλάσσω, 

\ "ὦ \ \ / > \ \ \ 
Kal καθ᾽ ὅλον Kal κατὰ μέρος, οὐ πολλὸν δὲ καὶ 
πλείω πλείω καὶ ἐλάσσω ἐλάσσω. 

1 The MS. A mentions only three cases, as does Galen. 
Littré, however, gives the fourth case (that of the tenth- 
month child) from the other MSS. and the reference in Aulus 

Gellius III. xvi. The last two lines appear in various forms 
in the MSS. The text is that of Aulus Gellius. 

(xxxix) The natures of various things act instinctively. 
Or, if πάντων depends upon ἀδίδακτοι, ‘‘are instinctive in 
every way.” 

(xl) The effects of a mother’s humours upon embryo, and 
of mother’s or nurse’s milk upon child, vary according to 


NUTRIMENT, χχχιχ.--Χ μι. 

XXXIX. The natures of all are untaught. 

XL. Blood of another is useful, one’s own blood 
is useful; blood of another is harmful, one’s own 
blood is harmful; one’s own humours are harmful, 
humours of another are harmful ; humours of another 
are beneficial, one’s own humours are beneficial ; the 
harmonious is unharmonious, the unharmonious is 
harmonious; another's milk is good, one’s own milk 
is bad ; another's milk is harmful, one’s own milk is 

XLI. Food for the young partly digested, for the 
old completely changed, for adults unchanged. 

XLII. For formation, thirty-five days; for move- 
ment, seventy days; for completion, two hundred 
and ten days. Others, for form, forty-five days; for 
motion, ninety days ; for delivery, two hundred and 
seventy days. Others, fifty for form; for the first 
leap, one hundred ; for completion, three hundred 
days. For distinction of limbs, forty; for shifting, 
eighty ; for detachment, two hundred and forty days. 
It is not and is. There are found therein both more 
and less, in respect of both the whole and the parts, 
but the more is not much more, and the less not 

much less. 

(xli) How far food should be prepared for digestion in the 
case of (a) the young (4) the old (6) the middle-aged. 

(xlii) The periods between conception, formation, move- 
ment and birth. The embryo is and is not. The periods 
may vary slightly. 



XLII. ᾿Οστέων τροφὴ ἐκ κατήξιος, ῥινὶ dis 
πέντε, γνάθῳ καὶ κληῖδι καὶ πλευρῇσι διπλάσιαι, 
πήχει τριπλάσιαι, κνήμῃ καὶ βραχίονι τετρα- 
πλάσιαι, μηρῷ πενταπλάσιαι, καὶ εἴ τι ἐν τούτοις 
δύναται πλέον ἢ ἔλασσον. 

XLIV. Αἵΐἵμα ὑγρὸν καὶ αἷμα στερεόν. αἷμα 
ὑγρὸν ἀστεῖον, αἷμα ὑγρὸν φλαῦρον" αἷμα στερεὸν 
ἀστεῖον, αἷμα “στερεὸν φλαυρόν' πρός τι πάντα 
φλαῦρα καὶ πάντα ἀστεῖα. 

XLV. Ὁδὸς ἄνω κάτω. 

XLVI. Δύναμις τροφῆς κρέσσων ὴ ὄγκος, ὄγκος 
τροφῆς κρέσσων ἢ δύναμις, καὶ ἐν ὑγροῖς καὶ ἐν 

XLVI. ᾿Αφαιρεῖ καὶ προστίθησιν ou: TWUTO, 
τῷ μὲν ἀφαιρεῖ, TO δὲ προστίθησι T@UTO.) 

XLVIIL Φλεβῶν διασφύξιες καὶ ἀναπνοὴ 
πλεύμονος καθ᾽ ἡλικίην, καὶ σύμφωνα καὶ διά- 
φωνα, καὶ νούσου καὶ ὑγιείης σημεῖα, καὶ ὑγιείης 
μᾶλλον ἢ νούσου καὶ νούσου μᾶλλον ἢ ὑγιείης" 
τροφὴ γὰρ καὶ πνεῦμα. 

XLIX. Ὑγρὴ τροφὴ εὐμετάβλητος μᾶλλον ἢ 
Enpn: ξηρὴ τροφὴ εὐμετάβλητος μᾶλλον ἢ ὑγρή: 
ἡ δυσαλλοίωτος δυσεξανάλωτος, ἡ εὐπρόσθετος 

1 A omits τῷ μὲν. .. τωὐτό. 

(1111) The periods which elapse before a bone unites. 

(xliv) Good and bad are relative terms; even liquid and 
solid blood are good or bad according to circumstances. 

(xlv) The alimentary canal is like the ‘‘road upand down” 
of Heraclitus. 


NUTRIMENT, xuin.—xuix. 

XLIII. Nutriment of bones after breaking; for 
the nostril, twice five ; for jaw, collar-bone and ribs, 
twice this; for the fore-arm, thrice ; for the leg and 
upper-arm, four times; for the thigh, five times ; 
there may be, however, in these a little more or less. 

XLIV. Blood is liquid and blood is solid. Liquid 
blood is good, liquid blood is bad. Solid blood is 
good, solid blood is bad. All things are good or bad 

XLV. The way up, down. 

XLVI. Power of nutriment superior to mass ; mass 
of nutriment superior to power ; both in moist things 
and in dry. 

XLVII. It takes away and adds not the same 
thing ; it takes away from one, and adds to another, 
the same thing. 

XLVIII. Pulsations of veins and breathing of the 
lungs according to age, harmonious and un- 
harmonious, signs of disease and of health, and 
of health more than of disease, and of disease 
more than of health. For breath too is nutriment. 

XLIX. Liquid nutriment more easily changed 
than solid; solid nutriment more easily changed 
than liquid. That which is hardly altered is hard of 
digestion, and that which is easily added is easy of 

(xlvi) The power of nutriment is not in proportion to 
its bulk. 

(xlvii) What is taken from food and added to bodily parts 
is not the same thing, as the form changes in the process ; 
yet it is in a sense the same matter. 

(xlviii) Varieties of pulse and of respiration are signs of 
health and disease, particularly of the latter. 

(xlix) Solid or liquid foods are more or less digestible 
according to circumstances. 



L. Καὶ ὁκόσοι ταχείης προσθέσιος δέονται, 
ὑγρὸν ἴημα ἐς ἀνάληψιν δυνάμιος κράτιστον" 
ὁκόσοι δὲ ἔτι ταχυτέρης, δι᾽ ὀσφρήσιος. ὁκόσοι 

4 δὲ βραδυτέρης προσθέσιος δέονται, στερεὴ τροφή. 

LI. Μῦες στερεώτεροι δυσέκτηκτοι «μᾶλλον 1> 
τῶν ἄλλων, παρὲξ ὀστέου καὶ νεύρου" δυσμετά- 
βλητα τὰ γεγυμνασμένα, κατὰ γένος αὐτὰ 
ἑωυτῶν ἰσχυρότερα ἐόντα, διὰ τοῦτο αὐτὰ 

5 ἑωυτῶν δυστηκτότερα. 
111. Πύον τὸ ἐκ σαρκός: πυῶδες τὸ ἐξ 
αἵματος καὶ ἐξ ἄλλης vypacins: πύον τροφὴ 
3 ἕλκεος" πυῶδες τροφὴ φλεβός, ἀρτηρίης. 
LHI. Μνυελὸς τροφὴ ὀστέου, διὰ τοῦτο ἐπι- 
2 πωροῦται. 
LIV. Δύναμις πάντα αὔξει καὶ τρέφει καὶ 
2 βλαστάνει. 

LV. ‘Typacin τροφῆς ὄχημα. 

1 μᾶλλον added by Littré. 

(1) The more dissolved nutriment is the quicker it acts. 
(li) The more solid or the more exercised a part of the 
body is, the less quickly it changes. 


NUTRIMENT, t.-tv. 

L. And for such as need a quick reinforcement, a 
liquid remedy is best for recovery of power; for such 
as need a quicker, a remedy through smell; for 
those who need ἃ slower reinforcement, solid 

LI. Muscles being more solid waste less easily 
than other parts, save bone and sinew. Parts that 
have been exercised resist change, being according 
to their kind stronger than they otherwise would 
have been, and therefore less liable to waste. 

LII. Pus comes from flesh ; pus-like lymph comes 
from blood and moisture generally, Pus is nutri- 
ment for a sore; lymph is nutriment for vein and 

LIII. Marrow nutriment of bone, and through this 
a callus forms, 

LIV. Power gives to all things increase, nourish- 
ment and birth, 

LV, Moisture the vehicle of nutriment. 

(lii) The difference between pus and lymph. 

(111) Marrow nourishes bone. 

(liv) Birth, growth and nourishment are always due to the 
power of nutriment. 

(lv) Nutriment is carried through the body by moisture. 



The present volume is intended to be typical of 
the whole Hippocratic Corpus ; in it are included 
works belonging to the chief classes of which the 
collection iscomposed, Some are books of a severely 
scientific character, others are tracts in which 
medicine and philosophy are either blended or 
rigidly separated, 

In the next volume I hope to translate Prognostic, 
Regimen in Acute Diseases, scientific treatises of the 
strictest type, 716 Art, a demonstration by a sophist 
of the value of medicine, Epilepsy, an attack on 
superstition, The Lav, a slight tract similar to The 
Oath, and Decorum, a treatise similar to Precepls, 
There will also be essays on the Cnidian school of 
medicine and on the treatises supposed to be pre- 
Hippocratic, which will also, if possible, be translated. 

In the interval between the publication of the two 
volumes I hope to form an independent opinion as 
to the mutual relationship of the chief MSS, At 
present I have nothing to add to the views of Ilberg 
and Kiihlewein as given in the Introduction to the 
Teubner edition. 

I must add that in Philologus LX XVIII. 88-130 
(1922) J. F. Bensel discusses the tract de medico 
(Physician) and connects it with Precepts and 
Decorum. It is hard to see where the connection 
lies, but I must reserve the question for Vol. II. 




Latin Authors 

AMMIANUS MarcELLInus. Translated by J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. 
(Vols. I. and If. 3rd Imp., Vol. III. 2nd Imp. revised.) 

ton (1566). Revised by 8. Gaselee. (7th Imp.) 

S. AvUGUSTINE: Ciry oF Gop. 7 Vols. Vol: I. G. KE. 

St. AUGUSTINE, CONFESSIONS oF. W. Watts (1631). 2 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 7th Imp., Vol. 11. 6th Imp.) 

St. AUGUSTINE, SELECT LETTERS. J. H. Baxter. (2nd Imp.) 

Avsontus. H.G. Evelyn White. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

ΒΕΡΕ. J. E. King. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Borrnutus: Tracts and Dkr CoONSOLATIONE PHILOSOPHIAE. 
Rev. H. F. Stewart and E. K. Rand. (6th Imp.) 


CaEsaR: Crvit Wars. A. G. Peskett. (6th Imp.) 

CamsaR: GaLLic War. H. J. Edwards. (10th Imp.) 

Cato: DE RE Rustica; VARRO: DERE RwstTIca. H. B. Ash 
and W. Ὁ. Hooper. (3rd Imp.) 

Catuttus. F. W. Cornish; Tisutius. J. B. Postgate; PER 
vIGILIuM VENERIS. J. W. Mackail. (13th Imp.) 

Cetsus: Dr Mepicina. W. G. Spencer. 3 Vols. (Vol. L. 
3rd Imp. revised, Vols. Il. and III. 2nd Imp.) 

CicERO: Brutus, and Orator. G. L. Hendrickson and H. M. 
Hubbell. (3rd Imp.) 

[Cicero]: Ap HErEeNNIum. UH. Caplan. 

CicEro: pe Fatro; PAarRapoxa SrotcoruM; DE PARTITIONE 
Oratorta. H. Rackham (With De Oratore. Vol. II.) 
(2nd Imp.) 

Cicero: Dr Finrspus. H. Rackham. (4th Imp. revised.) 

CicERO: Dr INVENTIONE, ete. H. M. Hubbell. 

Cicrro: Dr Natura Drorum and AcapeEmica. H. Rackham. 
(3rd Imp.) 

Cicero: Dr Orricus. Walter Miller. (7th Imp.) 

CicERO: Dkr Oratore. 2 Vols. ἢ. W. Sutton and H. Rack- 
ham. (3rd Imp.) 

Cicrro: DE RepusLicaA and Dr Lecreus; SOMNIUM SCIPIONIS. 
Clinton W. Keyes. (4th Imp.) 

Cicero: Dr SeENeEctTuTE, De Amicitia. DE DIVINATIONE. 
W.A. Falconer. (6th Imp.) 

Cicero: IN ΟΑΤΊΤΙΝΑΜ, Pro Fiacco, Pro Murena, Pro Sutta. 
Louis E. Lord. (3rd Imp. revised.) 


Ciczro: Lrrrers to Atticus. E. O. Winstedt. 3 Vols. 
(Vol. 1. 7th Imp., Vols. II. and III. 4th Imp.) 

CicEro: Lretrrers to His Frrenps. W. Glynn Williams. 3 
Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 37d Imp., Vol. 111. 2nd Imp. revised.) 

Cicero: Puiuippics. W.C. A. Ker. (4th Imp. revised.) 

Cicero: Pro ArcHiA, Post RepirumM, DE Domo, DE HaArus- 
PIcUM RESpPoNSIS, Pro Piancro. N. H. Watts. (4th Imp.) 

CicEROo: Pro Carctna, Pro LEGE Manitia, Pro CLUENTIO, 
Pro Rasrrio. H. Grose Hodge. (3rd Imp.) 

Batso. J. H. Freese and R. Gardner. 

Pro Raprrio Postumo, Pro Marcetito, Pro Licario, Pro 
Reece Detoraro. N. H. Watts. (3rd Imp.) 

CicErRO: Pro QutnctTio, Pro Roscio AMERINO, Pro Roscio 
ComMoEpDo, Contra Rutitum. J. H. Freese. (3rd Imp.) 

CicERO: Pro SEstio, IN VatTtintum. J.H.Freeseand R. Gardner. 

CicERO: TuscuLan Disputations. J. E. King. (4th Imp.) 

CIcERO: VERRINE Orations. L. H. G. Greenwood. 2 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 

CiaupIAn. M. Platnauer. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

CoLUMELLA: Dr Re Rustica. DE Arsorisus. H. B. Ash, 
E. 8. Forster and E. Heffner. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 2nd Imp.) 

CurtIus, Q.: History oF ALEXANDER. J.C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
(2nd Imp.) 

Firorus. Εἰ. 5. Forster and Cornrtius Nepos. J. C. Rolfe. 
(2nd Imp.) 

FRONTINUS: STRATAGEMS and AquEpucts. C. E. Bennett and 
M. B. McElwain. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 

FRONTO : CORRESPONDENCE. C. R. Haines. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 

GELLIvs, J. C. Rolfe. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., Vols. Il. and 
111. 2nd Imp.) 

Horace: Opes and Epoprs. C. E. Bennett. (14 Imp. 
revised. ) 

Horace: Sartrres, Episttes, Ars Portica. H. R. Fairclough. 
(9th Imp. revised.) 

JEROME: SELECTED Letters. F. A. Wright. (2nd Imp.) 

JUVENAL and Prersius. G.G. Ramsay. (8th Imp.) 

Livy. B. O. Foster, F. G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 
Schlesinger. 14 Vols. Vols. I.—XIII. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., 
Vol. V. 4th Imp., Vols. II.-IV., VII., IX.-XII. 3rd Imp., 
Vols. VI., VIII., 2nd Imp. revised.) 

Lucan. J.D. Duff. (4th Imp.) 

Lucretius. W.H.D. Rouse. (7th Imp. revised.) 

Martian. W.C. A. Ker. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vok. II. 
4th Imp. revised.) 

Minor Latin Ports: from PusLitius Syrus to Ruritius 
NEMESIANUS, AvIANUS, and others with “‘ Aetna ’”’ and the 
“Phoenix.” J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. (3rd Imp.) 

Ovip: THE Art or Love and OTHER Poems. J. H. Mozley 
(4th Imp.) 


Ovip: Fasti. Sir James G. Frazer. (2nd Imp.) 

Ovip: HrrorpEs and AMoreEs. Grant Showerman. (6th Imp.) 

Ovip: MerramorpHosss. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 11th 
Imp., Vol. IL. 9th Imp.) 

Ovip: Tristia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. (3rd Imp.) 

Perstus. Cf. JUVENAL. 

W. Η. Ὁ. Rouse. (9th Imp. revised.) 

Piautus. Paul Nixon. 5Vols. (Vol. 1. 6th Imp., 11. 5th Imp., 
111. 4th Imp., 1V. and V. 2nd Imp.) 

Puixy: Lerrers. Melmoth’s Translation revised by W. Μ. L. 
Hutchinson. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 7th Imp., Vol. 11. 6th Imp.) 
Pruryy: Narurat History. H. Rackham and W. H. S. Jones. 
10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackham. Vols. VI. and 
VII. W. H. 5. Jones. (Vols. I.-III. 3rd Imp., Vol. IV. 2nd 


Propertius. H. E. Butler. (7th Imp.) 

PrupeEentius. H.J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 

QuintiniaAN. H.E. Butler. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and IV. 4th Imp., 
Vols. IT. and III. 3rd Imp.) 

REMAINS OF OLp Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 vols. Vol. 1. 
(ENNIus AND Caercittus.) Vol. II. (Livrus, Narvius, 
Pacuvius, Acctus.) Vol. III. (Luctitius and Laws or XII 
Tastes.) Vol. IV. (2nd Imp.) (ArcHAIc INSCRIPTIONS.) 

Satutust. J.C. Rolfe. (4th Imp. revised.) 

Scriprores HistortaE AueustaE. D. Magie. 3 Vols. (Vol. I. 
3rd Imp. revised, Vols. 11. and III. 2nd Imp.) 

SENECA: ApocoLocynTosis. Cf. PETRONTUS. 

SenEcA: EpistuLtaAE Moratres. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 11. and III. 2nd Imp.) 

SrenEca: Morat Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. (οὶ. IL. 
3rd Imp., Vols. I. and 111. 2nd Imp. revised.) 

Seneca: Tracepies. F.J. Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 4th Imp.. 
Vol. 11. 3rd Imp. revised.) 

Sipontus: Porms ΑΝῸ LetrEers. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 

Sitrus: Iraticus: J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 2nd Imp. 
Vol. IL. 3rd Imp.) 

Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 7th Imp., Vol. II. 
6th Imp. revised.) 

Tacitus: Dratocus. Sir Wm. Peterson. AGRICOLA and 
GERMANTA. Maurice Hutton. (6th Imp.) 

Tacitus: Hisrortrs aNnD ANNALS. C. H. Moore and J. Jack- 
son. 4 Vols. (Vols. I. and 11. 4th Imp.. Vols. III. and IV. 
3rd Imp.) 

TERENCE. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. (7th Imp.) 

TERTULLIAN: ApoLoaiaA and Dr Spectacuuis. T. R. Glover. 
Minuctus Fevix. G. H. Rendall. (2nd Imp.) 

VateErius Fraccus. J. H. Mozley. (3rd Imp. revised.) 

Varso: DE Linaua Latina. R.G. Kent. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. 
revised, ) 

VELLEIUS ParERcuLUs and Res ΘΟἜΈΒΤΑΕΒ Divi Auausti. F. W. 
Shipley. (2nd Imp.) 

Vireit. H.R. Fairclough. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 19th Imp., Vol. II. 
14th Imp. revised.) 

Virruvius: Dr Arcuirectura. F.Granger. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 
3rd Imp. Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 

Greek Authors 

AcHILLES Tatius. S. Gaselee. (2nd Imp.) 

Illinois Greek Club. (2nd Imp.) 

AxrscHINnes. C.D. Adams. (37rd Imp.) 

AxEscHytus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 7th Imp., Vol. 
11. 6th Imp. revised.) 

ALcIPHRON, AELIAN, PuHtLosrratus Lerrers. A. R. Benner 
and F. H. Fobes. 


ApoLLoporus. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 

APoOLtonius RuHoptus. R.C. Seaton. (5th Imp.) 

THE Aposrotic FatHrers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 
8th Imp., Vol. 11. 6th Imp.) 

Appian: Roman History. Horace White. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 
4th Imp., Vols. I1.-1V. 3rd Imp.) 


ARISTOPHANES. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 
trans. (Sth Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE : ART OF RHETORIC. J.H. Frecse. (3rd Imp.) 

Vices AND VirruEs. H. Rackham. (3rd Imp.) 


ARISTOTLE: Mrrapuysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. (4th Imp.) 


ARISTOTLE: Minor Works. W. 8. Hett. On Colours, On 
Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 
Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 
On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 
and Gorgias. (2nd Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE : NICOMACHEAN Eruics. H. Rackham. (6th Imp. 
revised, ) 

ARISTOTLE : OEcoNoMIcA and Magna Moratia. G. Ὁ. Arm. 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. 11.). (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vol. 
11. 38rd Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE: ON THE HEAveENS. W. K.C. Guthrie. (3rd Imp. 
revised. ) 

ARISTOTLE: On Sophistical Refutations, On Coming to be and 
Passing Away, On the Cosmos. Εἰ. 8. Forster and D. J. 

W.S. Hett. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

ARISTOTLE : ORGANON, CATEGORIES: On Interpretation, Prior 
Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. (3rd Imp.) 


ARISTOTLE: Parts or Antmats. A. L. Peck; ΜΟΤΙΟΝ anp 
PROGRESSION OF ANIMALS. E.S. Forster. (4th Imp. revised.) 

ARISTOTLE: PHysics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and I’. M. Cornford. 
2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 2nd Imp., Vol. Il. 3rd Imp.) 

ARISTOTLE: PorTrics and Lonaryus. ΝΥ. Hamilton Fyfe ; 
DEMETRIUS ON StyLE. W. Rhys Roberts. (5th Imp. revised.) 

ARISTOTLE: Ponrrics. H. Rackham. (4th Imp. revised.) 

ARISTOTLE: ProBptems. W.S. Hett. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp. revised.) 

Vol. II.). H. Rackham. 

ARRIAN: History OF ALEXANDER and [Nnpica. Rev. ἢ. Iliffe 
Robson. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 

(2nd Imp.) 

St. Bastr: Lerrers. R. J. Deferrari. 4 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 


CaLLtimacHuus, Hymns and Epigrams, and LycopHron. A. W. 
Mair; Aratrus. G. R. Mair. (2nd. Imp.) 

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. (3rd Imp.) 

CoLtLutTHus. Cf. OPPIAN. 

DaPHNIS AND CHLOE. Thornley’s Translation revised by 
J. M. Edmonds; and PartTHeEeNtus. 38. Gaselee. (4th Imp.) 

tions. I.-XVII. αν XX. J.H. Vince. (2nd Imp.) 

DrmMosTHENES II: Dr Corona and Dr Fatsa LEGATIONE. 
C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. (37rd Imp. revised.) 

TimocraTEs and ARIsTtoGEIToN, I ΑΝῸ II. J. H. Vince. 
(2nd Imp.) 

A.T. Murray. (Vol. IV. 3rd Imp., Vols. V.and VI. 2nd Imp.) 

and Lerrrers. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 

Dio Cassius: Roman History. E. Cary. 9 Vols. (Vols. L. 
and 11. 3rd Imp., Vols. I11.-LX. 2nd Imp.) 

Dio Curysostom. J.W.Cohoonand H.LamarCrosby. 5 Vols. 
Vols. 1.-τ Ν. 2nd Imp.) 

Dioporus Sicutus. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 
Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman. Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 
Vol. XI. F. Walton. (Vols. 1.-τἰνν. 2nd Imp.) 

DiocENeEs Larertius. R. Ὁ. Hicks. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 4th Imp., 
Vol. 11. 3rd Imp.) 

man’s translation revised by E. Cary. 7 Vols. (Vols. I.-V. 
2nd Imp.) 

Epictetus. W.A.Oldfather. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 3rd Imp., II. 2nd 

Euripipes. A.8. Way. 4 Vols. (Vol. 1. 7th imp., Vol. II. 8th 
Imp., Vols. III. and LV. 6th Imp.) ᾿ Verse trans. 

EvusEpius: [EcciestasticAL History. Kirsopp Lake and 
J. Ἐς L. Oulton. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. II. 5th 

ΘΈΈΡΗΝ On THE ΝΑΤΟΒΑΙ, Facutties. A. J. Brock. (4th 


THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. W.R. Paton. 5 Vols. (Vols. I.-IV. 
5th Imp., Vol. V. 3rd Imp.) 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 2nd Imp.) 

THE GREEK Bucottc Ports (THEOcRITUS, Bion, Moscuus). 
J. M. Edmonds. (7th Imp. revised.) 

GREEK MATHEMATICAL WorKsS. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. (3rd 


Heropotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th Imp., Vols. 
11. and III. 5th Imp., Vol. IV. 3rd Imp.) 

Hesiop AND THE Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn White. 
7th Imp. revised and enlarged.) 

Hippocrates and the FRAGMENTS OF HERAcCLEITUS. W. H. 5. 
Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. (Vol. 1. 4th Imp., 
Vols. II1—IV. 3rd Imp.) 

Homer: Ittap. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (7th Imp.) 

Homer: Opyssgey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. (8th Imp.) 

Isarus. Εἰ W. Forster. (3rd Imp.) 

IsocratEes. George Norlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3Vols. (2nd 

St. Joon DAMASCENE: BARLAAM AND JoasapH. Rev. G. R. 
Woodward and Harold Mattingly. (3rd Imp. revised.) 

JosEpHus. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 
Vols. .—VII. (Vol. V. 3rd Imp., Vols. I.-IV.. VI. and VII. 
2nd Imp.) : 

Jutian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and II. 3rd 
Imp., Vol. 1Π1|. 2nd Imp.) 

Lucran. A. M. Harmon. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. (Vols. I. and 
ΤΙ. 4th Imp., Vol. 111. 3rd Imp., Vols. 1V. and V. 2nd Imp.) 


Lyra Grarca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. (Vol. 1. 5th Imp.. 
Vol. 11. revised and enlarged, and III. 4th Imp.) 

Lystas. W.R.M. Lamb. (2nd Imp.) 

Manetuo. W.G. Waddell: Protemy: Trrrasistos. F., E. 
Robbins. (3rd Imp.) 

Marcus AurELIus. C. R. Haines. (4th Imp. revised.) 

MENANDER. F.G. Allinson. (3rd Imp. revised.) 

Minor Artic Orators (ANTIPHON, ANDOCcIDES, LycurRGus, 
DemapbeEs, DinarcHus, HyPrEREIDES). K. J. Maidment and 
J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 2nd Imp.) 

Nonnos: Dionystaca. W.H.D. Rouse. 3 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Oppian, CoLLUTHUS, TRyPHIODORUS. A.W. Mair. (2nd Imp.) 

Papyrit. Non-Lirerary SELEcTIONS. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 
Edgar. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 2nd Imp.) LirERARY SELECTIONS. 
Vol. I. (Poetry). Ὁ. L. Page. (3rd Imp.) 


Vols. and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
(Vols. I. and IIL. 3rd Imp., Vols. II., IV. and V. 2nd Imp.) 


Puito. 10 Vols. Vols. 1.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 
Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. (Vols. I., ΠῚ. V., 
and VI. 3rd Imp., Vol. 1V. 4th Imp., Vols. I1., VIL.-IX. 2nd 

PHILO: two supplementary Vols. (Translation only.) Ralph 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 4th Imp., Vol. 11. 5rd Imp.) 

A. Fairbanks. (2nd Imp.) 

Wilmer Cave Wright. (2d Imp.) 

Pinpar. Sir J. E. Sandys. (8th Imp. revised.) 

Puato: CHARMIDES, ALCIBIADES, HipparcHus, THE Lovers, 
TuHEaGeEes, Minos and Eprnomis. W. R. M. Lamb. (2nd 

Hiepras. H.N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 

Prato: EutrHypHro, ApotoGcy, Criro, PHAEDO, PHAEDRUS. 
H. N. Fowler. (11th Imp.) 

Puatro: LacHEs, ProTacoras, MENO, EutHyprEmMus. W. R. M. 
Lamb. (37d Imp. revised.) 

Puato: Laws. Rev. R.G. Bury. 2 Vols. (3rd Imp.) 

Prato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorcias. W. R. M. Lamb. (5th 
Imp. revised.) 

Prato: ReEprusuic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. δέ Imp., 
Vol. Il. 4th Imp.) 

Piato: STATESMAN, PHILEBUS. H.N. Fowler; Ion. W.R.M. 
Lamb. (4th Imp.) 

Puatro : THEAETETUS and Sopuist. H.N. Fowler. (4th Imp.) 

Rev. R. G. Bury. (37d Imp.) 

PururarcH: Moratia. 14 Vols. Vols. 1.-V. F. C. Babbitt; 
Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold: Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. 
XII. H.Cherniss and W.C. Helmbold. (Vols. I.—VI. and X. 
2nd Imp.) 

PuurarcH: THE PARALLEL Lives. B. Perrin. 11 Vols. 
(Vols. I., II., VI., VII., and XI. 3rd Imp. Vols. III.-V. and 
VIII.-X. 2nd Imp.) 

Potysius. W.R. Paton. 6 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Procopius: Hisrory or THE Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 
(Vol. I. 3rd Imp., Vols. I1.-VII. 2nd Imp.) 


Quintus SMyrNaAEus. A. 8. Way. Verse trans. (37d Imp.) 

Sextus Emprricus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 
Imp., Vels. 11. and 111. 2nd Imp.) 

SopHoctes. F. Storr. 2 Vols. (Vol. 1. 10th Imp. Vol. 11. 6th 
Imp.) Verse trans. 

SrraBo: GEOGRAPHY. Horace L.Jones. 8Vols. (Vols. 1., V., 
and VIII. 3rd Imp., Vols. I1., III., 1V., VI., and VII. 2nd Imp.) 

etc. A. ἢ. Knox. (3rd Imp.) 


THEOPHRASTUS: EN@urry Into Puants. Sir Arthur Hort, 
Bart. 2 Vols. (2nd Imp.) 

Trucypipes. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. (Vol. I. 5th Imp., Vols. 
IL., III., and IV. 3rd Imp. revised) 

TryPHIopoBus. Cf. OPPIAN. 

XENOPHON: CyRroPpaEDIA. Walter Miller. 2 Vols. (Vol. I. 4th 
Imp., Vol. 11. 3rd Imp.) 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. (Vols. I. and III. 
3rd Imp., Vol. 11. 4th Imp.) 

XENOPHON : MEMORABILIA and Orkconomicus. E.C. Marchant. 
(3rd Imp.) 

ΧΈΝΟΡΗΟΝ : Scripta Minors. E. C. Marchant. (3rd Imp.) 


Greek Authors 

AELIAN : ON THE NATURE or Animats. A. F. Scholfield. 
ARISTOTLE: History or Antmats. A. ΤΏ. Peck. 
Piotinus: A. H Armstrong. 

Latin Authors 

PHaEprRus. Ben E. Perry 



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